iridoviridae

Summary

Summary: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.

Top Publications

  1. Chinchar V, Hyatt A, Miyazaki T, Williams T. Family Iridoviridae: poor viral relations no longer. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;328:123-70 pubmed
    Members of the family Iridoviridae infect a diverse array of invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts and are currently viewed as emerging pathogens of fish and amphibians...
  2. Tsai C, Ting J, Wu M, Wu M, Guo I, Chang C. Complete genome sequence of the grouper iridovirus and comparison of genomic organization with those of other iridoviruses. J Virol. 2005;79:2010-23 pubmed
    ..These distinctive features of GIV further extend our understanding of molecular events taking place between ranavirus and its hosts and the iridovirus evolution...
  3. Essbauer S, Fischer U, Bergmann S, Ahne W. Investigations on the ORF 167L of lymphocystis disease virus (Iridoviridae). Virus Genes. 2004;28:19-39 pubmed
    The predicted open reading frame 167L (ORF 167L) of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV, Iridoviridae ) isolated from plaice, dab and flounder was investigated...
  4. Simpson A, Nandhagopal N, Van Etten J, Rossmann M. Structural analyses of Phycodnaviridae and Iridoviridae. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:2053-9 pubmed
    The Phycodnaviridae, Iridoviridae and related viruses, with diameters of 1500-2000 A, are formed from large trigonal arrays of hexagonally close-packed capsomers forming the faces of icosahedra [Yan et al. (2000), Nature Struct. Biol...
  5. Xu X, Lu J, Lu Q, Zhong H, Weng S, He J. Characterization of a membrane protein (VP001L) from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV). Virus Genes. 2008;36:157-67 pubmed publisher
    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of megalocytivirus, Iridoviridae. A novel membrane protein corresponding to the first open reading frame (ORF001L) of ISKNV genome was identified...
  6. Sun W, Huang Y, Zhao Z, Gui J, Zhang Q. Characterization of the Rana grylio virus 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and its novel role in suppressing virus-induced cytopathic effect. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:44-50 pubmed
    ..Here, a 3beta-HSD gene homolog was cloned from Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of family Iridoviridae. RGV 3beta-HSD gene has 1068bp, encoding a 355aa predicted protein...
  7. Nakajima K, Kunita J. [Red sea bream iridoviral disease]. Uirusu. 2005;55:115-25 pubmed
    ..The causative agent was a large, icosahedral, cytoplasmic DNA virus classified as a member of the family Iridoviridae and was designated as red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV)...
  8. Gibson Kueh S, Ngoh Lim G, Netto P, Kurita J, Nakajima K, Ng M. A systemic iridoviral disease in mullet, Mugil cephalus L., and tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Forsskal: a first report and study. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:693-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggested that the mullet and tiger grouper iridovirus bears genetic and antigenic similarities to RSIV...
  9. Yutin N, Koonin E. Evolution of DNA ligases of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses of eukaryotes: a case of hidden complexity. Biol Direct. 2009;4:51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the details of the evolution of these genes that bear on the complexity of the putative ancestral NCLDV and on the evolutionary relationships between viruses and their hosts are not well understood...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Xu X, Lu Q, Wang R, Lin T, Weng S, Lu L, et al. Identification of the VP92R gene from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus. Virus Genes. 2010;41:210-7 pubmed publisher
    Megalocytiviruses, which belong to the family Iridoviridae, are among the most harmful viruses to cultured fishes. Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the Megalocytivirus genus...
  2. Xu X, Zhang L, Weng S, Huang Z, Lu J, Lan D, et al. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection. Virology. 2008;376:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron microscope analyses showed that the ISKNV particle was present in the infected tissues. The establishment of zebrafish infection model of ISKNV can offer a valuable tool for studying the interactions between ISKNV and its host...
  3. Dong C, Weng S, Shi X, Xu X, Shi N, He J. Development of a mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi fry cell line suitable for the study of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV). Virus Res. 2008;135:273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is a typical species of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae. However, until recently, no suitable piscine cell line is stably susceptible to ISKNV...
  4. Yutin N, Wolf Y, Raoult D, Koonin E. Eukaryotic large nucleo-cytoplasmic DNA viruses: clusters of orthologous genes and reconstruction of viral genome evolution. Virol J. 2009;6:223 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhang Q, Ruan H, Li Z, Yuan X, Gui J. Infection and propagation of lymphocystis virus isolated from the cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in grass carp cell lines. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;57:27-34 pubmed
    ..A possible process by which the CPEs are controlled is suggested...
  6. Essbauer S, Ahne W. The epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (Iridoviridae) induces apoptosis in vitro. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:25-30 pubmed
    ..g. titres were reduced 1000-fold in the presence of 100 and 200 mM 2-aminopurine. Apoptosis takes place during iridovirus infection in vitro and it seems to involve the activation of protein kinases...
  7. Delhon G, Tulman E, Afonso C, Lu Z, Becnel J, Moser B, et al. Genome of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (mosquito iridescent virus). J Virol. 2006;80:8439-49 pubmed
    ..IIV-3 genes, 27 had homologues in all currently sequenced IVs, suggesting a genetic core for the family Iridoviridae. Fifty-two IIV-3 genes, including those encoding DNA topoisomerase II, NAD-dependent DNA ligase, SF1 helicase, ..
  8. Wellehan J, Strik N, Stacy B, Childress A, Jacobson E, Telford S. Characterization of an erythrocytic virus in the family Iridoviridae from a peninsula ribbon snake (Thamnophis sauritus sackenii). Vet Microbiol. 2008;131:115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..or pleomorphic, homogenous inclusions and enveloped particles morphologically consistent with a member of the Iridoviridae. Histopathology of the animal revealed necrotizing hepatitis consistent with sepsis...
  9. Zhao Z, Shi Y, Ke F, Wei S, Gui J, Zhang Q. Constitutive expression of thymidylate synthase from LCDV-C induces a transformed phenotype in fish cells. Virology. 2008;372:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, it is the first report on viral TS sequences associated with transforming activity...
  10. Do J, Cha S, Kim J, An E, Park M, Kim J, et al. Sequence variation in the gene encoding the major capsid protein of Korean fish iridoviruses. Arch Virol. 2005;150:351-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a diversity of iridoviruses exist in Korea and that a new variant strain has emerged...
  11. Fu X, Li N, Liu L, Lin Q, Wang F, Lai Y, et al. Genotype and host range analysis of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV). Virus Genes. 2011;42:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine ISKNV isolates belonged to genotype I or genotype II, suggesting mandarin fish may be a mixing vessel host for megalocytivirus...
  12. Gantress J, Maniero G, Cohen N, Robert J. Development and characterization of a model system to study amphibian immune responses to iridoviruses. Virology. 2003;311:254-62 pubmed
    The recent realization that viruses within the family Iridoviridae may contribute to the worldwide decline in amphibians makes it urgent to understand amphibian antiviral immune defenses...
  13. Wang Y, Lu L, Weng S, Huang J, Chan S, He J. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of a marine fish infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus-like (ISKNV-like) virus. Arch Virol. 2007;152:763-73 pubmed
    ..The results of this study can contribute to the prediction and prevention of ISKNV disease outbreaks...
  14. Kim Y, Ke F, Lei X, Zhu R, Zhang Q. Viral envelope protein 53R gene highly specific silencing and iridovirus resistance in fish Cells by AmiRNA. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10308 pubmed publisher
    Envelope protein 53R was identified from frog Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of the family Iridoviridae, and it plays an important role in the virus assembly...
  15. Do J, Cha S, Kim J, An E, Lee N, Choi H, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein gene of iridovirus isolates from cultured flounders Paralichthys olivaceus in Korea. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;64:193-200 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on the isolation and phylogenetic analysis of the iridovirus of unknown genus from flounders during epizootics...
  16. Weinmann N, Papp T, Pedro Alves de Matos A, Teifke J, Marschang R. Experimental infection of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) with an invertebrate iridovirus isolated from a high-casqued chameleon (Chamaeleo hoehnelii). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:674-9 pubmed
    ..Virus was re-isolated from several fat-body samples. In some fat bodies of infected crickets, massive arrays of viruses could be detected by EM. These findings support the hypothesis that IIV from insects are able to infect reptiles...
  17. Just F, Essbauer S, Ahne W, Blahak S. Occurrence of an invertebrate iridescent-like virus (Iridoviridae) in reptiles. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001;48:685-94 pubmed
  18. Tan W, Barkman T, Gregory Chinchar V, Essani K. Comparative genomic analyses of frog virus 3, type species of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae). Virology. 2004;323:70-84 pubmed
    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species member of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae)...
  19. Willis D, Granoff A. trans activation of an immediate-early frog virus 3 promoter by a virion protein. J Virol. 1985;56:495-501 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that a virion protein alters either the DNA template or the host polymerase to allow transcription from immediate-early FV3 promoters...
  20. Eaton H, Metcalf J, Penny E, Tcherepanov V, Upton C, Brunetti C. Comparative genomic analysis of the family Iridoviridae: re-annotating and defining the core set of iridovirus genes. Virol J. 2007;4:11 pubmed
    Members of the family Iridoviridae can cause severe diseases resulting in significant economic and environmental losses. Very little is known about how iridoviruses cause disease in their host...
  21. Wang C, Chao S, Ku C, Wen C, Shih H. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the major capsid protein gene of megalocytiviruses isolated in Taiwan. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:543-50 pubmed publisher
    Viruses belonging to the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae are one of the major agents causing mass mortalities in marine and freshwater fish in Asian countries...
  22. Guo C, Yang X, Wu Y, Yang L, Mi S, Liu Z, et al. Involvement of caveolin-1 in the Jak-Stat signaling pathway and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus infection in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). Mol Immunol. 2011;48:992-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings reported here further our understanding of the function of caveolin-1 in the complex signal transduction network in fish immune systems and in the cellular entry mechanism of iridoviruses...
  23. Guo C, Chen W, Yuan L, Yang L, Weng S, Yu X, et al. The viral ankyrin repeat protein (ORF124L) from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus attenuates nuclear factor-?B activation and interacts with I?B kinase ?. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is a typical member of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae and is a causative agent of epizootics in fish...
  24. Xie J, Zhu J, Yang H, Weng S, Chen C, Chen H, et al. RING finger proteins of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) function as ubiquitin ligase enzymes. Virus Res. 2007;123:170-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, zinc ion was required as an enhancer for ISKNV RFP to exert its E3 function. Investigation of RFPs of ISKNV helps to understand their functions in the infection process and in the virus-host interaction...
  25. Shi C, Jia K, Yang B, Huang J. Complete genome sequence of a Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae) associated with turbot mortality in China. Virol J. 2010;7:159 pubmed publisher
    ..We here sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of TRBIV, which was identified in Shandong province, China...
  26. Zhang Q, Xiao F, Xie J, Li Z, Gui J. Complete genome sequence of lymphocystis disease virus isolated from China. J Virol. 2004;78:6982-94 pubmed
  27. Dong C, Weng S, Luo Y, Huang M, Ai H, Yin Z, et al. A new marine megalocytivirus from spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, and its pathogenicity to freshwater mandarinfish, Siniperca chuatsi. Virus Res. 2010;147:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results presented here provide new insight into the pathology of megalocytivirus infection...
  28. Jancovich J, Davidson E, Parameswaran N, Mao J, Chinchar V, Collins J, et al. Evidence for emergence of an amphibian iridoviral disease because of human-enhanced spread. Mol Ecol. 2005;14:213-24 pubmed
    ..Human enhancement of viral movement is a mechanism consistent with these results. These findings suggest North American salamander ranaviruses cause emerging disease, as evidenced by apparent recent spread over a broad geographical area...
  29. He J, Lu L, Deng M, He H, Weng S, Wang X, et al. Sequence analysis of the complete genome of an iridovirus isolated from the tiger frog. Virology. 2002;292:185-97 pubmed
    ..The results from this study indicated that TFV may belong to the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae.
  30. Chen Y, Chen N, Qin X, Mi S, He J, Lin Y, et al. Tiger frog virus ORF080L protein interacts with LITAF and impairs EGF-induced EGFR degradation. Virus Res. 2016;217:133-42 pubmed publisher
    Tiger frog virus (TFV) belongs to the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae, and causes severe mortality in commercial cultures in China...
  31. Ke F, Gui J, Chen Z, Li T, Lei C, Wang Z, et al. Divergent transcriptomic responses underlying the ranaviruses-amphibian interaction processes on interspecies infection of Chinese giant salamander. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:211 pubmed publisher
    Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae, nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses) have been reported as promiscuous pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates. Rana grylio virus (RGV, a ranavirus), from diseased frog Rana grylio with a genome of 105...
  32. Vávra J, Bílý T, Nebesářová J, Federici B. Occurrence, pathology, and ultrastructure of iridovirus and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses in daphnids from the Czech Republic. J Invertebr Pathol. 2016;140:35-38 pubmed publisher
    Iridescent (IVs, family Iridoviridae, genus Iridovirus) and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs; family Reoviridae, genus Cypovirus) are well known in insects, with thirteen IV species recognized from various orders, and sixteen CPV ..
  33. Jakob N, Darai G. Molecular anatomy of Chilo iridescent virus genome and the evolution of viral genes. Virus Genes. 2002;25:299-316 pubmed
    ..virus (CIV) or Insect iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) is the type species of the genus iridovirus, a member of the Iridoviridae family...
  34. Song J, Kitamura S, Jung S, Miyadai T, Tanaka S, Fukuda Y, et al. Genetic variation and geographic distribution of megalocytiviruses. J Microbiol. 2008;46:29-33 pubmed
    Viruses belonging to the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae have caused mass mortalities in marine and freshwater fish in Asian countries...
  35. Xu X, Yan M, Wang R, Lin T, Tang J, Li C, et al. VP08R from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus is a novel component of the virus-mock basement membrane. J Virol. 2014;88:5491-501 pubmed publisher
    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus, family Iridoviridae, brings great harm to fish farming...
  36. Hu G, Cong R, Fan T, Mei X. Induction of apoptosis in a flounder gill cell line by lymphocystis disease virus infection. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:657-62 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that LCDV is capable of inducing apoptosis in vitro, which is different from the result of LCDV infection in vivo, and consequently suggest an intricate LCDV-host interaction. ..
  37. Boonthai T, Loch T, Yamashita C, Smith G, Winters A, Kiupel M, et al. Laboratory investigation into the role of largemouth bass virus (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) in smallmouth bass mortality events in Pennsylvania rivers. BMC Vet Res. 2018;14:62 pubmed publisher
    ..of laboratory experiments were performed to determine the potential role of largemouth bass virus (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) in causing these events...
  38. Sheng X, Song J, Zhan W. Development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strip for detection of lymphocystis disease virus in fish. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:737-44 pubmed publisher
  39. Aron M, Allen A, Kromer M, Gálvez H, Vigil B, Jancovich J. Identification of essential and non-essential genes in Ambystoma tigrinum virus. Virus Res. 2016;217:107-14 pubmed publisher
    Members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) are large double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses that are found world-wide infecting fish, amphibian and reptile ectothermic hosts...
  40. Kim J, Kim E, Kim D, Shim S, Park C. Molecular identification and expression analysis of the CC chemokine gene in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and the biological activity of the recombinant protein. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:892-901 pubmed publisher
  41. Yan X, Wu Z, Jian J, Lu Y, Sun X. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the lymphocystis virus and its evolutionary relationship with its hosts. Virus Genes. 2011;43:358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In-depth studies of the genetic variation in LCDVs can enhance our understanding of the mechanism of LCDV infection, which may provide important insights into the prevention and treatment of lymphocystis disease. ..
  42. Valverde E, Borrego J, Castro D. Evaluation of an integrated cell culture RT-PCR assay to detect and quantify infectious lymphocystis disease virus. J Virol Methods. 2016;238:62-65 pubmed publisher
    The lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), a member of the Iridoviridae family, infects a wide range of fish species including gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), the most important species cultured in the Mediterranean...
  43. Rollins Smith L. Amphibian immunity-stress, disease, and climate change. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;66:111-119 pubmed publisher
    ..Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) and ranavirus diseases due to viruses of the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae. Other pathogens and parasites also afflict amphibians, but here I will limit myself to a review of recent ..
  44. Kim T, Lee J. Sequence variation in the genes encoding the major capsid protein, the ATPase, and the RNA polymerase 2 (domain 6) of lymphocystis disease virus isolated from Schlegel's black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii Hilgendorf. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:501-4 pubmed
  45. Tian J, Yu J. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles as candidate DNA vaccine carrier for oral immunization of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against lymphocystis disease virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The data in this study suggested that PLGA nanoparticles were promising carriers for plasmid DNA vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by oral approach. ..
  46. Perez S, Rodriguez S. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain. Microbiologia. 1997;13:149-60 pubmed
    ..in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture...
  47. Kwon S, Nishizawa T, Park J, Oh M. Shift of phylogenic position in megalocytiviruses based on three different genes. J Microbiol. 2011;49:981-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study will be conducted to compare the viral antigenicity and pathogenicity between the two isolates showing the shift of phylogenic position and the other isolates clustered within genogroup I. ..
  48. Muttis E, Micieli M, Urrutia M, García J. Transmission of a pathogenic virus (Iridoviridae) of Culex pipiens larvae mediated by the mermithid Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda). J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;129:40-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This explains the correspondence between MIV infection and the factors that affect the parasitism of S. spiculatus in C. pipiens larvae. ..
  49. Zhang W, Yang S, Shan T, Hou R, Liu Z, Li W, et al. Virome comparisons in wild-diseased and healthy captive giant pandas. Microbiome. 2017;5:90 pubmed publisher
    ..the diet of giant pandas, numerous insect virus sequences related to the families Iflaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Iridoviridae, Baculoviridae, Polydnaviridae, and subfamily Densovirinae and plant viruses sequences related to the families ..
  50. Zhou Z, Chiu W. Determination of icosahedral virus structures by electron cryomicroscopy at subnanometer resolution. Adv Protein Chem. 2003;64:93-124 pubmed
  51. Kasthuri S, Wan Q, Umasuthan N, Bathige S, Lim B, Jung H, et al. Genomic characterization, expression analysis, and antimicrobial function of a glyrichin homologue from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;35:1406-15 pubmed publisher
  52. Pontejo S, Sanchez C, Martin R, Mulero V, Alcami A, Alejo A. An orphan viral TNF receptor superfamily member identified in lymphocystis disease virus. Virol J. 2013;10:188 pubmed publisher
    ..disease virus (LCDV) is a large icosahedral dsDNA-containing virus of the Lymphocystivirus genus within the Iridoviridae family that can cause disease in more than 140 marine and freshwater fish species...
  53. Jia K, Liu Z, Guo C, Xia Q, Mi S, Li X, et al. The potential role of microfilaments in host cells for infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus infection. Virol J. 2013;10:77 pubmed publisher
    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) belongs to the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. Megalocytivirus causes severe economic losses to tropical freshwater and marine culture industry in Asian countries and ..
  54. Sheng X, Wang M, Xing J, Zhan W. Monoclonal antibodies against 27.8 kDa protein receptor efficiently block lymphocystis disease virus infection in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus gill cells. Dis Aquat Organ. 2012;100:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..8 kDa. These results strongly supported the possibility that the 27.8 kDa protein is the putative receptor specific for LCDV infection of FG cells in flounder...
  55. Hwang S, Kim J, Kim M, Kim D, Park C. First molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of a teleost CD200 (OX-2) glycoprotein from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..iniae. However, RSIV infection increased RbCD200 gene expression in whole kidney until 48 h. These results suggest that RbCD200 is differentially expressed in the spleen and whole kidney after infection with different pathogens...
  56. Wang L, Zhou Z, Guo C, Rao X, Xiao J, Weng S, et al. The alpha inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha) from the mandarin fish binds with p65 NF-kappaB. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:473-82 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that the NF-kappaB/IkappaBalpha pathway in mandarin fish may play a role in the immune response against ISKNV...
  57. Neal J, Eggleton M, Goodwin A. The effects of largemouth bass virus on a quality largemouth bass population in Arkansas. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:766-71 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that largemouth bass abundance and biomass in the reservoir remained very high despite mortalities attributed to a LMBV outbreak...
  58. Sarasquete C, Gonzalez de Canales M, Arellano J, Perez Prieto S, Garcia Rosado E, Borrego J. Histochemical study of lymphocystis disease in skin of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L. Histol Histopathol. 1998;13:37-45 pubmed
    ..These sugar residues (mannose and/or glucose), as well as N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and/or sialic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine were not detected in the hyaline capsule of the lymphocystis disease...
  59. Muller K, Tidona C, Darai G. Identification of a gene cluster within the genome of Chilo iridescent virus encoding enzymes involved in viral DNA replication and processing. Virus Genes. 1999;18:243-64 pubmed
    ..the DNA polymerase of lymphocystis disease virus lymphocystis disease virus 1 (LCDV-1), a member of the family Iridoviridae, indicating the close relatedness of the two viruses...
  60. Heppell J, Berthiaume L. Ultrastructure of lymphocystis disease virus (LDV) as compared to frog virus 3 (FV3) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV): effects of enzymatic digestions and detergent degradations. Arch Virol. 1992;125:215-26 pubmed
    ..as those of frog virus 3 (FV3) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV), two other well known viruses of the family Iridoviridae, although the great flexibility of its capsid as observed on negatively stained and shadow cast particles, and ..
  61. Pastor M, Laviada M, Sanchez Vizcaino J, Escribano J. Detection of African swine fever virus antibodies by immunoblotting assay. Can J Vet Res. 1989;53:105-7 pubmed
    ..The specificity and the pattern of the proteins induced by African swine fever virus that react with the antisera were determined in immunoblotting assay, IP30 being the most reactive protein...
  62. Ding W, Chen J, Shi Y, Lu X, Li M. Rapid and sensitive detection of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick. Arch Virol. 2010;155:385-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Wang N, Wang X, Yang C, Chen S. Molecular cloning, subcelluar location and expression profile of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;35:1200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The nuclear translocation of turbot STAT2 after Poly(I:C) treatment proved its transcription activity in TK cells. All these results suggested that STAT2 may be involved in the immune response in turbot as a transcription factor. ..
  64. Sriwanayos P, Francis Floyd R, Stidworthy M, Petty B, Kelley K, Waltzek T. Megalocytivirus infection in orbiculate batfish Platax orbicularis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2013;105:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of the major capsid protein gene sequence confirmed that the orbiculate batfish virus is a member of the family Iridoviridae and is identical to the only other megalocytivirus reported from a marine ornamental fish, the Banggai ..
  65. Zhang B, Zhang M, Sun B, Fang Y, Xiao Z, Sun L. Complete genome sequence and transcription profiles of the rock bream iridovirus RBIV-C1. Dis Aquat Organ. 2013;104:203-14 pubmed publisher
    The family Iridoviridae consists of 5 genera of double-stranded DNA viruses, including the genus Megalocytivirus, which contains species that are important fish pathogens...
  66. Zhang M, Long H, Sun L. A NK-lysin from Cynoglossus semilaevis enhances antimicrobial defense against bacterial and viral pathogens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2013;40:258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CsNKL1 possesses the novel capacities of immunomodulation and enhancing antimicrobial defense against pathogens of both bacterial and viral nature. ..
  67. Ahne W. Viruses of Chelonia. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1993;40:35-45 pubmed
    ..Especially herpesviruses seem to attack Chelonia and epizootics due to infections with these viruses were reported in several reptiles in collections. However, the etiological role of the agents detected is not well documented yet...
  68. Kim W, Oh M, Kim J, Kim D, Jeon C, Kim J. Detection of megalocytivirus from imported tropical ornamental fish, paradise fish Macropodus opercularis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;90:235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Paradise fish was added as a new host for megalocytivirus based on this study...
  69. Islam Z, Pestka J. LPS priming potentiates and prolongs proinflammatory cytokine response to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol in the mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;211:53-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, exposure to LPS rendered mice highly susceptible to DON induction of cytokine expression and this correlated with increased apoptosis in the thymus...
  70. Cano I, Alonso M, Garcia Rosado E, Saint Jean S, Castro D, Borrego J. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in asymptomatic cultured gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata, L.) using an immunoblot technique. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:137-41 pubmed
    ..The method described in this study shows higher sensitivity than classical detection techniques based on cell culture inoculation...
  71. Liu S, Hu G, Sun C, Zhang S. Anti-viral activity of galectin-1 from flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:1463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that flounder galectin-1 has an anti-viral activity, capable of reducing LCDV pathogenicity...
  72. Cano I, Ferro P, Alonso M, Bergmann S, Romer Oberdorfer A, Garcia Rosado E, et al. Development of molecular techniques for detection of lymphocystis disease virus in different marine fish species. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102:32-40 pubmed
    ..The development and evaluation of a protocol based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid hybridization techniques for the specific detection of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in several marine fish species...
  73. Imajoh M, Ikawa T, Oshima S. Characterization of a new fibroblast cell line from a tail fin of red sea bream, Pagrus major, and phylogenetic relationships of a recent RSIV isolate in Japan. Virus Res. 2007;126:45-52 pubmed
    ..Therefore, possibly recent epizootics of RSIVD in Japan do not originate directly from RSIV strain ehime-1. Taken together, this study confirmed that RSIV strain U-1 is more closely related to Korean RSIV isolates...