suid herpesvirus 1

Summary

Summary: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.

Top Publications

  1. Horvath S, Kis Z, Boldogkoi Z, Nogradi A, Toldi J. Oestrogen-dependent tracing in the rat CNS after pseudorabies virus infection. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;15:937-43 pubmed
    ..As far as we are aware, this is the first study to demonstrate that transneuronal PRV labelling depends on the effects of oestrogen on certain CNS structures and connections. ..
  2. Ch ng T, Spear P, Struyf F, Enquist L. Glycoprotein D-independent spread of pseudorabies virus infection in cultured peripheral nervous system neurons in a compartmented system. J Virol. 2007;81:10742-57 pubmed
    ..Neither of the host cell gD receptors (HVEM and nectin-1) is required in target primary fibroblasts for neuron-to-cell spread of HSV-1 or PRV infection. ..
  3. Pomeranz L, Reynolds A, Hengartner C. Molecular biology of pseudorabies virus: impact on neurovirology and veterinary medicine. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69:462-500 pubmed
    ..Sporadic reactivation from latency can transmit PRV to new hosts. The successful management of PRV disease has relied on vaccination, prevention, and testing...
  4. Brukman A, Enquist L. Suppression of the interferon-mediated innate immune response by pseudorabies virus. J Virol. 2006;80:6345-56 pubmed
    ..This ability to disarm the IFN-beta response offers an explanation for the uniform lethality of virulent PRV infection of nonnatural hosts...
  5. Blanchard Y, Le Meur N, Le Cunff M, Blanchard P, Léger J, Jestin A. Cellular gene expression survey of PseudoRabies Virus (PRV) infected Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK-293). Vet Res. 2006;37:705-23 pubmed
    ..It demonstrates global changes in the cell expression profile, and identifies the main biological processes that are altered during virus replication...
  6. Prorok J, Kovács P, Kristóf A, Nagy N, Tombácz D, Tóth J, et al. Herpesvirus-mediated delivery of a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca(2+) sensor to canine cardiomyocytes. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009;2009:361795 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrated that infection of cardiomyocytes with the virus did not affect the morphology, viability, and physiological attributes of cells. ..
  7. Boldogkoi Z, Balint K, Awatramani G, Balya D, Busskamp V, Viney T, et al. Genetically timed, activity-sensor and rainbow transsynaptic viral tools. Nat Methods. 2009;6:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally we used multiple-colored PRVs to differentiate and dissect the complex architecture of brain regions. ..
  8. Enquist L. Exploiting circuit-specific spread of pseudorabies virus in the central nervous system: insights to pathogenesis and circuit tracers. J Infect Dis. 2002;186 Suppl 2:S209-14 pubmed
    ..This report summarizes two lines of experiments directed to resolving this apparent paradox and introduces a new paradigm for tracing viruses...
  9. Ch ng T, Enquist L. Neuron-to-cell spread of pseudorabies virus in a compartmented neuronal culture system. J Virol. 2005;79:10875-89 pubmed
    ..We also provide ultrastructural evidence showing that capsids enclosed within vesicles can be found along the entire length of the axon during viral egress...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Luxton G, Lee J, Haverlock Moyns S, Schober J, Smith G. The pseudorabies virus VP1/2 tegument protein is required for intracellular capsid transport. J Virol. 2006;80:201-9 pubmed
    ..A second tegument protein that binds to VP1/2, UL37, was necessary for wild-type transport but was not essential for this process. Both proteins were also required for efficient nuclear egress of capsids to the cytoplasm. ..
  2. Favoreel H, Mettenleiter T, Nauwynck H. Copatching and lipid raft association of different viral glycoproteins expressed on the surfaces of pseudorabies virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2004;78:5279-87 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we hypothesize that efficient gE-mediated capping of antibody-antigen patches may require the lipid raft-associated signal transduction machinery. ..
  3. Luxton G, Haverlock S, Coller K, Antinone S, Pincetic A, Smith G. Targeting of herpesvirus capsid transport in axons is coupled to association with specific sets of tegument proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5832-7 pubmed
    ..These findings are compatible with a model of viral bidirectional transport in which tegument proteins direct capsid traffic to specific intracellular locations during the infectious cycle. ..
  4. Favoreel H, Van Minnebruggen G, Adriaensen D, Nauwynck H. Cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell extensions induced by the US3 kinase of an alphaherpesvirus are associated with enhanced spread. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8990-5 pubmed
  5. Nauwynck H, Glorieux S, Favoreel H, Pensaert M. Cell biological and molecular characteristics of pseudorabies virus infections in cell cultures and in pigs with emphasis on the respiratory tract. Vet Res. 2007;38:229-41 pubmed
    ..Finally, a short overview is given on the control of the disease and eradication of the virus by the combination of marker vaccines and discriminating ELISA...
  6. McCarthy K, Tank D, Enquist L. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000640 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural function seen in PRV-infected animals...
  7. Ekstrand M, Enquist L, Pomeranz L. The alpha-herpesviruses: molecular pathfinders in nervous system circuits. Trends Mol Med. 2008;14:134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..As questions and techniques evolve in the field of neuroscience, advances in PRV tracing will certainly follow...
  8. Kreier F, Fliers E, Voshol P, Van Eden C, Havekes L, Kalsbeek A, et al. Selective parasympathetic innervation of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat--functional implications. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1243-50 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for the (patho)physiology of fat distribution are discussed...
  9. Van Minnebruggen G, Favoreel H, Jacobs L, Nauwynck H. Pseudorabies virus US3 protein kinase mediates actin stress fiber breakdown. J Virol. 2003;77:9074-80 pubmed
    ..Further, by transfection assays, we showed that PRV US3 itself, in the absence of other viral proteins, is able to trigger actin stress fiber breakdown when it is localized in sufficient amounts in the nucleus...
  10. Granstedt A, Szpara M, Kuhn B, Wang S, Enquist L. Fluorescence-based monitoring of in vivo neural activity using a circuit-tracing pseudorabies virus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6923 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work establishes in vivo investigation of physiological neuronal circuit activity and subsequent effects of infection with single cell resolution...
  11. Fuchs W, Klupp B, Granzow H, Mettenleiter T. Essential function of the pseudorabies virus UL36 gene product is independent of its interaction with the UL37 protein. J Virol. 2004;78:11879-89 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, UL36 possesses an essential function during virus replication which is independent of its ability to bind the UL37 protein...
  12. Boldogkoi Z, Nogradi A. Gene and cancer therapy--pseudorabies virus: a novel research and therapeutic tool?. Curr Gene Ther. 2003;3:155-82 pubmed
    ..Finally, it addresses the issue of whether PRV, a nonhuman pathogen, could serve as a suitable research and therapeutic tool as concerns genetic and tumor therapy...
  13. Lin H, Chang Y, Wong M, Lin J, Chang T. Functional analysis of virion host shutoff protein of pseudorabies virus. Virology. 2004;324:412-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we have cloned the vhs gene of pseudorabies virus (TNL strain) and conducted functional analysis of the recombinant vhs protein in vitro as well as in vivo...
  14. Card J, Enquist L. Transneuronal circuit analysis with pseudorabies viruses. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2001;Chapter 1:Unit1.5 pubmed publisher
  15. Feierbach B, Piccinotti S, Bisher M, Denk W, Enquist L. Alpha-herpesvirus infection induces the formation of nuclear actin filaments. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e85 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a mechanism by which assembly domains are organized within infected cells and provide insight into how the viral infectious cycle and host actin cytoskeleton are integrated to promote the infection process...
  16. Ray N, Enquist L. Transcriptional response of a common permissive cell type to infection by two diverse alphaherpesviruses. J Virol. 2004;78:3489-501 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a comparison of the cellular response to HSV-1 infection of primary human and rat fibroblasts revealed unexpected diversity in the transcript profiles...
  17. Ambagala A, Gopinath R, Srikumaran S. Inhibition of TAP by pseudorabies virus is independent of its vhs activity. Virus Res. 2003;96:37-48 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that, inhibition of TAP activity in PrV-infected cells is due to mechanism(s) specifically directed at class I pathway and not due to the non-specific vhs activity of the virus...
  18. Buijs R, la Fleur S, Wortel J, Van Heyningen C, Zuiddam L, Mettenleiter T, et al. The suprachiasmatic nucleus balances sympathetic and parasympathetic output to peripheral organs through separate preautonomic neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2003;464:36-48 pubmed
    ..These separate preautonomic SCN neurons provide the anatomical basis for the circadian-driven regulation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic output...
  19. Curanovic D, Lyman M, Bou Abboud C, Card J, Enquist L. Repair of the UL21 locus in pseudorabies virus Bartha enhances the kinetics of retrograde, transneuronal infection in vitro and in vivo. J Virol. 2009;83:1173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These events manifest as slower kinetics of retrograde viral spread in a neural circuit...
  20. Böttcher S, Granzow H, Maresch C, Möhl B, Klupp B, Mettenleiter T. Identification of functional domains within the essential large tegument protein pUL36 of pseudorabies virus. J Virol. 2007;81:13403-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, we identify several domains within the PrV UL36 protein, which, though not essential, are nevertheless important for virus replication...
  21. Riteau B, de Vaureix C, Lefèvre F. Trypsin increases pseudorabies virus production through activation of the ERK signalling pathway. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1109-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data point to a potentially important role of extracellular proteases in herpesvirus infection...
  22. Ch ng T, Flood E, Enquist L. Culturing primary and transformed neuronal cells for studying pseudorabies virus infection. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;292:299-316 pubmed
    ..Methods are described for the use of a neurotropic herpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV), to analyze the assembly, egress, and transport of viral antigens in neurons...
  23. Diefenbach R, Miranda Saksena M, Douglas M, Cunningham A. Transport and egress of herpes simplex virus in neurons. Rev Med Virol. 2008;18:35-51 pubmed
    ..Current hypotheses suggest that unenveloped HSV capsids complete assembly in the axonal growth cones and varicosities, whereas with PrV unenveloped capsids are only found travelling in a retrograde direction...
  24. Tomioka Y, Miyazaki T, Taharaguchi S, Yoshino S, Morimatsu M, Uede T, et al. Cerebellar pathology in transgenic mice expressing the pseudorabies virus immediate-early protein IE180. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2115-32 pubmed publisher
  25. Boldogkoi Z, Szabo A, Vrbova G, Nogradi A. Pseudorabies virus-based gene delivery to rat embryonic spinal cord grafts. Hum Gene Ther. 2002;13:719-29 pubmed
    ..This system offers a new approach for foreign gene transfer to neurons grafted into the CNS...
  26. Davis S, Williams K, Xu W, Glatzer N, Smith B. Selective enhancement of synaptic inhibition by hypocretin (orexin) in rat vagal motor neurons: implications for autonomic regulation. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3844-54 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the hypocretins can modulate and coordinate visceral autonomic output by acting directly on central vagal circuits...
  27. Paulus C, Sollars P, Pickard G, Enquist L. Transcriptome signature of virulent and attenuated pseudorabies virus-infected rodent brain. J Virol. 2006;80:1773-86 pubmed
    ..The differentially regulated genes reported here are likely to include potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for viral encephalitides and other neurodegenerative or neuroinflammatory diseases...
  28. Lyman M, Feierbach B, Curanovic D, Bisher M, Enquist L. Pseudorabies virus Us9 directs axonal sorting of viral capsids. J Virol. 2007;81:11363-71 pubmed
    ..This finding has broad impact on two competing models for how virus particles are trafficked inside axons during anterograde transport and redefines a role for Us9 in viral sorting and transport...
  29. Ray N, Bisher M, Enquist L. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 are required for production of infectious pseudorabies virus. J Virol. 2004;78:12964-74 pubmed
    ..Our data establish a role for COX-1 and COX-2 in facilitating the efficient growth and replication of PRV in primary cells...
  30. del Rio T, Ch ng T, Flood E, Gross S, Enquist L. Heterogeneity of a fluorescent tegument component in single pseudorabies virus virions and enveloped axonal assemblies. J Virol. 2005;79:3903-19 pubmed
    ..These results support an assembly process in which PRV capsids acquire a membrane in the cell body prior to axonal entry and subsequent transport...
  31. Song C, Enquist L, Bartness T. New developments in tracing neural circuits with herpesviruses. Virus Res. 2005;111:235-49 pubmed
    ..We provide examples of these combined application techniques within the context of an animal model to study the naturally occurring reversal of seasonal obesity in Siberian hamsters...
  32. Kalsbeek A, la Fleur S, Van Heijningen C, Buijs R. Suprachiasmatic GABAergic inputs to the paraventricular nucleus control plasma glucose concentrations in the rat via sympathetic innervation of the liver. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7604-13 pubmed
  33. Clase A, Lyman M, del Rio T, Randall J, Calton C, Enquist L, et al. The pseudorabies virus Us2 protein, a virion tegument component, is prenylated in infected cells. J Virol. 2003;77:12285-98 pubmed
    ..Curiously, the Us2 protein isolated from purified virions does not appear to be prenylated. This is the first report to describe the prenylation of an alphaherpesvirus protein...
  34. Pickard G, Smeraski C, Tomlinson C, Banfield B, Kaufman J, Wilcox C, et al. Intravitreal injection of the attenuated pseudorabies virus PRV Bartha results in infection of the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus only by retrograde transsynaptic transport via autonomic circuits. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2701-10 pubmed
    ..These results, taken together with other genetic data, indicate that the mutations in PRV Bartha render the virus incapable of anterograde transport. PRV Bartha is thus a retrograde transsynaptic marker in the CNS...
  35. Favoreel H, Van Minnebruggen G, Nauwynck H, Enquist L, Pensaert M. A tyrosine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B is important for both antibody-induced internalization of viral glycoproteins and efficient cell-to-cell spread. J Virol. 2002;76:6845-51 pubmed
    ..Mutating the dileucine motif in the gB tail led to an increased cell-to-cell spread of the virus and the formation of large syncytia...
  36. Brittle E, Reynolds A, Enquist L. Two modes of pseudorabies virus neuroinvasion and lethality in mice. J Virol. 2004;78:12951-63 pubmed
  37. Michael K, Klupp B, Mettenleiter T, Karger A. Composition of pseudorabies virus particles lacking tegument protein US3, UL47, or UL49 or envelope glycoprotein E. J Virol. 2006;80:1332-9 pubmed
    ..By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis multiple isoforms of host cell-derived heat shock protein 70 and annexins A1 and A2 were also identified as structural components of PrV virions...
  38. Shintani T, Anker A, Billig I, Card J, Yates B. Transneuronal tracing of neural pathways influencing both diaphragm and genioglossal muscle activity in the ferret. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:1453-9 pubmed
  39. Damann N, Klopfleisch R, Rothermel M, Doerner J, Mettenleiter T, Hatt H, et al. Neuronal pathways of viral invasion in mice after intranasal inoculation of pseudorabies virus PrV-9112C2 expressing bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B. J Neurovirol. 2006;12:60-4 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that gB((BHV-1))-dependent changes in PrV's capability to infect swine olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are not prominent in mice and give evidence for viral entry receptors present in swine but not mice OSNs...
  40. Viney T, Balint K, Hillier D, Siegert S, Boldogkoi Z, Enquist L, et al. Local retinal circuits of melanopsin-containing ganglion cells identified by transsynaptic viral tracing. Curr Biol. 2007;17:981-8 pubmed
    ..Second, we show evidence that dopaminergic interplexiform cells are synaptically connected to ipRGCs. The latter finding provides a circuitry link between light-dark adaptation and ipRGC function...
  41. Reiner G, Melchinger E, Kramarova M, Pfaff E, Büttner M, Saalmuller A, et al. Detection of quantitative trait loci for resistance/susceptibility to pseudorabies virus in swine. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:167-72 pubmed
    ..The QTLs are in proximity to important candidate genes that are assumed to play crucial roles in host defence against PrV...
  42. Tomishima M, Enquist L. In vivo egress of an alphaherpesvirus from axons. J Virol. 2002;76:8310-7 pubmed
    ..Taking these together with previous data, we suggest a model of viral egress from neurons that unifies previous apparently contradictory data...
  43. Glatzer N, Hasney C, Bhaskaran M, Smith B. Synaptic and morphologic properties in vitro of premotor rat nucleus tractus solitarius neurons labeled transneuronally from the stomach. J Comp Neurol. 2003;464:525-39 pubmed
    ..Gastric premotor neurons comprise a subset of NTS morphologic types, the organization of the viscerosensory input to which has yet to be defined...
  44. Rudick C, Chen M, Mongiu A, Klumpp D. Organ cross talk modulates pelvic pain. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1191-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these data suggest a mechanism by which dietary modification benefits pelvic pain symptoms...
  45. Klupp B, Hengartner C, Mettenleiter T, Enquist L. Complete, annotated sequence of the pseudorabies virus genome. J Virol. 2004;78:424-40 pubmed
    ..DNA sequence of pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alphaherpesvirus also known as Aujeszky's disease virus or suid herpesvirus 1, using sequence fragments derived from six different strains (Kaplan, Becker, Rice, Indiana-Funkhauser, NIA-..
  46. Van Minnebruggen G, Favoreel H, Nauwynck H. Internalization of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B is mediated by an interaction between the YQRL motif in its cytoplasmic domain and the clathrin-associated AP-2 adaptor complex. J Virol. 2004;78:8852-9 pubmed
    ..e., PRV gB, a specific amino acid sequence in the cytoplasmic tail of the protein interacts with AP-2 and may constitute a common AP-2-mediated mechanism of internalization of alphaherpesvirus envelope proteins...
  47. Geenen K, Favoreel H, Olsen L, Enquist L, Nauwynck H. The pseudorabies virus US3 protein kinase possesses anti-apoptotic activity that protects cells from apoptosis during infection and after treatment with sorbitol or staurosporine. Virology. 2005;331:144-50 pubmed
  48. Feierbach B, Bisher M, Goodhouse J, Enquist L. In vitro analysis of transneuronal spread of an alphaherpesvirus infection in peripheral nervous system neurons. J Virol. 2007;81:6846-57 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate ultrastructural differences between anterograde- and retrograde-traveling virions. Finally, we show live imaging of dynamic fluorescent virion components in axons and postsynaptic target neurons...
  49. Smeraski C, Sollars P, Ogilvie M, Enquist L, Pickard G. Suprachiasmatic nucleus input to autonomic circuits identified by retrograde transsynaptic transport of pseudorabies virus from the eye. J Comp Neurol. 2004;471:298-313 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that in the rat, as in the hamster, SCN infection after intraocular PRV152 inoculation is by retrograde transsynaptic transport via autonomic pathways to the eye...
  50. Sollars P, Smeraski C, Kaufman J, Ogilvie M, Provencio I, Pickard G. Melanopsin and non-melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Vis Neurosci. 2003;20:601-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that the rod/cone system of photoreceptors may provide signals to the SCN circadian system independent of intrinsically light-sensitive melanopsin ganglion cells...
  51. Huang C, Wu C. Characterization and expression of the pseudorabies virus early gene UL54. J Virol Methods. 2004;119:129-36 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the RNA binding potential of UL54 protein was demonstrated by its binding activity to poly(G) RNA homopolymer in Northwestern blotting assay...
  52. Smith G, Pomeranz L, Gross S, Enquist L. Local modulation of plus-end transport targets herpesvirus entry and egress in sensory axons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16034-9 pubmed
    ..Entry transport was unperturbed by the presence of egressing virus from a prior infection, indicating that transport direction is not modulated globally by viral gene expression, but rather directly by a component of the viral particle...
  53. Rothermel M, Schöbel N, Damann N, Klupp B, Mettenleiter T, Hatt H, et al. Anterograde transsynaptic tracing in the murine somatosensory system using Pseudorabies virus (PrV): a "live-cell"-tracing tool for analysis of identified neurons in vitro. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:579-85 pubmed
    ..Detailed electrophysiological analysis indicated that viral infection did not affect neuronal properties, making PrV-Kaplan eligible for functional analysis of identified neurons within somatosensory systems...
  54. Klupp B, Granzow H, Karger A, Mettenleiter T. Identification, subviral localization, and functional characterization of the pseudorabies virus UL17 protein. J Virol. 2005;79:13442-53 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data indicate that the PrV UL17 protein is an internal nucleocapsid protein necessary for DNA cleavage and packaging but suggest that the protein is not a prominent part of the tegument...
  55. Böttcher S, Maresch C, Granzow H, Klupp B, Teifke J, Mettenleiter T. Mutagenesis of the active-site cysteine in the ubiquitin-specific protease contained in large tegument protein pUL36 of pseudorabies virus impairs viral replication in vitro and neuroinvasion in vivo. J Virol. 2008;82:6009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..the conserved active-site cysteine at amino acid position 26 within pUL36 of Pseudorabies virus (PrV) (Suid herpesvirus 1), a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus, was mutated to serine...
  56. Wu S, Li C, Ho T, Hsiang C. Mutagenesis identifies the critical regions and amino acid residues of suid herpesvirus 1 DNA-binding protein required for DNA binding and strand invasion. Virus Res. 2009;140:147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..amino acid residues required for DNA binding and D-loop formation, we characterized several DBP mutants of suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1)...
  57. Klupp B, Fuchs W, Granzow H, Nixdorf R, Mettenleiter T. Pseudorabies virus UL36 tegument protein physically interacts with the UL37 protein. J Virol. 2002;76:3065-71 pubmed
    ..Zhou, D. Chen, J. Jakana, F. J. Rixon, and W. Chiu, J. Virol. 73:3210-3218, 1999), with the UL37 protein is an important early step in tegumentation during virion morphogenesis in the cytoplasm...
  58. Flori L, Rogel Gaillard C, Cochet M, Lemonnier G, Hugot K, Chardon P, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of the dialogue between Pseudorabies virus and porcine epithelial cells during infection. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:123 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed the differential expression of a selected set of genes by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry...
  59. Banfield B, Kaufman J, Randall J, Pickard G. Development of pseudorabies virus strains expressing red fluorescent proteins: new tools for multisynaptic labeling applications. J Virol. 2003;77:10106-12 pubmed
  60. Kerman I, Enquist L, Watson S, Yates B. Brainstem substrates of sympatho-motor circuitry identified using trans-synaptic tracing with pseudorabies virus recombinants. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4657-66 pubmed
    ..These neurons are candidates for relaying central command signals to the spinal cord...
  61. Lyman M, Curanovic D, Enquist L. Targeting of pseudorabies virus structural proteins to axons requires association of the viral Us9 protein with lipid rafts. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000065 pubmed publisher
  62. Lee J, Luxton G, Smith G. Identification of an essential domain in the herpesvirus VP1/2 tegument protein: the carboxy terminus directs incorporation into capsid assemblons. J Virol. 2006;80:12086-94 pubmed
    ..We mapped one essential domain to a conserved sequence at the VP1/2 carboxy terminus and demonstrated that this domain sufficient to redirect the green fluorescent protein to capsid assemblons in nuclei of infected cells...
  63. Xu C, Giuliano F, Yaici E, Conrath M, Trassard O, Benoit G, et al. Identification of lumbar spinal neurons controlling simultaneously the prostate and the bulbospongiosus muscles in the rat. Neuroscience. 2006;138:561-73 pubmed
    ..The convergence of retrograde labeling from prostate and bulbospongiosus muscle on the same lumbar spinothalamic cells strongly reinforce their role in the spinal control and coordination of the emission and expulsion of sperm...
  64. Geenen K, Favoreel H, Nauwynck H. Higher resistance of porcine trigeminal ganglion neurons towards pseudorabies virus-induced cell death compared with other porcine cell types in vitro. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1251-60 pubmed
  65. Enquist L, Tomishima M, Gross S, Smith G. Directional spread of an alpha-herpesvirus in the nervous system. Vet Microbiol. 2002;86:5-16 pubmed