Summary: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Qin Q, Chang S, Ngoh Lim G, Gibson Kueh S, Shi C, Lam T. Characterization of a novel ranavirus isolated from grouper Epinephelus tauvina. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;53:1-9 pubmed
    ..PCR) using the primers from conserved regions of the MCP gene of frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species of Ranavirus. Subsequent multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the newly isolated grouper virus was ..
  2. Burton E, Miller D, Styer E, Gray M. Amphibian ocular malformation associated with frog virus 3. Vet J. 2008;177:442-4 pubmed
    ..Subsequent PCR and sequencing (GenBank accession Number EF175670) confirmed frog virus 3 (FV3). This represents the first report of a malformation in an anuran associated with FV3. ..
  3. Cunningham A, Tems C, Russell P. Immunohistochemical demonstration of Ranavirus Antigen in the tissues of infected frogs (Rana temporaria) with systemic haemorrhagic or cutaneous ulcerative disease. J Comp Pathol. 2008;138:3-11 pubmed
    b>Ranavirus disease emerged as a cause of annually recurring epidemic mortality of common frogs (Rana temporaria) in Britain in the late-1980s...
  4. Greer A, Brunner J, Collins J. Spatial and temporal patterns of Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) prevalence in tiger salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;85:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal and spatial dynamics of ranavirus infections when epidemics are not apparent remains unclear...
  5. He L, Ke F, Zhang Q. Rana grylio virus as a vector for foreign gene expression in fish cells. Virus Res. 2012;163:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, RGV was demonstrated could be as a viral vector for foreign gene expression in fish cells. ..
  6. Balseiro A, Dalton K, del Cerro A, Marquez I, Parra F, Prieto J, et al. Outbreak of common midwife toad virus in alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) in northern Spain: a comparative pathological study of an emerging ranavirus. Vet J. 2010;186:256-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of ranavirus infection in the alpine newt, the second known species to be affected by CMTV in the past 2 years.
  7. Whitley D, Sample R, Sinning A, Henegar J, Chinchar V. Antisense approaches for elucidating ranavirus gene function in an infected fish cell line. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:937-48 pubmed publisher
  8. Huang Y, Huang X, Gui J, Zhang Q. Mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis induced by Rana grylio virus infection in fish cells. Apoptosis. 2007;12:1569-77 pubmed
    ..The data revealed the detailed dynamics of mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis induced by an iridovirus, and provided the first report on mitochondrial fragmentation during virus-induced apoptosis in fish cells. ..
  9. Cunningham A, Hyatt A, Russell P, Bennett P. Emerging epidemic diseases of frogs in Britain are dependent on the source of ranavirus agent and the route of exposure. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1200-12 pubmed
    ..by skin ulceration or systemic haemorrhages, were induced upon exposure to lesion homogenates or cultured ranavirus. The re-isolation of ranavirus from experimentally affected frogs fulfilled Koch's postulates...

More Information


  1. Miller D, Rajeev S, Gray M, Baldwin C. Frog virus 3 infection, cultured American bullfrogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:342-3 pubmed
  2. Yu Y, Bearzotti M, Vende P, Ahne W, Bremont M. Partial mapping and sequencing of a fish iridovirus genome reveals genes homologous to the frog virus 3 p31, p40 and human eIF2alpha. Virus Res. 1999;63:53-63 pubmed
    ..But, none were related to Lymphocystis virus, a member of the Iridoviridae family, for which the full genome nucleotide sequence has been determined. ..
  3. Picco A, Karam A, Collins J. Pathogen host switching in commercial trade with management recommendations. Ecohealth. 2010;7:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We experimentally injected largemouth bass with a bait trade tiger salamander ranavirus. Largemouth bass became infected but exhibited no signs of disease or mortality...
  4. Xia L, Cao J, Huang X, Qin Q. Characterization of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) ORF086R, a putative homolog of ICP18 involved in cell growth control and virus replication. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, overexpression of SGIV ICP18 can promote the growth of grouper embryonic cells (GP) and contribute to SGIV replication. These results should offer important insights into the pathogenesis of ranaviruses...
  5. Whittington R, Becker J, Dennis M. Iridovirus infections in finfish - critical review with emphasis on ranaviruses. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:95-122 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, lymphocystiviruses cause superficial lesions and rarely cause economic loss. The ranavirus epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) from Australia was the first iridovirus to cause epizootic ..
  6. Gobbo F, Cappellozza E, Pastore M, Bovo G. Susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to a panel of ranavirus isolates. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;90:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A panel of 7 ranavirus isolates was used to challenge duplicate groups of A...
  7. Green D, Converse K, Schrader A. Epizootiology of sixty-four amphibian morbidity and mortality events in the USA, 1996-2001. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;969:323-39 pubmed
    ..The most common cause of amphibian mortality events was infection by ranaviruses (Family: Iridoviridae). Ranavirus epizootics have abrupt onset and affect late-stage larvae and recent metamorphs...
  8. Mavian C, López Bueno A, Fernández Somalo M, Alcami A, Alejo A. Complete genome sequence of the European sheatfish virus. J Virol. 2012;86:6365-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the complete genome sequence of European sheatfish ranavirus (ESV), the first ranavirus isolated in Europe, which causes high mortality rates in infected sheatfish (Silurus ..
  9. Chinchar V, Wang J, Murti G, Carey C, Rollins Smith L. Inactivation of frog virus 3 and channel catfish virus by esculentin-2P and ranatuerin-2P, two antimicrobial peptides isolated from frog skin. Virology. 2001;288:351-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first report linking amphibian antimicrobial peptides with protection from an amphibian viral pathogen and suggests that these compounds may play a role in maintaining amphibian health. ..
  10. Hyatt A, Williamson M, Coupar B, Middleton D, Hengstberger S, Gould A, et al. First identification of a ranavirus from green pythons (Chondropython viridis). J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:239-52 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of a systemic ranavirus infection in any species of snake and is a new member of the genus, Ranavirus.
  11. Gray M, Miller D, Hoverman J. Ecology and pathology of amphibian ranaviruses. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;87:243-66 pubmed publisher
    ..has occurred globally since at least the early 1990s from viral pathogens that are members of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae...
  12. Daszak P, Berger L, Cunningham A, Hyatt A, Green D, Speare R. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:735-48 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. ..
  13. De Voe R, Geissler K, Elmore S, Rotstein D, Lewbart G, Guy J. Ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in a group of captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2004;35:534-43 pubmed
    ..The virus was characterized by electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequence analysis of a portion of the major capsid protein as a member of the genus Ranavirus.
  14. Ariel E, Kielgast J, Svart H, Larsen K, Tapiovaara H, Jensen B, et al. Ranavirus in wild edible frogs Pelophylax kl. esculentus in Denmark. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;85:7-14 pubmed publisher
    A survey for the amphibian pathogens ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) was conducted in Denmark during August and September 2008...
  15. Rothenburg S, Chinchar V, Dever T. Characterization of a ranavirus inhibitor of the antiviral protein kinase PKR. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:56 pubmed publisher
    ..This constitutes an important step in understanding the interaction of ranaviruses and the host innate immune system. ..
  16. De Jes s Andino F, Chen G, Li Z, Grayfer L, Robert J. Susceptibility of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to infection by the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 correlates with a reduced and delayed innate immune response in comparison with adult frogs. Virology. 2012;432:435-43 pubmed publisher
    Xenopus laevis adults mount effective immune responses to ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) infections and clear the pathogen within 2-3 weeks. In contrast, most tadpoles cannot clear FV3 and succumb to infections within a month...
  17. Cunningham A, Hyatt A, Russell P, Bennett P. Experimental transmission of a ranavirus disease of common toads (Bufo bufo) to common frogs (Rana temporaria). Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1213-6 pubmed
    ..syndromes, characterized by systemic haemorrhages, skin ulceration or a combination of these lesions, caused by ranavirus infection...
  18. Robert J, Gregory Chinchar V. "Ranaviruses: an emerging threat to ectothermic vertebrates" report of the First International Symposium on Ranaviruses, Minneapolis MN July 8, 2011. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:259-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The emerging threat of ranavirus infectious diseases to the global biodiversity of ectothermic vertebrates was addressed by 23 scientists from ..
  19. Pallister J, Goldie S, Coupar B, Shiell B, Michalski W, Siddon N, et al. Bohle iridovirus as a vector for heterologous gene expression. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:419-23 pubmed
    ..gene, the viral homologue of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF-2alpha), in Bohle iridovirus (BIV, genus Ranavirus)...
  20. Robert J, Abramowitz L, Gantress J, Morales H. Xenopus laevis: a possible vector of Ranavirus infection?. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:645-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FV3 can become quiescent in resistant species such as Xenopus, thereby making these species potential viral reservoirs...
  21. Hoverman J, Gray M, Miller D, Haislip N. Widespread occurrence of ranavirus in pond-breeding amphibian populations. Ecohealth. 2012;9:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..g., cattle access to wetlands) and environmental stressors (e.g., lower temperatures) may contribute to ranavirus emergence...
  22. Majji S, Thodima V, Sample R, Whitley D, Deng Y, Mao J, et al. Transcriptome analysis of Frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. Virology. 2009;391:293-303 pubmed publisher
    Frog virus 3 is the best characterized species within the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae...
  23. Docherty D, Meteyer C, Wang J, Mao J, Case S, Chinchar V. Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:556-66 pubmed
    ..The spotted salamander isolate was similar to frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, while the tiger salamander isolates were not...
  24. Xu K, Zhu D, Wei Y, Schloegel L, Chen X, Wang X. Broad distribution of Ranavirus in free-ranging Rana dybowskii in Heilongjiang, China. Ecohealth. 2010;7:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..a high degree of homology with several members of the Iridoviridae, mostly with those belonging to the genus Ranavirus. The results indicate that ranaviruses are broadly distributed throughout Heilongjiang Province and could have ..
  25. Brunner J, Richards K, Collins J. Dose and host characteristics influence virulence of ranavirus infections. Oecologia. 2005;144:399-406 pubmed
    ..tigrinum) to test how the size of inoculum and host genetic factors influence the dynamics and outcome of ranavirus infections...
  26. Miller D, Rajeev S, Brookins M, Cook J, Whittington L, Baldwin C. Concurrent infection with ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and Aeromonas in a captive anuran colony. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:445-9 pubmed
    ..Real-time polymerase chain reaction yielded positive results for both Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Bacterial culture of internal organs yielded Aeromonas hydrophila...
  27. Glenney G, Julian J, Quartz W. Preliminary amphibian health survey in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:102-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing revealed the resulting product to be identical to frog virus 3, a ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae...
  28. Storfer A, Alfaro M, Ridenhour B, Jancovich J, Mech S, Parris M, et al. Phylogenetic concordance analysis shows an emerging pathogen is novel and endemic. Ecol Lett. 2007;10:1075-83 pubmed
    ..a unique analysis of intraspecific host-pathogen phylogenetic concordance of tiger salamanders and an emerging Ranavirus throughout Western North America...
  29. Johnson A, Pessier A, Wellehan J, Childress A, Norton T, Stedman N, et al. Ranavirus infection of free-ranging and captive box turtles and tortoises in the United States. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:851-63 pubmed
    Iridoviruses of the genus Ranavirus are well known for causing mass mortality events of fish and amphibians with sporadic reports of infection in reptiles...
  30. Bayley A, Hill B, Feist S. Susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to a panel of ranavirus isolates from fish and amphibian hosts. Dis Aquat Organ. 2013;103:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook bath infection trials to assess the susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to 9 ranavirus isolates comprising doctor fish virus (DFV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), epizootic haematopoietic necrosis ..
  31. Geng Y, Wang K, Zhou Z, Li C, Wang J, He M, et al. First report of a ranavirus associated with morbidity and mortality in farmed Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus). J Comp Pathol. 2011;145:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the six specimens tested, all were positive for ranavirus major capsid protein (MCP) gene...
  32. Gray M, Miller D, Schmutzer A, Baldwin C. Frog virus 3 prevalence in tadpole populations inhabiting cattle-access and non-access wetlands in Tennessee, USA. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;77:97-103 pubmed
    ..Cattle use of wetlands may stress resident tadpole populations by reducing water quality. We isolated a Ranavirus from green frog Rana clamitans (n = 80) and American bullfrog R...
  33. Pearman P, Garner T, Straub M, Greber U. Response of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei) to a Ranavirus, frog virus 3: a model for viral emergence in naïve populations. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:660-9 pubmed
    b>Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) is a genus of pathogens of poikilotherms, and some ranaviruses may play a role in widespread mortality of amphibians...
  34. Tan W, Barkman T, Gregory Chinchar V, Essani K. Comparative genomic analyses of frog virus 3, type species of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae). Virology. 2004;323:70-84 pubmed
    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species member of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae)...
  35. Maniero G, Morales H, Gantress J, Robert J. Generation of a long-lasting, protective, and neutralizing antibody response to the ranavirus FV3 by the frog Xenopus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2006;30:649-57 pubmed
    ..It has been previously shown that following a secondary infection with the ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3), adult Xenopus more rapidly clear FV3 and generate specific anti-FV3 IgY antibodies...
  36. Forson D, Storfer A. Atrazine increases ranavirus susceptibility in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Ecol Appl. 2006;16:2325-32 pubmed
  37. Schock D, Ruthig G, Collins J, Kutz S, Carrière S, Gau R, et al. Amphibian chytrid fungus and ranaviruses in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;92:231-40 pubmed publisher
  38. Jancovich J, Mao J, Chinchar V, Wyatt C, Case S, Kumar S, et al. Genomic sequence of a ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) associated with salamander mortalities in North America. Virology. 2003;316:90-103 pubmed
    ..Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) and a closely related strain, Regina ranavirus (RRV), are implicated in salamander die-offs in Arizona and Canada, respectively...
  39. Kim Y, Ke F, Lei X, Zhu R, Zhang Q. Viral envelope protein 53R gene highly specific silencing and iridovirus resistance in fish Cells by AmiRNA. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10308 pubmed publisher
  40. Harp E, Petranka J. Ranavirus in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica): potential sources of transmission within and between ponds. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:307-18 pubmed
    Members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) can cause catastrophic mortality of pond-breeding amphibians and are associated with an emerging infectious disease that may be contributing to amphibian declines...
  41. Lesbarreres D, Balseiro A, Brunner J, Chinchar V, Duffus A, Kerby J, et al. Ranavirus: past, present and future. Biol Lett. 2012;8:481-3 pubmed publisher
    ..While historically overlooked, a group of iridoviruses in the genus Ranavirus has been responsible for die-offs in captive and wild amphibian, reptile and fish populations around the globe ..
  42. Morales H, Robert J. Characterization of primary and memory CD8 T-cell responses against ranavirus (FV3) in Xenopus laevis. J Virol. 2007;81:2240-8 pubmed
    ..We used the frog Xenopus laevis as a model to evaluate adaptive immune responses to the ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3)...
  43. Cullen B, Owens L. Experimental challenge and clinical cases of Bohle iridovirus (BIV) in native Australian anurans. Dis Aquat Organ. 2002;49:83-92 pubmed
    ..PCR and dot blot was more sensitive than viral isolation. PCR could detect BIV in amphibians long after BIV challenge, and in amphibians which appeared healthy. Ranaviruses could be having an impact on Australian herpetofauna...
  44. Majji S, LaPatra S, Long S, Sample R, Bryan L, Sinning A, et al. Rana catesbeiana virus Z (RCV-Z): a novel pathogenic ranavirus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;73:1-11 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that RCV-Z may represent a novel species of ranavirus capable of infecting frogs and that possession of a viral eIF-2alpha homolog (vIF-2alpha) correlates with ..
  45. Huang X, Huang Y, Yuan X, Zhang Q. Electron microscopic examination of the viromatrix of Rana grylio virus in a fish cell line. J Virol Methods. 2006;133:117-23 pubmed
    Rana grylio virus (RGV), a Ranavirus belonging to the family Iridoviridae, assembles in the viromatrix which is a factory for viral genome replication and particle assembly...
  46. Gray M, Miller D, Hoverman J. Reliability of non-lethal surveillance methods for detecting ranavirus infection. Dis Aquat Organ. 2012;99:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used to detect ranavirus infection in amphibian hosts, but the test results may vary between tissue samples obtained by lethal and non-..
  47. Torrence S, Green D, Benson C, Ip H, Smith L, McMurry S. A new ranavirus isolated from Pseudacris clarkii tadpoles in playa wetlands in the southern High Plains, Texas. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we describe a novel ranavirus isolate as well as the first recorded occurrence of ranavirus in the southern High Plains of Texas and in ..
  48. Whitley D, Yu K, Sample R, Sinning A, Henegar J, Norcross E, et al. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro. Virology. 2010;405:448-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation...
  49. Chinchar V, Bryan L, Silphadaung U, Noga E, Wade D, Rollins Smith L. Inactivation of viruses infecting ectothermic animals by amphibian and piscine antimicrobial peptides. Virology. 2004;323:268-75 pubmed
    ..These results extend our previous findings and strongly suggest that various amphibian and piscine AMPs may play important roles in protecting fish and amphibians from pathogenic viruses...
  50. Hoverman J, Gray M, Miller D. Anuran susceptibilities to ranaviruses: role of species identity, exposure route, and a novel virus isolate. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;89:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..ranaculture facilities, we recommend that all nations adopt the protocol set forth by the World Organization for Animal Health for testing and certifying that amphibians that are commercially shipped are negative for ranavirus infection.
  51. Chinchar V, Bryan L, Wang J, Long S, Chinchar G. Induction of apoptosis in frog virus 3-infected cells. Virology. 2003;306:303-12 pubmed
    ..However, it remains to be determined if virion attachment to target cells is sufficient to induce cell death, or if apoptosis is triggered directly or indirectly by one or more virion-associated proteins...
  52. Miller D, Gray M, Storfer A. Ecopathology of ranaviruses infecting amphibians. Viruses. 2011;3:2351-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear...
  53. Teacher A, Garner T, Nichols R. Evidence for directional selection at a novel major histocompatibility class I marker in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria) exposed to a viral pathogen (Ranavirus). PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4616 pubmed publisher
    ..We use this locus to compare wild populations of common frogs that have been infected with a viral pathogen (Ranavirus) with those that have no history of infection...
  54. Greer A, Berrill M, Wilson P. Five amphibian mortality events associated with ranavirus infection in south central Ontario, Canada. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;67:9-14 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrated that the probable cause of this disease was a ranavirus. Affected amphibians were found to exhibit necrosis within the hematopoietic cells...
  55. Driskell E, Miller D, Swist S, Gyimesi Z. PCR detection of ranavirus in adult anurans from the Louisville Zoological Garden. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:559-63 pubmed
    ..this study, 16 captive frogs and toads from the Louisville Zoological Garden were examined for the presence of ranavirus; this group included 14 Cope's grey tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis), an American toad (Bufo americanus), and a ..
  56. Robert J, Morales H, Buck W, Cohen N, Marr S, Gantress J. Adaptive immunity and histopathology in frog virus 3-infected Xenopus. Virology. 2005;332:667-75 pubmed
    ..to evaluate the contribution of adaptive cellular immunity in amphibian host susceptibility to the emerging ranavirus FV3...
  57. Chinchar V, Yu K, Jancovich J. The molecular biology of frog virus 3 and other iridoviruses infecting cold-blooded vertebrates. Viruses. 2011;3:1959-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease...
  58. Xie J, Lu L, Deng M, Weng S, Zhu J, Wu Y, et al. Inhibition of reporter gene and Iridovirus-tiger frog virus in fish cell by RNA interference. Virology. 2005;338:43-52 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the siRNA method suppressed TFV efficiently in fish cells, providing a potential approach to the therapy of aquaculture viral diseases...
  59. Huang X, Huang Y, Ouyang Z, Cai J, Yan Y, Qin Q. Roles of stress-activated protein kinases in the replication of Singapore grouper iridovirus and regulation of the inflammatory responses in grouper cells. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1292-301 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that the JNK pathway is important for SGIV replication and modulates the inflammatory responses during virus infection...
  60. St Amour V, Wong W, Garner T, Lesbarreres D. Anthropogenic influence on prevalence of 2 amphibian pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1175-6 pubmed publisher
  61. Jancovich J, Bremont M, Touchman J, Jacobs B. Evidence for multiple recent host species shifts among the Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae). J Virol. 2010;84:2636-47 pubmed publisher
    Members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) have been recognized as major viral pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates. Ranaviruses have been associated with amphibians, fish, and reptiles...
  62. Wang Q, Luo Y, Xie J, Dong C, Weng S, Ai H, et al. Identification of two novel membrane proteins from the Tiger frog virus (TFV). Virus Res. 2008;136:35-42 pubmed publisher
    The Tiger frog virus (TFV) belongs to the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, and its genome was completely sequenced in 2002...
  63. Rojas S, Richards K, Jancovich J, Davidson E. Influence of temperature on Ranavirus infection in larval salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;63:95-100 pubmed
    ..These results may help explain periodic viral epizootics in field populations of A. tigrinum where water temperatures fluctuate widely...
  64. Schock D, Bollinger T, Collins J. Mortality rates differ among amphibian populations exposed to three strains of a lethal ranavirus. Ecohealth. 2009;6:438-48 pubmed publisher
    ..examined the outcomes of novel combinations of host populations and pathogen strains using the amphibian ranavirus Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) and barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium, formerly considered part of ..
  65. Pasmans F, Blahak S, Martel A, Pantchev N, Zwart P. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in imported red tailed knobby newts (Tylototriton kweichowensis): a case report. Vet J. 2008;176:257-9 pubmed
    ..In addition to massive infection with Rhabdias tokyoensis, Ranavirus was isolated from three dead newts examined virologically and the gene coding for the major capsid protein of ..
  66. Chen G, Ward B, Yu K, Chinchar V, Robert J. Improved knockout methodology reveals that frog virus 3 mutants lacking either the 18K immediate-early gene or the truncated vIF-2alpha gene are defective for replication and growth in vivo. J Virol. 2011;85:11131-8 pubmed publisher
    To better assess the roles of frog virus 3 (FV3; genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae) genes in virulence and immune evasion, we have developed a reliable and efficient method to systematically knock out (KO) putative virulence genes by ..
  67. Kik M, Martel A, Sluijs A, Pasmans F, Wohlsein P, Grone A, et al. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in wild amphibians, the Netherlands, 2010: a first report. Vet J. 2011;190:284-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Microscopically, multiple organs presented cells with multifocal intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, in which ranavirus-like particles were demonstrated ultrastructurally. All specimens examined tested positive for ranavirus by PCR...
  68. Lei X, Ou T, Zhu R, Zhang Q. Sequencing and analysis of the complete genome of Rana grylio virus (RGV). Arch Virol. 2012;157:1559-64 pubmed publisher
    ..26 core-gene-encoded proteins, and the result showed high bootstrap support for RGV being a member of the genus Ranavirus and that iridoviruses of other genera also clustered closely...
  69. Picco A, Brunner J, Collins J. Susceptibility of the endangered California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense, to ranavirus infection. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:286-90 pubmed
  70. Holopainen R, Honkanen J, Jensen B, Ariel E, Tapiovaara H. Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples. J Virol Methods. 2011;171:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish ..
  71. Zhao Z, Ke F, Gui J, Zhang Q. Characterization of an early gene encoding for dUTPase in Rana grylio virus. Virus Res. 2007;123:128-37 pubmed
    ..Moreover, RGV DUT overexpression was shown that there was no effect on RGV replication by viral replication kinetics assay...
  72. Bryan L, Baldwin C, Gray M, Miller D. Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;84:89-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Ranavirus can cause disease in reptiles and amphibians. Because survival time outside of a host remains uncertain, equipment must be disinfected to prevent transmission of ranaviruses...
  73. Schloegel L, Daszak P, Cunningham A, Speare R, Hill B. Two amphibian diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, are now globally notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE): an assessment. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;92:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This listing made chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease internationally notifiable diseases and thus subject to OIE standards, which aim to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in live amphibians and their products...
  74. Picco A, Collins J. Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution. Conserv Biol. 2008;22:1582-9 pubmed publisher
    ..States for both ranaviruses and Bd with polymerase chain reaction and used oral reports from bait shops and ranavirus DNA sequences from infected bait salamanders to determine how these animals and their pathogens are moved ..
  75. Jancovich J, Davids E, Seiler A, Jacobs B, Collins J. Transmission of the Ambystoma tigrinum virus to alternative hosts. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;46:159-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ATV may only infect urodeles and that fish and frogs may not be susceptible to ATV infection...
  76. Chen Z, Gui J, Gao X, Pei C, Hong Y, Zhang Q. Genome architecture changes and major gene variations of Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV). Vet Res. 2013;44:101 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we isolated and identified a novel ranavirus from the Chinese giant salamanders that exhibited systemic hemorrhage and swelling syndrome with high death rate ..
  77. He L, Gao X, Ke F, Zhang Q. A conditional lethal mutation in Rana grylio virus ORF 53R resulted in a marked reduction in virion formation. Virus Res. 2013;177:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the current data suggested that the lac repressor/operator system could regulate gene expression in the recombinant iridovirus. Our study was thought to be the first report of the system in aquatic virus...
  78. Chinchar V. Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae): emerging cold-blooded killers. Arch Virol. 2002;147:447-70 pubmed
    ..and endangered salamanders has challenged this benign view and have implicated several members of the genus Ranavirus as pathogens. This review explores three facets of ranavirus biology...
  79. Jensen B, Ersbøll A, Ariel E. Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to a panel of Ranavirus isolates. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;83:169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..ranaviruses to a wild European freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius fry were challenged with the following Ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus ..