canarypox virus


Summary: A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.

Top Publications

  1. Poulet H, Brunet S, Boularand C, Guiot A, Leroy V, Tartaglia J, et al. Efficacy of a canarypox virus-vectored vaccine against feline leukaemia. Vet Rec. 2003;153:141-5 pubmed
    b>Canarypox virus recombinant vaccines have a unique efficacy and safety profile for the vaccinated host because the canarypox virus is non-replicative in mammalian hosts...
  2. Russell N, Graham B, Keefer M, McElrath M, Self S, Weinhold K, et al. Phase 2 study of an HIV-1 canarypox vaccine (vCP1452) alone and in combination with rgp120: negative results fail to trigger a phase 3 correlates trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;44:203-12 pubmed
    ..We conducted a phase 2 trial to determine if a canarypox vaccine candidate (vCP1452) administered with rgp120 subunit protein would "qualify" for a trial to define a correlate of efficacy...
  3. Grosenbaugh D, Leard T, Pardo M. Protection from challenge following administration of a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant feline leukemia virus vaccine in cats previously vaccinated with a killed virus vaccine. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228:726-7 pubmed
    ..of an adjuvanted, chemically inactivated, whole FeLV (FeLV-k) vaccine with protection obtained following administration of 1 dose of an FeLV-k vaccine followed by 1 dose of a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant FeLV (rCP-FeLV) vaccine.
  4. Elzey B, Siemens D, Ratliff T, Lubaroff D. Immunization with type 5 adenovirus recombinant for a tumor antigen in combination with recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) cytokine gene delivery induces destruction of established prostate tumors. Int J Cancer. 2001;94:842-9 pubmed
  5. El Garch H, Crafford J, Amouyal P, Durand P, Edlund Toulemonde C, Lemaitre L, et al. An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;149:76-85 pubmed publisher
    A recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing synthetic genes encoding outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 (ALVAC(®)-AHSV4) has been demonstrated to fully protect horses ..
  6. Guthrie A, Quan M, Lourens C, Audonnet J, Minke J, Yao J, et al. Protective immunization of horses with a recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of African horse sickness virus. Vaccine. 2009;27:4434-8 pubmed publisher
    We describe the development and preliminary characterization of a recombinant canarypox virus vectored (ALVAC) vaccine for protective immunization of equids against African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infection...
  7. Menon A, Kuppen P, van der Burg S, Offringa R, Bonnet M, Harinck B, et al. Safety of intravenous administration of a canarypox virus encoding the human wild-type p53 gene in colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Gene Ther. 2003;10:509-17 pubmed
    ..Therefore, p53 represents an attractive target antigen for immunotherapy. We assessed the safety of a canarypox virus encoding the human wild-type p53 gene given intravenously to end-stage colorectal cancer patients in a three-..
  8. Tulman E, Afonso C, Lu Z, Zsak L, Kutish G, Rock D. The genome of canarypox virus. J Virol. 2004;78:353-66 pubmed
    Here we present the genomic sequence, with analysis, of a canarypox virus (CNPV). The 365-kbp CNPV genome contains 328 potential genes in a central region and in 6.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats...
  9. Pancholi P, Perkus M, Tricoche N, Liu Q, Prince A. DNA immunization with hepatitis C virus (HCV) polycistronic genes or immunization by HCV DNA priming-recombinant canarypox virus boosting induces immune responses and protection from recombinant HCV-vaccinia virus infection in HLA-A2.1-transgenic mic. J Virol. 2003;77:382-90 pubmed
    ..1-transgenic mice. Immune responses to HCV DNA prime and recombinant canarypox virus boost were also studied with the above constructs...

More Information


  1. Grosenbaugh D, Backus C, Karaca K, Minke J, Nordgren R. The anamnestic serologic response to vaccination with a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine in horses previously vaccinated with an inactivated WNV vaccine. Vet Ther. 2004;5:251-7 pubmed
    ..In this study we demonstrate that vaccination of horses with a canarypox-vectored recombinant vaccine, under field conditions, results in a marked anamnestic response in horses previously vaccinated with an inactivated WNV vaccine...
  2. Wright P, Mestecky J, McElrath M, Keefer M, Gorse G, Goepfert P, et al. Comparison of systemic and mucosal delivery of 2 canarypox virus vaccines expressing either HIV-1 genes or the gene for rabies virus G protein. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:1221-31 pubmed
    ..routes of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) infection are across mucosal barriers, a randomized trial of canarypox virus-based vectors was conducted in 84 individuals, with delivery of vaccine by mucosal routes, and was ..
  3. Zhang X, Cassis Ghavami F, Eller M, Currier J, Slike B, Chen X, et al. Direct comparison of antigen production and induction of apoptosis by canarypox virus- and modified vaccinia virus ankara-human immunodeficiency virus vaccine vectors. J Virol. 2007;81:7022-33 pubmed
    ..Avipoxviruses, such as canarypox virus, are replication deficient in mammalian cells by virtue of a poorly understood species-specific restriction...
  4. Zanetti F, Rudak L, Micucci M, Grand D, Luque A, Russo S, et al. [Development and preliminary assessment of a recombinant canarypox virus as an antirabic vaccine candidate]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2012;44:75-84 pubmed
    Development and preliminary assessment of a recombinant canarypox virus as an antirabic vaccine candidate. In Argentina, rabies is limited to some northern provinces...
  5. Karanikas V, Lurquin C, Colau D, van Baren N, De Smet C, Lethé B, et al. Monoclonal anti-MAGE-3 CTL responses in melanoma patients displaying tumor regression after vaccination with a recombinant canarypox virus. J Immunol. 2003;171:4898-904 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our analysis of anti-MAGE-3.A1 T cell responses following peptide or ALVAC vaccination shows a degree of correlation between CTL response and tumor regression, but firm conclusions will require larger numbers...
  6. Schlecht Louf G, Mangeney M, El Garch H, Lacombe V, Poulet H, Heidmann T. A targeted mutation within the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) envelope protein immunosuppressive domain to improve a canarypox virus-vectored FeLV vaccine. J Virol. 2014;88:992-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-..
  7. Ullenhag G, Frödin J, Mosolits S, Kiaii S, Hassan M, Bonnet M, et al. Immunization of colorectal carcinoma patients with a recombinant canarypox virus expressing the tumor antigen Ep-CAM/KSA (ALVAC-KSA) and granulocyte macrophage colony- stimulating factor induced a tumor-specific cellular immune response. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:2447-56 pubmed
    ..Expression of the tumor antigen in a viral vector may facilitate appropriate antigen presentation. The feasibility of an Ep-CAM/KSA-specific therapeutic vaccination was investigated in cancer patients...
  8. Boone J, Balasuriya U, Karaca K, Audonnet J, Yao J, He L, et al. Recombinant canarypox virus vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the VP2 and VP5 outer capsid proteins of bluetongue virus induces high level protection in sheep. Vaccine. 2007;25:672-8 pubmed publisher
    We describe the development and preliminary characterization of a recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine for protective immunization of ruminants against bluetongue virus (BTV) infection...
  9. Offerman K, Deffur A, Carulei O, Wilkinson R, Douglass N, Williamson A. Six host-range restricted poxviruses from three genera induce distinct gene expression profiles in an in vivo mouse model. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:510 pubmed publisher
    ..with six host-restricted poxvirus species from three genera, namely Lumpy Skin Disease virus (LSDV), Canarypox virus (CNPV), Fowlpox virus (FWPV), modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and two novel South African avipoxviruses, Feral ..
  10. Soboll G, Hussey S, Minke J, Landolt G, Hunter J, Jagannatha S, et al. Onset and duration of immunity to equine influenza virus resulting from canarypox-vectored (ALVAC) vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study clearly demonstrate the early onset, and 6-month duration of protective immunity resulting from ALVAC-influenza vaccination against challenge with American lineage equine influenza viruses. ..
  11. Tubiana R, Carcelain G, Vray M, Gourlain K, Dalban C, Chermak A, et al. Therapeutic immunization with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-recombinant canarypox vaccine in chronically HIV-infected patients: The Vacciter Study (ANRS 094). Vaccine. 2005;23:4292-301 pubmed
    ..Detection of such LPR response at the time of treatment interruption was significantly associated with the probability of remaining off therapy. These results provide rationale for future randomized trials exploring this strategy. ..
  12. Siger L, Bowen R, Karaca K, Murray M, Gordy P, Loosmore S, et al. Assessment of the efficacy of a single dose of a recombinant vaccine against West Nile virus in response to natural challenge with West Nile virus-infected mosquitoes in horses. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65:1459-62 pubmed
    To determine the onset of immunity after IM administration of a single dose of a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine against West Nile virus (WNV) in horses in a blind challenge trial. 20 mixed-breed horses...
  13. Ferrari G, Neal W, Ottinger J, Jones A, Edwards B, Goepfert P, et al. Absence of immunodominant anti-Gag p17 (SL9) responses among Gag CTL-positive, HIV-uninfected vaccine recipients expressing the HLA-A*0201 allele. J Immunol. 2004;173:2126-33 pubmed
  14. Nelson K. Thai HIV vaccine trial prompts angry exchanges. Lancet. 2004;363:299 pubmed
  15. Gorse G, Patel G, Arbuckle J, Belshe R. Binding of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected lymphocytes elicited by vaccines and by natural infection. Vaccine. 2004;22:383-97 pubmed
    ..Vaccine recipients received recombinant canarypox virus vaccine expressing HIV-1 gene products, and SF-2 recombinant gp120 subunit vaccine...
  16. Li Q, Rao R, Vazzana J, Goedegebuure P, Odunsi K, Gillanders W, et al. Regulating mammalian target of rapamycin to tune vaccination-induced CD8(+) T cell responses for tumor immunity. J Immunol. 2012;188:3080-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the impact a regimen of rapamycin treatment has on vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell responses and indicates that judicious application of rapamycin can augment vaccine efficacy for chronic challenges. ..
  17. Hwang C, Sanda M. Prospects and limitations of recombinant poxviruses for prostate cancer immunotherapy. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 1999;1:471-9 pubmed
    ..A deeper understanding of these factors and others that impact the development of antitumor immunity will be necessary to guide the development of recombinant poxviruses for prostate cancer therapy. ..
  18. Siemens D, Crist S, Austin J, Tartaglia J, Ratliff T. Comparison of viral vectors: gene transfer efficiency and tissue specificity in a bladder cancer model. J Urol. 2003;170:979-84 pubmed
    ..efficiencies of the viral vectors replication-deficient adenovirus, attenuated vaccinia virus (NYVAC) and canarypox virus (ALVAC) in vitro and in an orthotopic murine bladder cancer model...
  19. Le Loc h G, Paul M, Camus Bouclainville C, Bertagnoli S. Outbreaks of Pox Disease Due to Canarypox-Like and Fowlpox-Like Viruses in Large-Scale Houbara Bustard Captive-Breeding Programmes, in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016;63:e187-e196 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights that APV remain a major threat to consider in bird conservation initiatives. ..
  20. Adams A, Sturgill T, Breathnach C, Chambers T, Siger L, Minke J, et al. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of old horses following recombinant canarypox virus vaccination and subsequent challenge infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;139:128-40 pubmed publisher
  21. Pacchioni S, Volonté L, Zanotto C, Pozzi E, De Giuli Morghen C, Radaelli A. Canarypox and fowlpox viruses as recombinant vaccine vectors: an ultrastructural comparative analysis. Arch Virol. 2010;155:915-24 pubmed publisher
    Due to their natural host-range restriction to avian species, canarypox virus (CP) and fowlpox virus (FP) represent efficient and safe vaccine vectors, as they correctly express transgenes in human cells, elicit complete immune responses,..
  22. Weingartl H, Berhane Y, Caswell J, Loosmore S, Audonnet J, Roth J, et al. Recombinant nipah virus vaccines protect pigs against challenge. J Virol. 2006;80:7929-38 pubmed
    ..Consequently, a swine vaccine able to abolish virus shedding is of veterinary and human health interest. Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) were ..
  23. Bailey J. An assessment of the role of chimpanzees in AIDS vaccine research. Altern Lab Anim. 2008;36:381-428 pubmed
    ..Claims of the importance of chimpanzees in AIDS vaccine development are without foundation, and a return to the use of chimpanzees in AIDS research/vaccine development is scientifically unjustifiable. ..
  24. Chen X, Rock M, Hammonds J, Tartaglia J, Shintani A, Currier J, et al. Pseudovirion particle production by live poxvirus human immunodeficiency virus vaccine vector enhances humoral and cellular immune responses. J Virol. 2005;79:5537-47 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that pseudovirion particle production by live-vector HIV vaccines enhances HIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. ..
  25. Paillot R, Kydd J, Sindle T, Hannant D, Edlund Toulemonde C, Audonnet J, et al. Antibody and IFN-gamma responses induced by a recombinant canarypox vaccine and challenge infection with equine influenza virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;112:225-33 pubmed
    ..A new live recombinant vaccine derived from the canarypox virus vector and expressing haemagglutinin genes of EIV (subtype H3N8) has been developed...
  26. Marovich M, Mascola J, Eller M, Louder M, Caudrelier P, El Habib R, et al. Preparation of clinical-grade recombinant canarypox-human immunodeficiency virus vaccine-loaded human dendritic cells. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1242-52 pubmed
    ..These data support an ongoing HIV vaccine trial comparing conventional vaccine delivery routes with ex vivo vaccine-loaded autologous DCs for immunogenicity in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers. ..
  27. Anasir M, Baxter A, Poon I, Hulett M, Kvansakul M. Structural and Functional Insight into Canarypox Virus CNP058 Mediated Regulation of Apoptosis. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..The sequencing of the canarypox virus genome identified a putative pro-survival Bcl-2 protein, CNP058...
  28. Edupuganti S, Weber D, Poole C. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to canarypox vector-based HIV vaccines in HIV-seronegative individuals: a meta-analysis of published studies. HIV Clin Trials. 2004;5:259-68 pubmed
    ..More trials are warranted to determine the ideal dose/immunization schedule that would elicit maximal CTL responses. ..
  29. Cao H, Kaleebu P, Hom D, Flores J, Agrawal D, Jones N, et al. Immunogenicity of a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-canarypox vaccine in HIV-seronegative Ugandan volunteers: results of the HIV Network for Prevention Trials 007 Vaccine Study. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:887-95 pubmed
    ..Although the immunogenicity of this clade B-based vaccine was low, ALVAC-HIV elicited CD8(+) T cell responses with detectable cross-activity against clade A and D antigens in a significant proportion of vaccine recipients. ..
  30. Villamide Herrera L, Ignatius R, Eller M, Wilkinson K, Griffin C, Mehlhop E, et al. Macaque dendritic cells infected with SIV-recombinant canarypox ex vivo induce SIV-specific immune responses in vivo. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:871-84 pubmed
    ..This pilot study provides the proof of principle that sc injected ex vivo SIV-recombinant canarypox-infected DCs safely induce low-level SIV-specific immune responses in vivo. ..
  31. Johnston M. Optimism is growing as researchers move toward an AIDS vaccine. AIDS Alert. 2001;16:137-41 pubmed
    ..Researchers and public health officials say they are more optimistic than ever about the possibility of bringing an AIDS vaccine to market...
  32. Papagno L, Alter G, Assoumou L, Murphy R, Garcia F, Clotet B, et al. Comprehensive analysis of virus-specific T-cells provides clues for the failure of therapeutic immunization with ALVAC-HIV vaccine. AIDS. 2011;25:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients exposed to vaccine had higher levels of viral replication and more rapid time to treatment resumption...
  33. Minke J, El Hage C, Tazawa P, Homer D, Lemaitre L, Cozette V, et al. Evaluation of the response to an accelerated immunisation schedule using a canarypox-vectored equine influenza vaccine, shortened interdose intervals and vaccination of young foals. Aust Vet J. 2011;89 Suppl 1:137-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The horses studied were vaccinated with a recombinant canarypox-vectored vaccine (ProteqFlu®, Merial) with a shorter interdose interval. Vaccinated horses included foals aged less than 4 months...
  34. Astsaturov I, Petrella T, Bagriacik E, de Benedette M, Uger R, Lumber G, et al. Amplification of virus-induced antimelanoma T-cell reactivity by high-dose interferon-alpha2b: implications for cancer vaccines. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4347-55 pubmed
    ..To improve the therapeutic effects of these vaccines, IFN-alpha2b (IFN-alpha) was administered to some high-risk patients...
  35. Teigler J, Phogat S, Franchini G, Hirsch V, Michael N, Barouch D. The canarypox virus vector ALVAC induces distinct cytokine responses compared to the vaccinia virus-based vectors MVA and NYVAC in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2014;88:1809-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the canarypox virus-based vector ALVAC induced distinct systemic proinflammatory and antiviral cytokine and chemokine levels ..
  36. Connolly M, Thomas P, Woodroffe R, Raphael B. Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013;44:882-8 pubmed
    ..5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers...
  37. Yu Q, Jones B, Hu N, Chang H, Ahmad S, Liu J, et al. Comparative analysis of tropism between canarypox (ALVAC) and vaccinia viruses reveals a more restricted and preferential tropism of ALVAC for human cells of the monocytic lineage. Vaccine. 2006;24:6376-91 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications in terms of choosing optimal pox virus derived vectors as vaccines in terms of reducing clinical reactogenicity and inducing dendritic cell (DC) maturation...
  38. Quinley N, Mazet J, RIVERA R, Schmitt T, Dold C, McBain J, et al. Serologic response of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to vaccination with a recombinant canine distemper vaccine. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:579-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Three seals vaccinated once did not seroconvert, but the recombinant vaccine induced a persistent serum virus neutralizing titer (12 mo) in the two seals that were vaccinated twice, 1 mo apart...
  39. van Baren N, Bonnet M, Dreno B, Khammari A, Dorval T, Piperno Neumann S, et al. Tumoral and immunologic response after vaccination of melanoma patients with an ALVAC virus encoding MAGE antigens recognized by T cells. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:9008-21 pubmed
    ..antitumoral effectiveness, and immunogenicity of repeated vaccinations with ALVAC miniMAGE-1/3, a recombinant canarypox virus containing a minigene encoding antigenic peptides MAGE-3(168-176) and MAGE-1(161-169), which are presented by ..
  40. Gandhi R, O NEILL D, Bosch R, Chan E, Bucy R, Shopis J, et al. A randomized therapeutic vaccine trial of canarypox-HIV-pulsed dendritic cells vs. canarypox-HIV alone in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Vaccine. 2009;27:6088-94 pubmed publisher
    ..New methods to enhance the immunogenicity and antiviral efficacy of DC-based vaccines for HIV-1 infection are needed. ..
  41. Atkinson C, Wiegand K, Triglia D, Jarvi S. Reversion to virulence and efficacy of an attenuated Canarypox vaccine in Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:808-19 pubmed
    ..Although the vaccine provided some protection against PV1, both potential for vaccine reversion and low efficacy against PV2 preclude its use in captive or wild honeycreepers...
  42. Liu J, Yu Q, Stone G, Yue F, Ngai N, Jones R, et al. CD40L expressed from the canarypox vector, ALVAC, can boost immunogenicity of HIV-1 canarypox vaccine in mice and enhance the in vitro expansion of viral specific CD8+ T cell memory responses from HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected individuals. Vaccine. 2008;26:4062-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, CD40L expressed from canarypox virus could significantly augment CD4+ T cell responses against HIV-1 in mice...
  43. Bos R, van Duikeren S, van Hall T, Lauwen M, Parrington M, Berinstein N, et al. Characterization of antigen-specific immune responses induced by canarypox virus vaccines. J Immunol. 2007;179:6115-22 pubmed
    Avipoxvirus-based vectors, such as recombinant canarypox virus ALVAC, are studied extensively as delivery vehicles for vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases...
  44. Fang Z, Limbach K, Tartaglia J, Hammonds J, Chen X, Spearman P. Expression of vaccinia E3L and K3L genes by a novel recombinant canarypox HIV vaccine vector enhances HIV-1 pseudovirion production and inhibits apoptosis in human cells. Virology. 2001;291:272-84 pubmed
    ..The addition of immunomodulatory genes to attenuated poxviruses represents a novel strategy for enhancing antigen production by live vector HIV vaccine candidates...
  45. Jas D, Coupier C, Toulemonde C, Guigal P, Poulet H. Three-year duration of immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:6991-6 pubmed publisher
  46. Triozzi P, Allen K, Carlisle R, Craig M, LoBuglio A, Conry R. Phase I study of the intratumoral administration of recombinant canarypox viruses expressing B7.1 and interleukin 12 in patients with metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4168-75 pubmed
    ..1, encoded by a vector derived from the canarypox virus, ALVAC (ALVAC-B7...
  47. de Bruyn G, Rossini A, Chiu Y, Holman D, Elizaga M, Frey S, et al. Safety profile of recombinant canarypox HIV vaccines. Vaccine. 2004;22:704-13 pubmed
    ..Reactogenicity does not appear to be related to the number or type of inserted genes, and did not vary between different ALVAC constructs...
  48. Hanley C, Simmons H, Wallace R, Clyde V. Erythema multiforme in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:515-9 pubmed
    ..The esophageal disease was managed with metoclopramide, sulcrafate, omeprazole, and frequent feedings. The distemper vaccine is postulated to have been the inciting cause of EM in this animal...
  49. Karaca K, Dubovi E, Siger L, Robles A, Audonnet J, Jiansheng Y, et al. Evaluation of the ability of canarypox-vectored equine influenza virus vaccines to induce humoral immune responses against canine influenza viruses in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:208-12 pubmed
  50. Lonchay C, van der Bruggen P, Connerotte T, Hanagiri T, Coulie P, Colau D, et al. Correlation between tumor regression and T cell responses in melanoma patients vaccinated with a MAGE antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101 Suppl 2:14631-8 pubmed
    ..It is possible that even those CTL responses that are below our present detection level can trigger a sequence of events that leads to tumor regression...
  51. van der Burg S, Menon A, Redeker A, Bonnet M, Drijfhout J, Tollenaar R, et al. Induction of p53-specific immune responses in colorectal cancer patients receiving a recombinant ALVAC-p53 candidate vaccine. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:1019-27 pubmed
    ..Experiments in preclinical models have shown that it can serve as a target for T-cell-mediated tumor-eradication. The feasibility of a p53-specific therapeutic vaccination was investigated in cancer patients...
  52. Coke R, Backues K, Hoover J, Saliki J, Ritchey J, West G. Serologic responses after vaccination of fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda) and meerkats (Suricata suricatta) with a live, canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:326-30 pubmed
    ..A commercially available monovalent, live, canarypox-vectored CDV vaccine induced neutralizing antibody titers that were maintained for at least a year in both fennec foxes and meerkats...
  53. Thiel T, Whiteman N, Tirape A, Baquero M, Cedeno V, Walsh T, et al. Characterization of canarypox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galápagos Islands. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:342-53 pubmed
    ..three passerine taxa, and sequences from both strains were less than 5% different from each other and from canarypox virus. In contrast, chickens in Galápagos were infected with a virus that appears to be identical in sequence to ..
  54. Ryan E, Harenberg A, Burdin N. The Canarypox-virus vaccine vector ALVAC triggers the release of IFN-gamma by Natural Killer (NK) cells enhancing Th1 polarization. Vaccine. 2007;25:3380-90 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that ALVAC acts as an adjuvant through a mechanism requiring NK cell derived IFN-gamma, DC activation and chemokine secretion...
  55. Wimsatt J, Biggins D, Innes K, Taylor B, Garell D. Evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2003;34:25-35 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vectored recombinant vaccines in highly susceptible species and especially in those species in which vaccination with modified live CDV has led to disease...
  56. Zanotto C, Pozzi E, Pacchioni S, Volonté L, De Giuli Morghen C, Radaelli A. Canarypox and fowlpox viruses as recombinant vaccine vectors: a biological and immunological comparison. Antiviral Res. 2010;88:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The production of retrovirus-like particles, the longer transgene expression, and a balanced cytokine induction may confer to fowlpox-based recombinants the ability to elicit a better immune response...
  57. Lenfant F, Pizzato N, Liang S, Davrinche C, Le Bouteiller P, Horuzsko A. Induction of HLA-G-restricted human cytomegalovirus pp65 (UL83)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HLA-G transgenic mice. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:307-17 pubmed
    ..investigated by injection of dendritic cells loaded with synthetic pp65-derived peptides or by infection with canarypox virus expressing pp65...
  58. Ackers M, Parekh B, Evans T, Berman P, Phillips S, Allen M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity among uninfected HIV vaccine recipients. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:879-86 pubmed
    ..The potential for vaccine recipients being misclassified as HIV infected increased with vaccine complexity...
  59. Sauter S, Rahman A, Muralidhar G. Non-replicating viral vector-based AIDS vaccines: interplay between viral vectors and the immune system. Curr HIV Res. 2005;3:157-81 pubmed
  60. Hu N, Yu R, Shikuma C, Shiramizu B, Ostrwoski M, Yu Q. Role of cell signaling in poxvirus-mediated foreign gene expression in mammalian cells. Vaccine. 2009;27:2994-3006 pubmed publisher
    ..Using recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) and canarypox virus (ALVAC) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or multiple HIV-1 gene products, we studied the ..
  61. Jourdier T, Moste C, Bonnet M, Delisle F, Tafani J, Devauchelle P, et al. Local immunotherapy of spontaneous feline fibrosarcomas using recombinant poxviruses expressing interleukin 2 (IL2). Gene Ther. 2003;10:2126-32 pubmed
    We tested the canarypox virus vector ALVAC and the genetically attenuated vaccinia virus vector NYVAC as vehicles for achieving local immunomodulation in domestic animals bearing spontaneous tumours...
  62. Minke J, Toulemonde C, Coupier H, Guigal P, Dinic S, Sindle T, et al. Efficacy of a canarypox-vectored recombinant vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin gene of equine influenza H3N8 virus in the protection of ponies from viral challenge. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:213-9 pubmed
  63. Cohen J. Clinical research. A setback and an advance on the AIDS vaccine front. Science. 2003;300:28-9 pubmed
  64. Liu J, Ngai N, Stone G, Yue F, Ostrowski M. The adjuvancy of OX40 ligand (CD252) on an HIV-1 canarypox vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:5077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our findings show that OX40L can be used as a molecular adjuvant to enhance T cell immune responses...
  65. Pardo M, Tanner P, Bauman J, Silver K, Fischer L. Immunization of puppies in the presence of maternally derived antibodies against canine distemper virus. J Comp Pathol. 2007;137 Suppl 1:S72-5 pubmed
    ..These pups were protected against intravenous challenge with CDV. Three littermate pups that were unvaccinated all developed clinical signs of infection after challenge, and two of these control pups died...
  66. Santra S, Schmitz J, Kuroda M, Lifton M, Nickerson C, Lord C, et al. Recombinant canarypox vaccine-elicited CTL specific for dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes in rhesus monkeys. J Immunol. 2002;168:1847-53 pubmed
    ..In this study, the ability of a recombinant canarypox virus expressing SIV Gag-Pol-Env (ALVAC/SIV gag-pol-env) was assessed for its ability to elicit both dominant and ..
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    ..In particular, its safety for the host and the environment must be extensively demonstrated before field trials can be authorized...
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    ..On the basis of our results and in the context of parallel studies being conducted with other viral systems, the characteristics of an ideal viral vector system, as it applies to therapeutic cancer vaccination, are discussed...
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    ..In contrast, 14 of the 15 control dogs and 9 of the 11 control cats developed viremia. The experimental vaccine described in this study may be of value in the prevention of WNV infection in dogs and cats...
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    ..Our results indicate that not only the magnitude but in particular the quality of the CD8(+) T cell response correlates with tumor protection...
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    ..These results could be the basis for the development of a new clinical strategy in melanoma patient's immunotherapy...
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    ..These results provided the foundation for a clinical trial using the same regime...