white spot syndrome virus 1

Summary

Summary: A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.

Top Publications

  1. Xie X, Yang F. White spot syndrome virus VP24 interacts with VP28 and is involved in virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1903-8 pubmed
    ..The results showed that anti-VP24 IgG could partially attenuate infection with WSSV. It is concluded that VP24 is an envelope protein and functions at an early stage in virus infection...
  2. Liu Y, Wu J, Chen H, Hew C, Yan J. DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus. Virology. 2010;408:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA. ..
  3. Rajesh Kumar S, Ishaq Ahamed V, Sarathi M, Nazeer Basha A, Sahul Hameed A. Immunological responses of Penaeus monodon to DNA vaccine and its efficacy to protect shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:467-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The high levels of prophenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) might be responsible for developing resistance against WSSV in DNA vaccinated shrimp. ..
  4. Leu J, Lin S, Huang J, Chen T, Lo C. A model for apoptotic interaction between white spot syndrome virus and shrimp. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:1011-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a life and death struggle because the virus needs to prevent apoptosis in order to replicate. If WSSV succeeds in replicating in sufficient numbers, this will result in the death of the infected penaeid shrimp host...
  5. Mekata T, Sudhakaran R, Kono T, Supamattaya K, Linh N, Sakai M, et al. Real-time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a simple method for detecting white spot syndrome virus. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;48:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..WSSV real-time LAMP assay appears to be precise, accurate and a valuable tool for the detection and quantification of WSSV in large field samples and epidemiological studies. ..
  6. Zhou Q, Qi Y, Yang F. Application of spectrophotometry to evaluate the concentration of purified White Spot Syndrome Virus. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:288-92 pubmed
    ..34x10(8)virions/microl) was obtained and a formula was established: C (virions/microl)=fOD(600)=3.34x10(8)xOD(600), which can be conveniently used to convert the optical density of purified WSSV preparation into the virion concentration. ..
  7. Capobianco J, Shih W, Leu J, Lo G, Shih W. Label free detection of white spot syndrome virus using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate piezoelectric microcantilever sensors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;26:964-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label free, in situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation...
  8. Sarathi M, Simon M, Ahmed V, Kumar S, Hameed A. Silencing VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp by bacterially expressed dsRNA. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2008;10:198-206 pubmed
  9. Chaivisuthangkura P, Phattanapaijitkul P, Thammapalerd N, Rukpratanporn S, Longyant S, Sithigorngul W, et al. Development of a polyclonal antibody specific to VP19 envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a recombinant protein preparation. J Virol Methods. 2006;133:180-4 pubmed
    ..The production of monoclonal antibodies against this rVP19 may be useful in order to combine with anti-VP28 monoclonal antibodies for enhancing the sensitivity of various WSSV serological assays. ..

More Information

Publications96

  1. Bonnichon V, Lightner D, Bonami J. Viral interference between infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;72:179-84 pubmed
    ..Real-time PCR analysis showed that the delay correlated to the IHHNV load and that WSSV challenge induced a decrease in IHHNV load, indicating some form of competition between the 2 viruses...
  2. Zhao Z, Yin Z, Weng S, Guan H, Li S, Xing K, et al. Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;22:520-34 pubmed
    ..The high expression of the immune-relevant genes in response to the virus infection provides a new insight for further study in the shrimp innate immunity...
  3. Wang P, Gu Z, Wan D, Zhang M, Weng S, Yu X, et al. The shrimp NF-?B pathway is activated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) 449 to facilitate the expression of WSSV069 (ie1), WSSV303 and WSSV371. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24773 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus that encodes a protein similar to the Toll pathway component Tube to upregulate gene expression in the invertebrate host. ..
  4. Zhu Y, Ding Q, Yang F. Characterization of a homologous-region-binding protein from white spot syndrome virus by phage display. Virus Res. 2007;125:145-52 pubmed
    ..The wsv021 gene might be a functional gene involved in WSSV replication and transcriptional regulation. ..
  5. Natividad K, Nomura N, Matsumura M. Detection of White spot syndrome virus DNA in pond soil using a 2-step nested PCR. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, it is concluded that the persistence of viral DNA in soil habitats may be an important aspect of WSSV ecology and may have an implication for viral transmissibility. ..
  6. Huang X, Zhao L, Zhang H, Xu X, Jia X, Chen Y, et al. Shrimp NF-?B binds to the immediate-early gene ie1 promoter of white spot syndrome virus and upregulates its activity. Virology. 2010;406:176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggested that WSSV may annex the shrimp NF-?B system, which it uses to enhance the expression of viral immediate-early genes...
  7. Patil R, Palaksha K, Anil T, Guruchannabasavanna -, Patil P, Shankarl K, et al. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;79:157-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that an inexpensive immunodot assay can be used to replace the more expensive 1-step PCR assay for disease monitoring. ..
  8. Liu W, Chang Y, Wang H, Leu J, Kou G, Lo C. Transactivation, dimerization, and DNA-binding activity of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early protein IE1. J Virol. 2008;82:11362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiment and gel filtration analysis showed that this self-interaction led to the formation of stable IE1 dimers. ..
  9. Dieu B, Marks H, Zwart M, Vlak J. Evaluation of white spot syndrome virus variable DNA loci as molecular markers of virus spread at intermediate spatiotemporal scales. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..WSSV genomic deletions tend to increase over time with virus spread in cultured shrimp, and our data are therefore congruent with the hypothesis that WSSV was introduced in central Vietnam and then radiated out. ..
  10. Leu J, Wang H, Kou G, Lo C. Penaeus monodon caspase is targeted by a white spot syndrome virus anti-apoptosis protein. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:476-86 pubmed
    ..monodon inhibitor of apoptosis protein (PmIAP) remained unchanged after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. We also used Pm caspase to show that WSSV449, an anti-apoptosis protein encoded by WSSV, is a direct caspase inhibitor. ..
  11. Sithigorngul W, Rukpratanporn S, Pecharaburanin N, Longyant S, Chaivisuthangkura P, Sithigorngul P. A simple and rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;72:101-6 pubmed
    ..The beneficial features of this kit are that simple, convenient and quick results can be obtained without the requirement of sophisticated tools or special skills. ..
  12. Li H, Zhu Y, Xie X, Yang F. Identification of a novel envelope protein (VP187) gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus. Virus Res. 2006;115:76-84 pubmed
    ..VP187 was proved to locate in the WSSV virions as an envelope protein using immunoelectron microscopy. ..
  13. Kang S, Leu J, Wang H, Chen L, Kou G, Lo C. Polycistronic mRNAs and internal ribosome entry site elements (IRES) are widely used by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) structural protein genes. Virology. 2009;387:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that vp31/vp39b/vp11 is representative of many other WSSV structural/non-structural gene clusters, and argue that these are also likely to produce polycistronic mRNAs and that use an IRES mechanism to regulate their translation. ..
  14. Fouzi M, Shariff M, Omar A, Yusoff F, Tan S. TaqMan real-time PCR assay for relative quantification of white spot syndrome virus infection in Penaeus monodon Fabricius exposed to ammonia. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, haemolymph had significantly higher (P < 0.01) viral load compared to the gills and pereopods. Results showed that shrimp exposed to ammonia levels as low as 1.1 mg L?¹ (TAN) had increased susceptibility to WSSV. ..
  15. Wu W, Zhang X. Characterization of a Rab GTPase up-regulated in the shrimp Peneaus japonicus by virus infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:438-45 pubmed
    ..This discovery might contribute better understanding to the molecular events involved in shrimp as well as invertebrate immune responses. ..
  16. Huang T, Zhang X. Contribution of the argonaute-1 isoforms to invertebrate antiviral defense. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50581 pubmed publisher
    ..It was revealed that Ago1C had no effect on virus infection. Therefore, the current study presented the first report on the contribution of Ago isoforms in the invertebrate defense against virus infection...
  17. Han F, Xu J, Zhang X. Characterization of an early gene (wsv477) from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Virus Genes. 2007;34:193-8 pubmed
    ..Western blot revealed that the wsv477 gene was expressed at 6 h post-infection in vivo. As indicated by GTP-binding assay, the WSV477 protein had GTP-binding activity. ..
  18. Wang H, Wang H, Kou G, Lo C, Huang W. Identification of icp11, the most highly expressed gene of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;74:179-89 pubmed
  19. Li F, Li M, Ke W, Ji Y, Bian X, Yan X. Identification of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus. Virology. 2009;385:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, most of the identified WSSV IE genes cluster in a 14 kb genomic region (WSSV China isolate: 36,052 to 50,300 bp). This type of arrangement may facilitate the coordinate control and rapid expression of IE genes. ..
  20. Ongvarrasopone C, Chanasakulniyom M, Sritunyalucksana K, Panyim S. Suppression of PmRab7 by dsRNA inhibits WSSV or YHV infection in shrimp. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2008;10:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of PmRab7 could be a novel approach to prevent both DNA virus (WSSV) and RNA virus (YHV) infection of shrimp. ..
  21. Robalino J, Bartlett T, Shepard E, Prior S, Jaramillo G, Scura E, et al. Double-stranded RNA induces sequence-specific antiviral silencing in addition to nonspecific immunity in a marine shrimp: convergence of RNA interference and innate immunity in the invertebrate antiviral response?. J Virol. 2005;79:13561-71 pubmed
    ..We propose a model of antiviral immunity in shrimp by which viral dsRNA engages not only innate immune pathways but also an RNAi-like mechanism to induce potent antiviral responses in vivo. ..
  22. Li F, Xiang J. Recent advances in researches on the innate immunity of shrimp in China. Dev Comp Immunol. 2013;39:11-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the brief outline about the immune system of shrimp is drawn based on the recent data which will help us to understand the immune responses of shrimp to different pathogens. ..
  23. Rameshthangam P, Ramasamy P. Antiviral activity of bis(2-methylheptyl)phthalate isolated from Pongamia pinnata leaves against White Spot Syndrome Virus of Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Virus Res. 2007;126:38-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present work revealed that oral administration of the crude and purified compound from the leaves of P. pinnata effectively inhibited WSSV pathogenesis and reduced the mortality of infected shrimp. ..
  24. Hasson K, Fan Y, Reisinger T, Venuti J, Varner P. White-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) introduction into the Gulf of Mexico and Texas freshwater systems through imported, frozen bait-shrimp. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;71:91-100 pubmed
  25. Tonganunt M, Saelee N, Chotigeat W, Phongdara A. Identification of a receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (Pm-RACK1), a cellular gene product from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) interacts with a protein, VP9 from the white spot syndrome virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:509-14 pubmed
    ..We identified Pm-RACK1 as a specific cellular target protein for VP9, a nonstructural protein of WSSV. The interaction of these two proteins may be involved in mediating intracellular VP9 functions. ..
  26. Jha R, Xu Z, Shen J, Bai S, Sun J, Li W. The efficacy of recombinant vaccines against white spot syndrome virus in Procambarus clarkii. Immunol Lett. 2006;105:68-76 pubmed
    ..It also suggests that specific memory exists in crayfish and the effects of VP28 are significant. The effect of VP19 along with VP28 has also shown significant effect against WSSV. ..
  27. Zhang S, Li C, Yan H, Qiu W, Chen Y, Wang P, et al. Identification and function of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in Litopenaeus vannamei. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47038 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that LvMyD88 may play a role in antibacterial and antiviral response in L. vannamei. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MyD88 in shrimp and a variant of MyD88 gene in invertebrates...
  28. Wang P, Gu Z, Wan D, Zhu W, Qiu W, Weng S, et al. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM) is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52088 pubmed publisher
    ..alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors...
  29. Zhou Q, Xu L, Li H, Qi Y, Yang F. Four major envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus bind to form a complex. J Virol. 2009;83:4709-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, three pairwise protein interactions (VP19-VP28, VP19-VP24, and VP24-VP26) and one self-association (VP24-VP24) were identified for the first time...
  30. Wan Q, Xu L, Yang F. VP26 of white spot syndrome virus functions as a linker protein between the envelope and nucleocapsid of virions by binding with VP51. J Virol. 2008;82:12598-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that VP26 functions as a matrix-like linker protein between the viral envelope and nucleocapsid, which suggests that VP26 is a key factor in the envelopment of WSSV virion...
  31. Zhu F, Du H, Miao Z, Quan H, Xu Z. Protection of Procambarus clarkii against white spot syndrome virus using inactivated WSSV. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the protective efficacy of BEI-inactivated WSSV lies on the integrity of envelope proteins of WSSV and the possibility of BEI-inactivated WSSV to protect P. clarkii from WSSV...
  32. Tsai J, Wang H, Leu J, Wang A, Zhuang Y, Walker P, et al. Identification of the nucleocapsid, tegument, and envelope proteins of the shrimp white spot syndrome virus virion. J Virol. 2006;80:3021-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, we propose an assembly process for the WSSV virion...
  33. Tharntada S, Ponprateep S, Somboonwiwat K, Liu H, Söderhäll I, Soderhall K, et al. Role of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in protection from white spot syndrome virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vivo role of ALFPm3 was examined by injection of P. monodon with WSSV pre-treated with rALFPm3 protein. The results clearly showed that rALFPm3 was able to reduce WSSV propagation and prolong the survival of shrimps...
  34. Liu Y, Wu J, Song J, Sivaraman J, Hew C. Identification of a novel nonstructural protein, VP9, from white spot syndrome virus: its structure reveals a ferredoxin fold with specific metal binding sites. J Virol. 2006;80:10419-27 pubmed
    ..Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells...
  35. Wang P, Wan D, Gu Z, Deng X, Weng S, Yu X, et al. Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression...
  36. Wu W, Zong R, Xu J, Zhang X. Antiviral phagocytosis is regulated by a novel Rab-dependent complex in shrimp penaeus japonicus. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:424-31 pubmed
    ..This discovery would improve our understanding of the still poorly understood molecular events involved in innate immune response against virus infection of invertebrates...
  37. Pradeep B, Karunasagar I. Fitness and virulence of different strains of white spot syndrome virus. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:801-5 pubmed publisher
  38. Li L, Lin S, Yang F. Characterization of an envelope protein (VP110) of White spot syndrome virus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1909-15 pubmed
    ..The results showed that VP110 was capable of attaching to host cells and that adhesion could be inhibited by synthetic RGDT peptides, suggesting that the RGD motif in the VP110 sequence may play a role in WSSV infection...
  39. Jaroenram W, Kiatpathomchai W, Flegel T. Rapid and sensitive detection of white spot syndrome virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick. Mol Cell Probes. 2009;23:65-70 pubmed publisher
  40. Clavero Salas A, Sotelo Mundo R, Gollas Galván T, Hernández López J, Peregrino Uriarte A, Muhlia Almazan A, et al. Transcriptome analysis of gills from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:459-72 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that WSSV alters gene expression in gills and has led to the identification of novel white shrimp specific genes...
  41. Zeng Y, Lu C. Identification of differentially expressed genes in haemocytes of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) infected with white spot syndrome virus by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:646-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A lot of genes including the 2 down-regulated genes are still unknown. All these immuno-related genes responding to the virus infection provide a new insight for further study in the shrimp innate immunity...
  42. Tan Y, Shi Z. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus in Chinese cultured shrimp during 1998-1999. Virol Sin. 2011;26:123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide important information for a better understanding of the spatio-temporal transmission mode and the WSSV genetic evolution lineage...
  43. Flegel T, Sritunyalucksana K. Shrimp molecular responses to viral pathogens. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2011;13:587-607 pubmed publisher
    ..e., the quasi immune response, viral co-infections, viral sequences in the shrimp genome and persistent viral infections) for which little or no molecular information is currently available, but is much needed...
  44. Laramore S, Scarpa J, Laramore C, Lin J. Virulence variation of white spot syndrome virus in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. J Aquat Anim Health. 2009;21:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, results indicate that there is a measurable virulence difference among WSSV isolates, which may correspond to geographical region...
  45. Li F, Wang D, Li S, Yan H, Zhang J, Wang B, et al. A Dorsal homolog (FcDorsal) in the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis is responsive to both bacteria and WSSV challenge. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:874-83 pubmed publisher
  46. Liang Y, Huang J, Song X, Zhang P, Xu H. Four viral proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) that attach to shrimp cell membranes. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;66:81-5 pubmed
    ..Mass spectrometric analysis identified the 37 kDa putative VAP as the product of WSSV gene VP281...
  47. Citarasu T, Sivaram V, Immanuel G, Rout N, Murugan V. Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:372-84 pubmed
    ..The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture...
  48. Ai H, Huang Y, Li S, Weng S, Yu X, He J. Characterization of a prophenoloxidase from hemocytes of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is down-regulated by white spot syndrome virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:28-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that proPO-b is a main transcript form of proPO gene in L. vannamei, and it may play a role in defence against WSSV virus...
  49. Vaseeharan B, Prem Anand T, Murugan T, Chen J. Shrimp vaccination trials with the VP292 protein of white spot syndrome virus. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;43:137-42 pubmed
    ..Construction of a recombinant vector that expresses VP292 protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and to exploit the possibility of obtaining the vaccine conferring protection against WSSV infection in shrimps...
  50. Han F, Zhang X. Characterization of a ras-related nuclear protein (Ran protein) up-regulated in shrimp antiviral immunity. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:937-44 pubmed
    ..This study, therefore, might provide a clue to elucidate shrimp innate immunity...
  51. Ning J, Zhu W, Xu J, Zheng C, Meng X. Oral delivery of DNA vaccine encoding VP28 against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium. Vaccine. 2009;27:1127-35 pubmed publisher
  52. Leu J, Chang C, Wu J, Hsu C, Hirono I, Aoki T, et al. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:120 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon...
  53. Xu J, Han F, Zhang X. Silencing shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes by siRNA. Antiviral Res. 2007;73:126-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that RNAi is capable of silencing sequence-specific genes of WSSV and might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for WSSV infection in shrimp...
  54. Escobedo Bonilla C, Alday Sanz V, Wille M, Sorgeloos P, Pensaert M, Nauwynck H. A review on the morphology, molecular characterization, morphogenesis and pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:1-18 pubmed
    ..The aim of this review is to present an update of the knowledge generated so far on different aspects of WSSV organization, morphogenesis, pathology and pathogenesis...
  55. Xu H, Yan F, Deng X, Wang J, Zou T, Ma X, et al. The interaction of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP28 with shrimp Hsc70 is specific and ATP-dependent. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, direct VP28-Hsc70 association required both ATPase domain and peptide binding domain of Hsc70. The data obtained will help elucidate the role of VP28 protein in the process of virus infection...
  56. Liu H, Jiravanichpaisal P, Söderhäll I, Cerenius L, Soderhall K. Antilipopolysaccharide factor interferes with white spot syndrome virus replication in vitro and in vivo in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. J Virol. 2006;80:10365-71 pubmed
    ..This is the first crustacean gene product identified with the capacity to interfere with replication of this important pathogen...
  57. Sánchez Paz A. White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern. Vet Res. 2010;41:43 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies...
  58. Chen J, Li Z, Hew C. Characterization of a novel envelope protein WSV010 of shrimp white spot syndrome virus and its interaction with a major viral structural protein VP24. Virology. 2007;364:208-13 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that VP24 may act as a linker protein to associate these envelope proteins together to form a complex, which may play an important role in viral morphogenesis and viral infection...
  59. Liu Q, Ma C, Chen W, Zhang X, Liang Y, Dong S, et al. White spot syndrome virus VP37 interacts with VP28 and VP26. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;85:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding assay of VP37 with VP28 by ELISA confirmed that the 2 proteins had direct interaction in vivo. This discovery will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of virion morphogenesis...
  60. Wang W, Zhang X. Comparison of antiviral efficiency of immune responses in shrimp. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:522-7 pubmed publisher
  61. Tang X, Wu J, Sivaraman J, Hew C. Crystal structures of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from white spot syndrome virus shed light on their evolutionary relationship. J Virol. 2007;81:6709-17 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it is tempting to extend this host interaction mode to other structural viral proteins of similar structures. Our finding has the potential to extend further toward drug and vaccine development against WSSV...
  62. Syed Musthaq S, Sudhakaran R, Balasubramanian G, Sahul Hameed A. Experimental transmission and tissue tropism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in two species of lobsters, Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;93:75-80 pubmed
    ..The stomach and head muscle was positive by nested PCR at 120 h p.i., but negative at 168 h p.i. Western blot analysis was negative in all the tested organs of both species of lobster at 120 h post-inoculation by oral route...
  63. Di Leonardo V, Bonnichon V, Roch P, Parrinello N, Bonami J. Comparative WSSV infection routes in the shrimp genera Marsupenaeus and Palaemon. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:565-9 pubmed
  64. Arts J, Cornelissen F, Cijsouw T, Hermsen T, Savelkoul H, Stet R. Molecular cloning and expression of a Toll receptor in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:504-13 pubmed
    ..A role in the defence mechanism is discussed. In conclusion, shrimp possess at least one Toll receptor that might be involved in immune defence...
  65. Tonganunt M, Nupan B, Saengsakda M, Suklour S, Wanna W, Senapin S, et al. The role of Pm-fortilin in protecting shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:633-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a novel polypeptide of 93 amino acids with a number of XPPX signature sequences that are often reported to have a function in antiviral peptides...
  66. Song K, Li D, Zhang M, Yang H, Ruan L, Xu X. Cloning and characterization of three novel WSSV recognizing lectins from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:596-603 pubmed publisher
  67. Marks H, Ren X, Sandbrink H, van Hulten M, Vlak J. In silico identification of putative promoter motifs of White Spot Syndrome Virus. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7:309 pubmed
    ..Both methods were validated by alignments of empirically determined 5' ends of various WSSV mRNAs...
  68. Robalino J, Almeida J, McKillen D, Colglazier J, Trent H, Chen Y, et al. Insights into the immune transcriptome of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: tissue-specific expression profiles and transcriptomic responses to immune challenge. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29:44-56 pubmed
  69. Liu W, Chang Y, Wang A, Kou G, Lo C. White spot syndrome virus annexes a shrimp STAT to enhance expression of the immediate-early gene ie1. J Virol. 2007;81:1461-71 pubmed
    ..We conclude that WSSV successfully annexes a putative shrimp defense mechanism, which it uses to enhance the expression of viral immediate-early genes...
  70. de la Vega E, O Leary N, Shockey J, Robalino J, Payne C, Browdy C, et al. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvALF): a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1916-25 pubmed
    ..In contrast, LvALF1 dsRNA activated the sequence-independent innate anti-viral immune response giving increased protection from WSSV infection...
  71. He F, Ho Y, Yu L, Kwang J. WSSV ie1 promoter is more efficient than CMV promoter to express H5 hemagglutinin from influenza virus in baculovirus as a chicken vaccine. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:238 pubmed publisher
    ..The worldwide outbreak of influenza A (H5N1) viruses among poultry species and humans highlighted the need to develop efficacious and safe vaccines based on efficient and scaleable production...
  72. Chen L, Lu L, Wu W, Lo C, Huang W. White spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP53A interacts with Penaeus monodon chitin-binding protein (PmCBP). Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;74:171-8 pubmed
    ..An in vitro binding assay showed that c-myc-WSSV067C was capable of co-precipitating HA-PmCBP-C. Furthermore, PmCBP was expressed in almost all organs but appeared to be up-regulated at the late stage of WSSV infection...
  73. Wang P, Gu Z, Wan D, Zhu W, Qiu W, Chen Y, et al. Litopenaeus vannamei Toll-interacting protein (LvTollip) is a potential negative regulator of the shrimp Toll pathway involved in the regulation of the shrimp antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-4 (PEN4). Dev Comp Immunol. 2013;40:266-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that LvTollip might be involved in the negative regulation of PEN4 and that LvTollip expression was responsive to microbial infections...
  74. Bateman K, Tew I, French C, Hicks R, Martin P, Munro J, et al. Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;110:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that these non-model hosts may offer a unique insight into viral handling in crustaceans...
  75. Pradeep B, Shekar M, Gudkovs N, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus prevalent in shrimp farms of India. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;78:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that genotyping can be a useful epidemiological tool for tracing the movement of WSSV within infected populations...
  76. Rijiravanich A, Browdy C, Withyachumnarnkul B. Knocking down caspase-3 by RNAi reduces mortality in Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei challenged with a low dose of white-spot syndrome virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:308-13 pubmed publisher
  77. Syed Musthaq S, Madhan S, Sahul Hameed A, Kwang J. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon. Virology. 2009;391:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV...
  78. Melena J, Bayot B, Betancourt I, Amano Y, Panchana F, Alday V, et al. Pre-exposure to infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus or to inactivated white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) confers protection against WSSV in Penaeus vannamei (Boone) post-larvae. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:589-600 pubmed
    ..This evidence suggests a protective role of IHHNV as an interfering virus, while protection obtained by inactivated WSSV might result from non-specific antiviral immune response...
  79. Rajeshkumar S, Venkatesan C, Sarathi M, Sarathbabu V, Thomas J, Anver Basha K, et al. Oral delivery of DNA construct using chitosan nanoparticles to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:429-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also correlated the changes in the level of immunological parameters with the survival percentage and protective efficacy of oral route of DNA construct against WSSV in shrimp...
  80. He F, Syed S, Hameed A, Kwang J. Viral ubiquitin ligase WSSV222 is required for efficient white spot syndrome virus replication in shrimp. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that WSSV222 silencing inhibited the degradation of TSL in WSSV-challenged shrimp, indicating the requirement for WSSV222 for efficient replication of WSSV in shrimp...
  81. Zhu F, Quan H. A new method for quantifying white spot syndrome virus: Experimental challenge dose using TaqMan real-time PCR assay. J Virol Methods. 2012;184:121-4 pubmed publisher
    ..524×10(5) copies/?l). TaqMan real-time PCR represents a novel standard method, based on the by quantitation of WSSV copies, for determining the appropriate concentration of WSSV for use in infection experiments...
  82. Li L, Yuan J, Cai C, Gu W, Shi Z. Multiple envelope proteins are involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in crayfish. Arch Virol. 2006;151:1309-17 pubmed
    ..These results revealed that multiple envelope proteins are involved in WSSV infection in crayfish and that VP36B and VP31 play a key role during this process...
  83. Tan Y, Xing Y, Zhang H, Feng Y, Zhou Y, Shi Z. Molecular detection of three shrimp viruses and genetic variation of white spot syndrome virus in Hainan Province, China, in 2007. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..From these data, we identified two novel WSSV strains which contain nucleotide deletions of 5657 and 11093 bp, respectively, when compared with the largest WSSV-TW isolate...
  84. Rout N, Kumar S, Jaganmohan S, Murugan V. DNA vaccines encoding viral envelope proteins confer protective immunity against WSSV in black tiger shrimp. Vaccine. 2007;25:2778-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that DNA vaccination strategy will have potential utility against WSSV infection in shrimp cultivation...
  85. Li Z, Lin Q, Chen J, Wu J, Lim T, Loh S, et al. Shotgun identification of the structural proteome of shrimp white spot syndrome virus and iTRAQ differentiation of envelope and nucleocapsid subproteomes. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1609-20 pubmed
    ..A comprehensive identification of WSSV structural proteins and their localization should facilitate the studies of its assembly and mechanism of infection...
  86. Zhang M, Wang H, Li D, Xu X. A novel focal adhesion kinase from Marsupenaeus japonicus and its response to WSSV infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a clue to recognize the FAK-mediated signaling connection in the control of immunity and virus infection in crustaceans, which will be helpful to shrimp viral disease control...
  87. Jiravanichpaisal P, Sricharoen S, Söderhäll I, Soderhall K. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) interaction with crayfish haemocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;20:718-27 pubmed
    ..The TEM observation in haematopoietic cells (hpt cells) suggests that WSSV infect specific cell types in haematopoietic tissue and non-granular hpt cells seem more favourable to WSSV infection...