avipoxvirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising bird poxviruses. The type species is FOWLPOX VIRUS. Transmission is mechanical by ARTHROPODS.

Top Publications

  1. Weli S, Okeke M, Tryland M, Nilssen O, Traavik T. Characterization of avipoxviruses from wild birds in Norway. Can J Vet Res. 2004;68:140-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, chickens experimentally infected with pigeon poxvirus had higher antibody titers and extensive lesions compared to other isolates. This may suggest that pigeon poxvirus is more virulent than the other isolates...
  2. Adams C, Feldman S, Sleeman J. Phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of Virginia. Avian Dis. 2005;49:601-5 pubmed
    ..This study identified a distinct clade of avian poxvirus unique from four clades previously described and associated with epornitics in free-ranging birds, where the core 4b gene DNA sequence has been the basis of comparison...
  3. Smits J, Tella J, Carrete M, Serrano D, Lopez G. An epizootic of avian pox in endemic short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) and Berthelot's pipits (Anthus berthelotti) in the Canary Islands, Spain. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:59-65 pubmed
    ..Environmental and biological factors contributing to increased disease susceptibility of these isolated populations must be investigated...
  4. Jarmin S, Manvell R, Gough R, Laidlaw S, Skinner M. Avipoxvirus phylogenetics: identification of a PCR length polymorphism that discriminates between the two major clades. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2191-201 pubmed
    b>Avipoxvirus infections have been observed in an extensive range of wild, captive and domesticated avian hosts, yet little is known about the genome diversity and host-range specificity of the causative agent(s)...
  5. Engelmayer J, Larsson M, Lee A, Lee M, Cox W, Steinman R, et al. Mature dendritic cells infected with canarypox virus elicit strong anti-human immunodeficiency virus CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses from chronically infected individuals. J Virol. 2001;75:2142-53 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these results suggest that targeting canarypox virus vectors to mature DCs could potentially elicit both anti-HIV CD8+ and CD4+ helper responses in vivo...
  6. Brower A, Cigel F, Radi C, Toohey Kurth K. Beak necrosis in Hungarian partridges (Perdix perdix) associated with beak-bits and avian poxvirus infection. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:223-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to describe avian pox lesions associated with the application of beak-bits and the resulting beak and oral pathology...
  7. Lüschow D, Hoffmann T, Hafez H. Differentiation of avian poxvirus strains on the basis of nucleotide sequences of 4b gene fragment. Avian Dis. 2004;48:453-62 pubmed
    ..gene, we were able to detect APV-specific DNA from 19 tested strains and isolates belonging to five defined Avipoxvirus species and four previously undefined isolated species...
  8. Ha H, Howe L, Alley M, Gartrell B. The phylogenetic analysis of avipoxvirus in New Zealand. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:80-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Avipoxvirus is known to be endemic in New Zealand and it is a cause of ongoing mortalities in the endangered black robin and shore plover populations...
  9. Hatano Y, Yoshida M, Uno F, Yoshida S, Osafune N, Ono K, et al. Budding of fowlpox and pigeonpox viruses at the surface of infected cells. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2001;50:113-24 pubmed
    ..Based on the observed frequency of budding, this mechanism seems to be the predominant way for FWPV and PPV to exit the cell...
  10. Rampin T, Pisoni G, Manarolla G, Gallazzi D, Sironi G. Epornitic of avian pox in common buzzards (Buteo buteo): virus isolation and molecular biological characterization. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:161-5 pubmed
    ..and hyperplasia with ballooning degeneration and large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies consistent with avipoxvirus infection were seen. The virus was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs...

Detail Information

Publications79

  1. Weli S, Okeke M, Tryland M, Nilssen O, Traavik T. Characterization of avipoxviruses from wild birds in Norway. Can J Vet Res. 2004;68:140-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, chickens experimentally infected with pigeon poxvirus had higher antibody titers and extensive lesions compared to other isolates. This may suggest that pigeon poxvirus is more virulent than the other isolates...
  2. Adams C, Feldman S, Sleeman J. Phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of Virginia. Avian Dis. 2005;49:601-5 pubmed
    ..This study identified a distinct clade of avian poxvirus unique from four clades previously described and associated with epornitics in free-ranging birds, where the core 4b gene DNA sequence has been the basis of comparison...
  3. Smits J, Tella J, Carrete M, Serrano D, Lopez G. An epizootic of avian pox in endemic short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) and Berthelot's pipits (Anthus berthelotti) in the Canary Islands, Spain. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:59-65 pubmed
    ..Environmental and biological factors contributing to increased disease susceptibility of these isolated populations must be investigated...
  4. Jarmin S, Manvell R, Gough R, Laidlaw S, Skinner M. Avipoxvirus phylogenetics: identification of a PCR length polymorphism that discriminates between the two major clades. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2191-201 pubmed
    b>Avipoxvirus infections have been observed in an extensive range of wild, captive and domesticated avian hosts, yet little is known about the genome diversity and host-range specificity of the causative agent(s)...
  5. Engelmayer J, Larsson M, Lee A, Lee M, Cox W, Steinman R, et al. Mature dendritic cells infected with canarypox virus elicit strong anti-human immunodeficiency virus CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses from chronically infected individuals. J Virol. 2001;75:2142-53 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these results suggest that targeting canarypox virus vectors to mature DCs could potentially elicit both anti-HIV CD8+ and CD4+ helper responses in vivo...
  6. Brower A, Cigel F, Radi C, Toohey Kurth K. Beak necrosis in Hungarian partridges (Perdix perdix) associated with beak-bits and avian poxvirus infection. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:223-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to describe avian pox lesions associated with the application of beak-bits and the resulting beak and oral pathology...
  7. Lüschow D, Hoffmann T, Hafez H. Differentiation of avian poxvirus strains on the basis of nucleotide sequences of 4b gene fragment. Avian Dis. 2004;48:453-62 pubmed
    ..gene, we were able to detect APV-specific DNA from 19 tested strains and isolates belonging to five defined Avipoxvirus species and four previously undefined isolated species...
  8. Ha H, Howe L, Alley M, Gartrell B. The phylogenetic analysis of avipoxvirus in New Zealand. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:80-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Avipoxvirus is known to be endemic in New Zealand and it is a cause of ongoing mortalities in the endangered black robin and shore plover populations...
  9. Hatano Y, Yoshida M, Uno F, Yoshida S, Osafune N, Ono K, et al. Budding of fowlpox and pigeonpox viruses at the surface of infected cells. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2001;50:113-24 pubmed
    ..Based on the observed frequency of budding, this mechanism seems to be the predominant way for FWPV and PPV to exit the cell...
  10. Rampin T, Pisoni G, Manarolla G, Gallazzi D, Sironi G. Epornitic of avian pox in common buzzards (Buteo buteo): virus isolation and molecular biological characterization. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:161-5 pubmed
    ..and hyperplasia with ballooning degeneration and large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies consistent with avipoxvirus infection were seen. The virus was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs...
  11. Shivaprasad H, Kim T, Tripathy D, Woolcock P, Uzal F. Unusual pathology of canary poxvirus infection associated with high mortality in young and adult breeder canaries (Serinus canaria). Avian Pathol. 2009;38:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the birds also had concurrent bacterial, mycotic and polyomavirus infections. Poxvirus was isolated from lungs and skin in chicken embryo liver cells and confirmed as avian poxvirus by polymerase chain reaction...
  12. Aruch S, Atkinson C, Savage A, Lapointe D. Prevalence and distribution of pox-like lesions, avian malaria, and mosquito vectors in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park, Hawai'i, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:567-75 pubmed
    ..altitudinal distribution of introduced avian malarial infections (Plasmodium relictum) and pox-like lesions (Avipoxvirus) in forest birds from Kipahulu Valley, Haleakal? National Park, on the island of Maui, and we identified ..
  13. Gruber A, Grabensteiner E, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Loupal G. Poxvirus infection in a great tit (Parus major). Avian Dis. 2007;51:623-5 pubmed
    ..Because of its poor condition, the bird had to be euthanatized and was subsequently necropsied. An avipoxvirus infection was confirmed by histopathology, electron microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
  14. Palade E, Biró N, Dobos Kovacs M, Demeter Z, Mandoki M, Rusvai M. Poxvirus infection in Hungarian great tits (Parus major): case report. Acta Vet Hung. 2008;56:539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Three birds were submitted for analysis. The presence of avipoxvirus infection was confirmed by histopathology, electron microscopy (EM) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based ..
  15. Tripathy D, Schnitzlein W, Morris P, Janssen D, Zuba J, Massey G, et al. Characterization of poxviruses from forest birds in Hawaii. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:225-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, based on the genetic distinctness of the two Hawaiian bird viruses, they appear to represent different strains of avipoxvirus.
  16. Weli S, Nilssen O, Traavik T. Avipoxvirus multiplication in a mammalian cell line. Virus Res. 2005;109:39-49 pubmed
    ..One attractive feature is that while inserted transgenes are expressed in immunologically favourable ways, avipoxvirus infections of mammalian cells are believed to be abortive...
  17. Sainova I, Kril A, Simeonov K, Popova T, Ivanov I. Investigation of the morphology of cell clones, derived from the mammalian EBTr cell line and their susceptibility to vaccine avian poxvirus strains FK and Dessau. J Virol Methods. 2005;124:37-40 pubmed
  18. Saito K, Kodama A, Yamaguchi T, Gotoh Y, Sakai H, Fukushi H, et al. Avian poxvirus infection in a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Japan. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply that it is a novel avian poxvirus. To our knowledge this is the first report of avian poxvirus infection in white-tailed sea eagles...
  19. Illera J, Emerson B, Richardson D. Genetic characterization, distribution and prevalence of avian pox and avian malaria in the Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii) in Macaronesia. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:1435-43 pubmed publisher
  20. Lierz M, Bergmann V, Isa G, Czerny C, Lueschow D, Mwanzia J, et al. Avipoxvirus infection in a collection of captive stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus). J Avian Med Surg. 2007;21:50-5 pubmed
    A natural outbreak of avipoxvirus occurred in recently purchased stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) at a breeding farm and subsequently spread to other stone curlews residing at the farm...
  21. Manarolla G, Pisoni G, Sironi G, Rampin T. Molecular biological characterization of avian poxvirus strains isolated from different avian species. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Fifteen strains of Avipoxvirus from different avian species were isolated and molecular biologically characterized...
  22. Thiel T, Whiteman N, Tirape A, Baquero M, Cedeno V, Walsh T, et al. Characterization of canarypox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galápagos Islands. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:342-53 pubmed
    ..endemic birds in the Galápagos Islands has led to concern that the health of these birds may be threatened by avipoxvirus introduction by domestic birds...
  23. Alley M, Hale K, Cash W, Ha H, Howe L. Concurrent avian malaria and avipox virus infection in translocated South Island saddlebacks (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus). N Z Vet J. 2010;58:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Both outbreaks were associated with a severe decrease in numbers of saddlebacks of up to 60% of approximately 200 birds...
  24. Weli S, Traavik T, Tryland M, Coucheron D, Nilssen O. Analysis and comparison of the 4b core protein gene of avipoxviruses from wild birds: evidence for interspecies spatial phylogenetic variation. Arch Virol. 2004;149:2035-46 pubmed
    ..a wide variety of avian hosts, and yet little is known regarding the host-virus species variation of the genus Avipoxvirus. We have investigated the variations in the viral 4b core protein gene from six different avipoxviruses based ..
  25. Shivaprasad H, Kim T, Woolcock P, Tripathy D. Genetic and antigenic characterization of a poxvirus isolate from ostriches. Avian Dis. 2002;46:429-36 pubmed
    ..Further, susceptible chickens immunized with the PVO were protected when challenged with a virulent strain of FPV. Thus, the poxvirus isolated from ostriches had similar antigenic, genetic, and biological properties to FPV...
  26. Bailey T, Silvanose C, Manvell R, Gough R, Kinne J, Combreau O, et al. Medical dilemmas associated with rehabilitating confiscated houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) after avian pox and paramyxovirus type 1 infection. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:518-32 pubmed
    ..Additionally, health monitoring of confiscated birds should continue after birds are integrated into captive flocks...
  27. Grove D, Zajac A, Spahr J, Duncan R, Sleeman J. Combined infection by avian poxvirus and Collyriclum faba in an American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:111-4 pubmed
    ..The flukes were identified using light microscopy of organisms obtained by antemortem wedge biopsy. Intraepithelial cytoplasmic inclusions consistent with poxvirus infection were seen on histopathologic examination of the mass...
  28. Kim T, Tripathy D. Evaluation of pathogenicity of avian poxvirus isolates from endangered Hawaiian wild birds in chickens. Avian Dis. 2006;50:288-91 pubmed
    ..The level of immune responses, however, increased in birds of all groups following subsequent challenge...
  29. Zimmermann D, Anderson M, Lane E, van Wilpe E, Carulei O, Douglass N, et al. Avian poxvirus epizootic in a breeding population of Lesser Flamingos (Phoenicopterus minor) at Kamfers Dam, Kimberley, South Africa. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:989-93 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of avipoxvirus infection was made on the basis of the macroscopic, histologic, and electron microscopic features, and was ..
  30. Gyuranecz M, Foster J, Dan A, Ip H, Egstad K, Parker P, et al. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses. J Virol. 2013;87:4938-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein)...
  31. Parker P, Buckles E, Farrington H, Petren K, Whiteman N, Ricklefs R, et al. 110 years of Avipoxvirus in the Galapagos Islands. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15989 pubmed publisher
    ..Beginning with samples collected in 1899, we observed cutaneous lesions consistent with Avipoxvirus on 226 (6.3%) specimens...
  32. Carulei O, Douglass N, Williamson A. Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus. Virol J. 2009;6:52 pubmed publisher
    Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses...
  33. Tadese T, Potter E, Reed W. Development of a mixed antigen agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) for the detection of antibodies to poxvirus in chicken and turkey sera. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:255-8 pubmed
    ..001). When antibodies were detected in turkey sera using the mixed antigens, the AGEA had a sensitivity of 66.4% while that of AGPT was 25% (P<0.001)...
  34. Amano H, Morikawa S, Shimizu H, Shoji I, Kurosawa D, Matsuura Y, et al. Identification of the canarypox virus thymidine kinase gene and insertion of foreign genes. Virology. 1999;256:280-90 pubmed
    ..The recombinant viruses obtained were unstable, although the foreign genes were expressed efficiently in the mammalian cells infected with the viruses...
  35. Terasaki T, Kaneko M, Mase M. Avian poxvirus infection in flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in a zoo in Japan. Avian Dis. 2010;54:955-7 pubmed
    ..Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the virus isolated from these flamingos was genetically close to those isolated from pigeons, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission...
  36. Tadese T, Reed W. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphism, immunoblotting, and polymerase chain reaction in the differentiation of avian poxviruses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:141-50 pubmed
    ..protein gene of the FPV genome, was developed for identification and differentiation of members of the genus Avipoxvirus. Whereas total DNA from either vaccine strains or field isolates was used as template for amplifying a ..
  37. Buenestado F, Gortazar C, Millan J, Hofle U, Villafuerte R. Descriptive study of an avian pox outbreak in wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Spain. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:369-74 pubmed
    ..Also the need for early detection of diseases for the management of game species is emphasized...
  38. Abdallah F, Hassanin O. Detection and molecular characterization of avipoxviruses isolated from different avian species in Egypt. Virus Genes. 2013;46:63-70 pubmed publisher
    Six clinical cases of avipoxvirus (APV) infection were investigated and molecular biologically studied...
  39. Kulich P, Roubalova E, Dubska L, Sychra O, Šmíd B, Literak I. Avipoxvirus in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla). Avian Pathol. 2008;37:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The birds were examined for the presence of avipoxvirus lesions...
  40. Reali E, Canter D, Zeytin H, Schlom J, Greiner J. Comparative studies of Avipox-GM-CSF versus recombinant GM-CSF protein as immune adjuvants with different vaccine platforms. Vaccine. 2005;23:2909-21 pubmed
    ..The study underscores the importance of defining the appropriate delivery form of an immune adjuvant, such as GM-CSF, relative to the immunization strategy to maximize the host immune responses against a specific antigen. ..
  41. Niemeyer C, Favero C, Kolesnikovas C, Bhering R, Brandao P, Catão Dias J. Two different avipoxviruses associated with pox disease in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) along the Brazilian coast. Avian Pathol. 2013;42:546-51 pubmed publisher
    A novel avipoxvirus caused diphtheritic lesions in the oesophagus of five and in the bronchioli of four Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) and also cutaneous lesions in eight Magellanic penguins housed in outdoor enclosures in ..
  42. Berencsi K, Gyulai Z, Gonczol E, Pincus S, Cox W, Michelson S, et al. A canarypox vector-expressing cytomegalovirus (CMV) phosphoprotein 65 induces long-lasting cytotoxic T cell responses in human CMV-seronegative subjects. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1171-9 pubmed
    ..Canarypox-CMV pp65 is the first recombinant vaccine to elicit CMV-specific CTL responses, which suggests the potential usefulness of this approach in preventing disease caused by CMV. ..
  43. Kim T, Schnitzlein W, McAloose D, Pessier A, Tripathy D. Characterization of an avianpox virus isolated from an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). Vet Microbiol. 2003;96:237-46 pubmed
    ..compared biologically, antigenically and genetically with fowlpox virus (FPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus. Susceptible chickens inoculated with CPV developed only mild localized lesions but were not protected against ..
  44. Odin L, Favrot M, Poujol D, Michot J, Moingeon P, Tartaglia J, et al. Canarypox virus expressing wild type p53 for gene therapy in murine tumors mutated in p53. Cancer Gene Ther. 2001;8:87-98 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the local induction of tumor apoptosis, combined with the adjuvant effect of ALVAC vector, enhances the immunogenicity of the intratumor environment and allows induction of specific antitumor immune response. ..
  45. Walther Jallow L, Nilsson C, Söderlund J, ten Haaft P, Makitalo B, Biberfeld P, et al. Cross-protection against mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) challenge in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1601-12 pubmed
  46. Rosenwirth B, Kuhn E, Heeney J, Hurpin C, Tartaglia J, Bonnet M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of ALVAC wild-type human p53 (vCP207) by the intravenous route in rhesus macaques. Vaccine. 2001;19:1661-70 pubmed
    ..The safety profile in monkeys with ALVAC-p53 provides encouragement for using such live, modified vectors via the intravenous route for human immunotherapy. ..
  47. Manuel Medina F, Adolfo Ramírez G, Hernandez A. Avian pox in white-tailed laurel-pigeons from the Canary Islands. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:351-5 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of avian pox in whitetailed laurel-pigeons or in any other free-ranging bird in the Canaries, and it might indicate that other threatened birds of the Canarian Archipelago may be affected by this viral disease. ..
  48. Siemens D, Austin J, See W, Tartaglia J, Ratliff T. Evaluation of gene transfer efficiency by viral vectors to murine bladder epithelium. J Urol. 2001;165:667-71 pubmed
    ..Alternate manipulations, such as modifying the bladder surface, may be done to enhance gene transfer to the urothelium without increasing systemic distribution. ..
  49. Bányai K, Palya V, Dénes B, Glávits R, Ivanics Ã, Horváth B, et al. Unique genomic organization of a novel Avipoxvirus detected in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Infect Genet Evol. 2015;35:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whole genome sequence data are limited to a few avipoxvirus isolates. Based on phylogenetic analysis three major genetic clades are distinguished...
  50. Evans T, Keefer M, Weinhold K, Wolff M, Montefiori D, Gorse G, et al. A canarypox vaccine expressing multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genes given alone or with rgp120 elicits broad and durable CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in seronegative volunteers. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:290-8 pubmed
    ..In summary, a strategy of immunization with a canarypox vector expressing multiple genes of HIV-1 given with gp120 results in durable CD8+ CTL responses to a broad range of epitopes. ..
  51. Khan A, Yousaf A, Khan M, Siddique M, Gul S, Mahmood F. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks...
  52. Maeng O, Son W, Chung J, Lee K, Lee Y, Yoo O, et al. The BTB/POZ-ZF transcription factor dPLZF is involved in Ras/ERK signaling during Drosophila wing development. Mol Cells. 2012;33:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that dPLZF is a transcription factor controlled by the Ras/ERK signaling pathway, which is a prominent regulator of vein cell formation during wing development in Drosophila...
  53. Laidlaw S, Anwar M, Thomas W, Green P, Shaw K, Skinner M. Fowlpox virus encodes nonessential homologs of cellular alpha-SNAP, PC-1, and an orphan human homolog of a secreted nematode protein. J Virol. 1998;72:6742-51 pubmed
    ..RNA encoding the viral homolog of PC-1 is expressed strongly early and late in infection, but RNAs encoding the homologs of SNAP and R31240_2 are expressed weakly and late...
  54. Bennett M, Gillett A. Butcherbird polyomavirus isolated from a grey butcherbird (Cracticus torquatus) in Queensland, Australia. Vet Microbiol. 2014;168:302-11 pubmed publisher
    ..to, but distinct from, Canarypox virus within the same lesion from which Butcherbird polyomavirus was amplified, thus confirming an avipolyomavirus-avipoxvirus co-infection in the peri-ocular skin lesions of this grey butcherbird.
  55. Proksch A, Hartmann K. [Application of paramunity inducers in small animal practice]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2016;44:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..For these infectious diseases, paramunity inducers do not appear to be effective. ..
  56. Bublot M, Richard Mazet A, Chanavat Bizzini S, Le Gros F, Duboeuf M, Stoll A, et al. Immunogenicity of poxvirus vector avian influenza vaccines in Muscovy and Pekin ducks. Avian Dis. 2010;54:232-8 pubmed
    ..However, HI antibody titers were of short duration for both vaccine schemes, and their persistence was heterogeneous among individual birds...
  57. Gorse G, Patel G, Mandava M, Arbuckle J, Doyle T, Belshe R. Cytokine responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) induced by immunization with live recombinant canarypox virus vaccine expressing HIV-1 genes boosted by HIV-1(SF-2) recombinant GP120. Vaccine. 2001;19:1806-19 pubmed
    ..Hence, vCP205 and SF-2 rgp120 subunit vaccines given together and in a prime-boost sequence appeared to induce a broader cytokine response pattern than vCP205 vaccine given alone...
  58. Motta I, Andre F, Lim A, Tartaglia J, Cox W, Zitvogel L, et al. Cross-presentation by dendritic cells of tumor antigen expressed in apoptotic recombinant canarypox virus-infected dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2001;167:1795-802 pubmed
    ..Overall, our data indicate that DC infected with recombinant canarypox viruses may represent an efficient presentation platform for tumor Ags, which can be exploited in clinical studies...
  59. Rogers W, Baird J, Kumar A, Tine J, Weiss W, Aguiar J, et al. Multistage multiantigen heterologous prime boost vaccine for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria provides partial protection in rhesus macaques. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5565-72 pubmed
    ..This model will be important in preclinical vaccine development...
  60. Stephensen C, Welter J, Thaker S, Taylor J, Tartaglia J, Paoletti E. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets as a model for testing Morbillivirus vaccine strategies: NYVAC- and ALVAC-based CDV recombinants protect against symptomatic infection. J Virol. 1997;71:1506-13 pubmed
    ..Because the pathogenesis and clinical course of CDV infection of ferrets is quite similar to that of other Morbillivirus infections, including measles, this model will be useful in testing new candidate Morbillivirus vaccines...
  61. Worku S, Gorse G, Belshe R, Hoft D. Canarypox vaccines induce antigen-specific human gammadelta T cells capable of interferon-gamma production. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:525-32 pubmed
    ..02). Increased IFN-gamma production by gammadelta T and NK cells could enhance the induction of protective type 1 memory immunity. Thus, stimulation of gammadelta T cells might be an important feature of live vaccines...
  62. Lawson B, Lachish S, Colvile K, Durrant C, Peck K, Toms M, et al. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40176 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia. ..
  63. Krone O, Essbauer S, Wibbelt G, Isa G, Rudolph M, Gough R. Avipoxvirus infection in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from a reintroduction programme in Germany. Vet Rec. 2004;154:110-3 pubmed
    ..In addition, an ELISA for fowlpox, pigeonpox and canarypox was applied. No virus could be isolated and propagation in culture failed, but virus particles were detected by electron microscopy in lesions from its skin and tongue...
  64. Hsieh Y, Chen S, Wang C, Lee Y, Chung W, Tsai M, et al. Unusual pox lesions found in Chinese jungle mynahs (Acridotheres cristatellus). Avian Pathol. 2005;34:415-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of poxvirus infection affecting the uropygial gland...
  65. Kim T, Tripathy D. Antigenic and genetic characterization of an avian poxvirus isolated from an endangered Hawaiian goose (Branta sandvicensis). Avian Dis. 2006;50:15-21 pubmed
  66. Offerman K, Carulei O, Gous T, Douglass N, Williamson A. Phylogenetic and histological variation in avipoxviruses isolated in South Africa. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2338-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The South African avipoxvirus isolates in this study all grouped in clade A, in either subclade A2 or A3 of the genus Avipoxvirus and differ ..
  67. von Mehren M, Arlen P, Tsang K, Rogatko A, Meropol N, Cooper H, et al. Pilot study of a dual gene recombinant avipox vaccine containing both carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and B7.1 transgenes in patients with recurrent CEA-expressing adenocarcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6:2219-28 pubmed
    ..ALVAC-CEA B7.1 is safe in patients with advanced, recurrent adenocarcinomas that express CEA, and it is associated with the induction of a CEA-specific T-cell response...
  68. Griffith T, Kawakita M, Tian J, Ritchey J, Tartaglia J, Sehgal I, et al. Inhibition of murine prostate tumor growth and activation of immunoregulatory cells with recombinant canarypox viruses. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:998-1007 pubmed
  69. Moore K, Davis J, Sato T, Yasuda A. Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeats incorporated in the genomes of commercial fowl poxvirus vaccines and pigeon poxviruses without indication of the presence of infectious REV. Avian Dis. 2000;44:827-41 pubmed
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