poxviridae

Summary

Summary: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.

Top Publications

  1. Seet B, Johnston J, Brunetti C, Barrett J, Everett H, Cameron C, et al. Poxviruses and immune evasion. Annu Rev Immunol. 2003;21:377-423 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, because of their anti-inflammatory nature, many of these poxvirus proteins hold promise as potential therapeutic agents for acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. ..
  2. Gammon D, Gowrishankar B, Duraffour S, Andrei G, Upton C, Evans D. Vaccinia virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase subunits are differentially required for replication and pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000984 pubmed publisher
  3. Draper S, Moore A, Goodman A, Long C, Holder A, Gilbert S, et al. Effective induction of high-titer antibodies by viral vector vaccines. Nat Med. 2008;14:819-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies induced against a blood-stage malaria antigen by this viral vector platform are highly effective against Plasmodium yoelii parasites in mice and against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro...
  4. DiPerna G, Stack J, Bowie A, Boyd A, Kotwal G, Zhang Z, et al. Poxvirus protein N1L targets the I-kappaB kinase complex, inhibits signaling to NF-kappaB by the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of receptors, and inhibits NF-kappaB and IRF3 signaling by toll-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36570-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, N1L inhibited IRF3 signaling, which is also regulated by TBK1. These studies define a role for N1L as an immunomodulator of innate immunity by targeting components of NF-kappaB and IRF3 signaling pathways. ..
  5. Senkevich T, Koonin E, Bugert J, Darai G, Moss B. The genome of molluscum contagiosum virus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses. Virology. 1997;233:19-42 pubmed
    ..Despite the acquisition of unique genes for host interactions and changes in GC content, the physical order and regulation of essential ancestral poxvirus genes have been largely conserved in MCV and OPV...
  6. Da Silva M, Upton C. Host-derived pathogenicity islands in poxviruses. Virol J. 2005;2:30 pubmed
    ..The genes in these regions may have been acquired relatively recently from the host genome or from another AT-rich poxvirus. ..
  7. Thorne S, Hwang T, O Gorman W, Bartlett D, Sei S, Kanji F, et al. Rational strain selection and engineering creates a broad-spectrum, systemically effective oncolytic poxvirus, JX-963. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3350-8 pubmed
    ..JX-963 therefore holds promise as a rationally designed, targeted virotherapeutic for the systemic treatment of cancer in humans and warrants clinical testing. ..
  8. Yutin N, Koonin E. Evolution of DNA ligases of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses of eukaryotes: a case of hidden complexity. Biol Direct. 2009;4:51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the details of the evolution of these genes that bear on the complexity of the putative ancestral NCLDV and on the evolutionary relationships between viruses and their hosts are not well understood...
  9. Su H, Garman S, Allison T, Fogg C, Moss B, Garboczi D. The 1.51-Angstrom structure of the poxvirus L1 protein, a target of potent neutralizing antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4240-5 pubmed
    ..The structure of L1 is a step in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms common to all poxviruses that may stimulate the design of safer vaccines and new antipoxvirus drugs. ..

More Information

Publications72

  1. Everett H, McFadden G. Poxviruses and apoptosis: a time to die. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2002;5:395-402 pubmed
    ..The mechanistic classes of these poxvirus-encoded inhibitors are quite diverse, and indicate that a wide variety of distinct host proteins in cellular apoptotic pathways have been targeted for inhibition by individual poxviruses. ..
  2. Mooij P, Balla Jhagjhoorsingh S, Koopman G, Beenhakker N, van Haaften P, Baak I, et al. Differential CD4+ versus CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different poxvirus-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine candidates provide comparable efficacies in primates. J Virol. 2008;82:2975-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, in this setting, animals with strong vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4(+) T-cell responses showed efficacies similar to those with stronger CD8(+) T-cell responses...
  3. Hel Z, Nacsa J, Tsai W, Thornton A, Giuliani L, Tartaglia J, et al. Equivalent immunogenicity of the highly attenuated poxvirus-based ALVAC-SIV and NYVAC-SIV vaccine candidates in SIVmac251-infected macaques. Virology. 2002;304:125-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, both these vaccine modalities alone or in combination may be suitable candidate vaccines for immune therapy of HIV-1-infected individuals...
  4. McFadden G, Murphy P. Host-related immunomodulators encoded by poxviruses and herpesviruses. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2000;3:371-8 pubmed
  5. Gomez C, Najera J, Krupa M, Esteban M. The poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC as gene delivery systems for vaccination against infectious diseases and cancer. Curr Gene Ther. 2008;8:97-120 pubmed
  6. Breitbach C, Burke J, Jonker D, Stephenson J, Haas A, Chow L, et al. Intravenous delivery of a multi-mechanistic cancer-targeted oncolytic poxvirus in humans. Nature. 2011;477:99-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This platform technology opens up the possibility of multifunctional products that selectively express high concentrations of several complementary therapeutic and imaging molecules in metastatic solid tumours in humans...
  7. Gómez C, Nájera J, Jiménez E, Jimenez V, Wagner R, Graf M, et al. Head-to-head comparison on the immunogenicity of two HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates based on the attenuated poxvirus strains MVA and NYVAC co-expressing in a single locus the HIV-1BX08 gp120 and HIV-1(IIIB) Gag-Pol-Nef proteins of clade B. Vaccine. 2007;25:2863-85 pubmed
    ..All of the immunization protocols induced some humoral response against the gp160 protein from HIV-1 clone LAV. Our findings indicate that MVA-B and NYVAC-B meet the criteria to be potentially useful vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS...
  8. Li S, Locke E, Bruder J, Clarke D, Doolan D, Havenga M, et al. Viral vectors for malaria vaccine development. Vaccine. 2007;25:2567-74 pubmed
    ..Understanding the vector's ability to induce an immune response and the expression of malaria antigens in mammalian cells will be critical in designing the next generation of viral-vectored malaria vaccines...
  9. Kim J, Oh J, Park B, Lee D, Kim J, Park H, et al. Systemic armed oncolytic and immunologic therapy for cancer with JX-594, a targeted poxvirus expressing GM-CSF. Mol Ther. 2006;14:361-70 pubmed
    ..JX-594 holds promise as an i.v.-delivered, targeted virotherapeutic. These two tumor models hold promise for the optimization of this approach...
  10. Upton C, McFadden G. Identification and nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of Shope fibroma virus. J Virol. 1986;60:920-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a common ancestral origin for at least some of the unique internal regions of the leporipoxviruses and orthopoxviruses as exemplified by SFV and vaccinia virus, respectively...
  11. Johnston J, McFadden G. Poxvirus immunomodulatory strategies: current perspectives. J Virol. 2003;77:6093-100 pubmed
  12. Hu Y, Lee J, McCart J, Xu H, Moss B, Alexander H, et al. Yaba-like disease virus: an alternative replicating poxvirus vector for cancer gene therapy. J Virol. 2001;75:10300-8 pubmed
    ..YLD virus has favorable characteristics as a vector for cancer gene therapy, and this potential should be explored further...
  13. Guo Z, Bartlett D. Vaccinia as a vector for gene delivery. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004;4:901-17 pubmed
    ..Other potential strategies for improving this vector for gene delivery will also be discussed in this review...
  14. Lefkowitz E, Upton C, Changayil S, Buck C, Traktman P, Buller R. Poxvirus Bioinformatics Resource Center: a comprehensive Poxviridae informational and analytical resource. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:D311-6 pubmed
    ..resources to the scientific community to aid research directed at providing a better understanding of the Poxviridae family of viruses...
  15. Kalverda A, Thompson G, Vogel A, Schröder M, Bowie A, Khan A, et al. Poxvirus K7 protein adopts a Bcl-2 fold: biochemical mapping of its interactions with human DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:843-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, thermodynamic studies have mapped the K7-binding region to a 30-residue N-terminal fragment of DDX3, ahead of the core RNA helicase domains...
  16. Draper S, Biswas S, Spencer A, Remarque E, Capone S, Naddeo M, et al. Enhancing blood-stage malaria subunit vaccine immunogenicity in rhesus macaques by combining adenovirus, poxvirus, and protein-in-adjuvant vaccines. J Immunol. 2010;185:7583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data encourage the further clinical development and coadministration of protein and viral vector vaccine platforms in an attempt to induce broad cellular and humoral immune responses against blood-stage malaria Ags in humans...
  17. Taylor J, Barry M. Near death experiences: poxvirus regulation of apoptotic death. Virology. 2006;344:139-50 pubmed
    ..This review describes the numerous mechanisms by which poxviruses inhibit apoptosis thereby modulating life and death of the cell...
  18. Gomez C, Najera J, Sanchez R, Jimenez V, Esteban M. Multimeric soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) efficiently enhances HIV specific cellular immune responses during DNA prime and boost with attenuated poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC expressing HIV antigens. Vaccine. 2009;27:3165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provided evidence for the immunostimulatory benefit of sCD40L when DNA and the poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC are used as immunogens...
  19. Townsley A, Senkevich T, Moss B. The product of the vaccinia virus L5R gene is a fourth membrane protein encoded by all poxviruses that is required for cell entry and cell-cell fusion. J Virol. 2005;79:10988-98 pubmed
    The L5R gene of vaccinia virus is conserved among all sequenced members of the Poxviridae but has no predicted function or recognized nonpoxvirus homolog. Here we provide the initial characterization of the L5 protein...
  20. Upton C. Screening predicted coding regions in poxvirus genomes. Virus Genes. 2000;20:159-64 pubmed
    ..The use of amino acid composition and pI appears to be a generally applicable tool to aid identification of viral ORFs that are unlikely to be functional genes...
  21. Hel Z, Nacsa J, Tryniszewska E, Tsai W, Parks R, Montefiori D, et al. Containment of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in vaccinated macaques: correlation with the magnitude of virus-specific pre- and postchallenge CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. J Immunol. 2002;169:4778-87 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this work also further demonstrate the potential of a DNA-prime/attenuated poxvirus-boost vaccine regimen in an animal model that well mirrors human AIDS...
  22. Gubser C, Hue S, Kellam P, Smith G. Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:105-17 pubmed
    ..This suggests that CPV-BR and GRI-90 should be separate species...
  23. Senkevich T, Moss B. Vaccinia virus H2 protein is an essential component of a complex involved in virus entry and cell-cell fusion. J Virol. 2005;79:4744-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, H2 and A28 are the only proteins presently known to be specifically required for vaccinia virus entry and are likely components of a fusion complex...
  24. Gilbert P, McFadden G. Poxvirus cancer therapy. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2006;1:309-21 pubmed
    ..This review will cover their utilization as anti-cancer therapeutics by describing recent patents (2000-2005)...
  25. Piskurek O, Okada N. Poxviruses as possible vectors for horizontal transfer of retroposons from reptiles to mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12046-51 pubmed
    Poxviruses (Poxviridae) are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses with no RNA stage. Members of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) are highly invasive and virulent...
  26. Su H, Golden J, Gittis A, Hooper J, Garboczi D. Structural basis for the binding of the neutralizing antibody, 7D11, to the poxvirus L1 protein. Virology. 2007;368:331-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, the sequence and structure of Fab-7D11 will contribute to the development of L1-targeted immunotherapeutics...
  27. Bratke K, McLysaght A. Identification of multiple independent horizontal gene transfers into poxviruses using a comparative genomics approach. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:67 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose to use synteny conservation around the horizontally transferred gene (HTgene) to distinguish between single and multiple events...
  28. McFadden G. Poxvirus tropism. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:201-13 pubmed
  29. Babkin I, Shchelkunov S. [The time scale in poxvirus evolution]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2006;40:20-4 pubmed
    ..and the sequence of DNA polymerase gene (about 3 kbp) of the viruses belonging to various genera from the family Poxviridae were analyzed...
  30. McLysaght A, Baldi P, Gaut B. Extensive gene gain associated with adaptive evolution of poxviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15655-60 pubmed
    ..Here, we use complete genome data from 20 poxvirus genomes to build a robust phylogeny of the Poxviridae and to study patterns of genome evolution...
  31. Upton C, Slack S, Hunter A, Ehlers A, Roper R. Poxvirus orthologous clusters: toward defining the minimum essential poxvirus genome. J Virol. 2003;77:7590-600 pubmed
    ..We have reannotated and resequenced fragments of this genome and verified that these genes are conserved in Tian Tan. The results for poxvirus genes and genomes are discussed in light of evolutionary processes...
  32. Boyle D, Coupar B, Gibbs A, Seigman L, Both G. Fowlpox virus thymidine kinase: nucleotide sequence and relationships to other thymidine kinases. Virology. 1987;156:355-65 pubmed
    ..Characterization of the FPV TK gene may facilitate the construction of recombinant FPVs as vehicles for the delivery of vaccine antigens to poultry and other avian species...
  33. Afonso P, Silva P, Schnellrath L, Jesus D, Hu J, Yang Y, et al. Biological characterization and next-generation genome sequencing of the unclassified Cotia virus SPAn232 (Poxviridae). J Virol. 2012;86:5039-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Attempts to classify COTV within a recognized genus of the Poxviridae have generated contradictory findings...
  34. Kirn D, Thorne S. Targeted and armed oncolytic poxviruses: a novel multi-mechanistic therapeutic class for cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009;9:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial preclinical and clinical results show that products from this therapeutic class can systemically target cancers in a highly selective and potent fashion using a multi-pronged mechanism of action...
  35. Yang Z, West A, Bjorkman P. Crystal structure of TNFalpha complexed with a poxvirus MHC-related TNF binding protein. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:1189-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Overlap between the 2L and host TNF receptor-binding sites on TNFalpha rationalizes 2L inhibition of TNFalpha-TNF receptor interactions and prevention of TNFalpha-induced immune responses...
  36. Schmidt F, Bleck C, Mercer J. Poxvirus host cell entry. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of poxvirus MV and EV cell entry...
  37. Kantoff P, Schuetz T, Blumenstein B, Glode L, Bilhartz D, Wyand M, et al. Overall survival analysis of a phase II randomized controlled trial of a Poxviral-based PSA-targeted immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1099-105 pubmed publisher
    ..PROSTVAC-VF treatment was evaluated for safety and for prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a randomized, controlled, and blinded phase II study...
  38. Weiss W, Kumar A, Jiang G, Williams J, Bostick A, Conteh S, et al. Protection of rhesus monkeys by a DNA prime/poxvirus boost malaria vaccine depends on optimal DNA priming and inclusion of blood stage antigens. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1063 pubmed
    ..The present study reports three further experiments where we investigate the effects of DNA dose, timing, and formulation. We also compare vaccines utilizing only the pre-erythrocytic antigens with the four antigen vaccine...
  39. Nájera J, Gómez C, Domingo Gil E, Gherardi M, Esteban M. Cellular and biochemical differences between two attenuated poxvirus vaccine candidates (MVA and NYVAC) and role of the C7L gene. J Virol. 2006;80:6033-47 pubmed
    ..Overall, our findings demonstrate distinct behavior between NYVAC and MVA strains in cultured cells, as well as a new role for the C7L viral gene as an inhibitor of apoptosis in NYVAC infection...
  40. Xing K, Deng R, Wang J, Feng J, Huang M, Wang X. Genome-based phylogeny of poxvirus. Intervirology. 2006;49:207-14 pubmed
    A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Poxviridae was performed in this study. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from whole genomic information including gene order, gene content, and all conserved gene protein sequences...
  41. Moroziewicz D, Kaufman H. Gene therapy with poxvirus vectors. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2005;7:317-25 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the current status of recombinant poxviruses as vectors for gene therapy of human disease...
  42. Binns M, Tomley F, Campbell J, Boursnell M. Comparison of a conserved region in fowlpox virus and vaccinia virus genomes and the translocation of the fowlpox virus thymidine kinase gene. J Gen Virol. 1988;69 ( Pt 6):1275-83 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of genome stability in poxviruses and the use of the TK gene as a non-essential region for the introduction of foreign genes into poxviruses...
  43. Satheshkumar P, Moss B. Sequence-divergent chordopoxvirus homologs of the o3 protein maintain functional interactions with components of the vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex. J Virol. 2012;86:1696-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of chimeras formed by swapping domains of O3 with those of other proteins indicated that the N-terminal transmembrane segment was responsible for EFC interactions and for the complementation of infectivity...
  44. Hughes A, Friedman R. Poxvirus genome evolution by gene gain and loss. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;35:186-95 pubmed
    The poxviruses (Poxviridae) are a family of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes and substantial numbers (often >200) of genes per genome...
  45. Bracht A, Brudek R, Ewing R, Manire C, Burek K, Rosa C, et al. Genetic identification of novel poxviruses of cetaceans and pinnipeds. Arch Virol. 2006;151:423-38 pubmed
    ..A significant degree of divergence was observed in sequences of Steller sea lion parapoxviruses, while those of spotted seals and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were highly conserved...
  46. Senkevich T, Ojeda S, Townsley A, Nelson G, Moss B. Poxvirus multiprotein entry-fusion complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18572-7 pubmed
  47. Upton C, McFadden G. DNA sequence homology between the terminal inverted repeats of Shope fibroma virus and an endogenous cellular plasmid species. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:265-76 pubmed
    ..The potential role of such cellular plasmid-like DNA species as a mediator in the exchange of genetic information between the host cell and a cytoplasmically replicating poxvirus is discussed...
  48. Yang Z, Reynolds S, Martens C, Bruno D, Porcella S, Moss B. Expression profiling of the intermediate and late stages of poxvirus replication. J Virol. 2011;85:9899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..The differentiation of intermediate and late genes may enhance understanding of poxvirus replication and lead to improvements in expression vectors and recombinant vaccines...
  49. Yutin N, Wolf Y, Raoult D, Koonin E. Eukaryotic large nucleo-cytoplasmic DNA viruses: clusters of orthologous genes and reconstruction of viral genome evolution. Virol J. 2009;6:223 pubmed publisher
  50. Ehlers A, Osborne J, Slack S, Roper R, Upton C. Poxvirus Orthologous Clusters (POCs). Bioinformatics. 2002;18:1544-5 pubmed
  51. Ziauddin M, Guo Z, O Malley M, Austin F, Popovic P, Kavanagh M, et al. TRAIL gene-armed oncolytic poxvirus and oxaliplatin can work synergistically against colorectal cancer. Gene Ther. 2010;17:550-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination strategy may provide a new avenue to treating peritoneal carcinomatosis and other types of metastases of colorectal cancer...
  52. Odom M, Hendrickson R, Lefkowitz E. Poxvirus protein evolution: family wide assessment of possible horizontal gene transfer events. Virus Res. 2009;144:233-49 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the evolutionary origins of proteins encoded by the Poxviridae family of viruses, we examined all poxvirus protein coding genes using a method of characterizing and visualizing the similarity between these proteins and ..
  53. García Arriaza J, Nájera J, Gomez C, Sorzano C, Esteban M. Immunogenic profiling in mice of a HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate (MVA-B) expressing four HIV-1 antigens and potentiation by specific gene deletions. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12395 pubmed publisher
  54. Yang Z, Bruno D, Martens C, Porcella S, Moss B. Simultaneous high-resolution analysis of vaccinia virus and host cell transcriptomes by deep RNA sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11513-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The overrepresented functional categories of the up-regulated RNAs were NF-kappaB cascade, apoptosis, signal transduction, and ligand-mediated signaling, which likely represent the host response to invasion...
  55. Condit R. Vaccinia, Inc.--probing the functional substructure of poxviral replication factories. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;2:205-7 pubmed
    ..These factories thus comprise a highly structured virus organelle that isolates and coordinates late viral replication events, facilitating competition for cellular resources...
  56. Lefkowitz E, Wang C, Upton C. Poxviruses: past, present and future. Virus Res. 2006;117:105-18 pubmed
    ..Here, we review various comparative analyses of the poxviruses including gene prediction, gene conservation and function, genome organization, and poxvirus taxonomy and evolution...
  57. Regnery R. Poxviruses and the passive quest for novel hosts. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007;315:345-61 pubmed
    ..e., the Chordopoxvirus subfamily of the family Poxviridae. Brief note is made of examples of members of the genera Leporipoxvirus and Parapoxvirus-like agents that have ..
  58. Assarsson E, Greenbaum J, Sundstrom M, Schaffer L, Hammond J, Pasquetto V, et al. Kinetic analysis of a complete poxvirus transcriptome reveals an immediate-early class of genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, genes within each kinetic class were spatially grouped together in the genome. This genome-wide picture of transcription alters our understanding of how orthopoxviruses regulate gene expression...
  59. Zeller H, Karabatsos N, Calisher C, Digoutte J, Murphy F, Shope R. Electron microscopy and antigenic studies of uncharacterized viruses. I. Evidence suggesting the placement of viruses in families Arenaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, or Poxviridae. Arch Virol. 1989;108:191-209 pubmed
    ..20 Rhabdoviridae, 14 Reoviridae, one Togaviridae, one Paramyxoviridae (Mapuera virus, from a bat), and one Poxviridae (Yoka virus, from mosquitoes)...
  60. Evgin L, Vaha Koskela M, Rintoul J, Falls T, Le Boeuf F, Barrett J, et al. Potent oncolytic activity of raccoonpox virus in the absence of natural pathogenicity. Mol Ther. 2010;18:896-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Raccoonpox virus (RCNV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of Poxviridae and closely related to vaccinia virus, yet has no known pathogenicity in any mammalian species...
  61. Zhang L, DeRider M, McCornack M, Jao S, Isern N, Ness T, et al. Solution structure of the complex between poxvirus-encoded CC chemokine inhibitor vCCI and human MIP-1beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13985-90 pubmed
    ..This structure reveals the strategy used by vCCI to tightly bind numerous chemokines while retaining selectivity for the CC chemokine subfamily...
  62. Bawden A, Glassberg K, Diggans J, Shaw R, Farmerie W, Moyer R. Complete genomic sequence of the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses. Virology. 2000;274:120-39 pubmed
    ..The complete genomic sequence of AmEPV paves the way for an understanding and comparison of the molecular properties and pathogenesis between the entomopoxviruses of insects and the more intensively studied vertebrate poxviruses...
  63. Mo M, Fleming S, Mercer A. Cell cycle deregulation by a poxvirus partial mimic of anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a viral mimic of an APC component and reveal an intriguing mechanism by which viruses can manipulate cell cycle progression and, thereby, promote their own replication...