human herpesvirus 3

Summary

Summary: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.

Top Publications

  1. Marin M, Meissner H, Seward J. Varicella prevention in the United States: a review of successes and challenges. Pediatrics. 2008;122:e744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this review was to summarize the US experience with the 1-dose varicella vaccination program, present the evidence considered for the policy change, and outline future challenges of the program...
  2. Yamagishi Y, Sadaoka T, Yoshii H, Somboonthum P, Imazawa T, Nagaike K, et al. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein M homolog is glycosylated, is expressed on the viral envelope, and functions in virus cell-to-cell spread. J Virol. 2008;82:795-804 pubmed
    ..These results showed that VZV gM is important for efficient cell-to-cell virus spread in cell culture, although it is not essential for virus growth...
  3. Kurukulasooriya G, Thevanesam V, Agampodi S, Abeykoon A, Amarasiri S, Goonasekera K. Susceptibility of New Entrant University students in Sri Lanka to varicella zoster infection. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2010;22:219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..1% ( 25/247). The present study indicates that nearly half (222/436) of the study population (50.9%, 95% CI 46.2-55.6) was susceptible to VZV infection...
  4. Arvin A. Humoral and cellular immunity to varicella-zoster virus: an overview. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S58-60 pubmed publisher
  5. McGeoch D. Lineages of varicella-zoster virus. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:963-9 pubmed publisher
    Relationships among varicella-zoster virus (VZV; Human herpesvirus 3) genome sequences were examined to evaluate descent of strains, structures of lineages and incidence of recombination events...
  6. Koshizuka T, Sadaoka T, Yoshii H, Yamanishi K, Mori Y. Varicella-zoster virus ORF1 gene product is a tail-anchored membrane protein localized to plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network in infected cells. Virology. 2008;377:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the N terminus of ORF1 protein faces the cytoplasm in infected cells and the tegument region in mature virions...
  7. Wang L, Sommer M, Rajamani J, Arvin A. Regulation of the ORF61 promoter and ORF61 functions in varicella-zoster virus replication and pathogenesis. J Virol. 2009;83:7560-72 pubmed publisher
  8. Zhang Z, Huang Y, Zhu H. A highly efficient protocol of generating and analyzing VZV ORF deletion mutants based on a newly developed luciferase VZV BAC system. J Virol Methods. 2008;148:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a highly efficient protocol has been developed exploiting the new luciferase VZV BAC system to rapidly isolate and characterize VZV ORF deletion mutants by growth curve analysis in cell culture...
  9. Lopez A, Burnett Hartman A, Nambiar R, Ritz L, Owens P, Loparev V, et al. Transmission of a newly characterized strain of varicella-zoster virus from a patient with herpes zoster in a long-term-care facility, West Virginia, 2004. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:646-53 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications80

  1. Yoshii H, Sadaoka K, Matsuura M, Nagaike K, Takahashi M, Yamanishi K, et al. Varicella-zoster virus ORF 58 gene is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture. Virol J. 2008;5:54 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to clarify whether ORF58 is essential for the growth of VZV, we constructed a deletion mutant of ORF58 (pOka-BACDelta58) from the Oka parental genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (pOka-BAC)...
  2. Beby Defaux A, Brabant S, Chatellier D, Bourgoin A, Robert R, Ruckes T, et al. Disseminated varicella with multiorgan failure in an immunocompetent adult. J Med Virol. 2009;81:747-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This case serves as a reminder that varicella can be life-threatening in adults and that vaccination of individuals at risk remains essential...
  3. Gharavi S, Sadeghizadeh M, Hosseinkhani S, Sabahi F. A study of varicella zoster virus glycoprotein C regulatory region response to viral activators in vitro. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:2140-5 pubmed
  4. Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Serological detection of specific IgG to varicella-zoster virus by novel ELISA based on viral glycoprotein antigen. Clin Lab. 2009;55:1-7 pubmed
    ..For determination of immunity post vaccination, a different approach for the interpretation of borderline results should be considered...
  5. Chaudhuri V, Sommer M, Rajamani J, Zerboni L, Arvin A. Functions of Varicella-zoster virus ORF23 capsid protein in viral replication and the pathogenesis of skin infection. J Virol. 2008;82:10231-46 pubmed publisher
    ..If so, ORF23 expression could be a target for a novel antiviral drug against VZV...
  6. Ali M, Li Q, Fischer E, Cohen J. The insulin degrading enzyme binding domain of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E is important for cell-to-cell spread and VZV infectivity, while a glycoprotein I binding domain is essential for infection. Virology. 2009;386:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the IDE binding domain is important for efficient cell-to-cell spread and infectivity of cell-free virus. ..
  7. Malavige G, Jones L, Black A, Ogg G. Varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E-specific CD4+ T cells show evidence of recent activation and effector differentiation, consistent with frequent exposure to replicative cycle antigens in healthy immune donors. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;152:522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data would be compatible with frequent exposure to replicative cycle antigens in healthy donors and are consistent with a role for gE-specific CD4+ T cells in the control of viral replication...
  8. Baiker A, Haase R, Eberle J, Vizoso Pinto M, Pfrepper K, Petrich A, et al. Early detection of Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV)-specific T-cells before seroconversion in primary varicella infection: case report. Virol J. 2010;7:54 pubmed publisher
  9. Watson B. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in children and adults after 1 and 2 doses of varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S143-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Ceroni A, Sibani S, Baiker A, Pothineni V, Bailer S, Labaer J, et al. Systematic analysis of the IgG antibody immune response against varicella zoster virus (VZV) using a self-assembled protein microarray. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:1604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of the newly identified VZV antigens was validated by western blot analysis. Using these seroreactive new VZV antigens, more sensitive assays and tests distinguishing between different clinical entities may be developed...
  11. Nardone A, de Ory F, Carton M, Cohen D, Van Damme P, Davidkin I, et al. The comparative sero-epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in 11 countries in the European region. Vaccine. 2007;25:7866-72 pubmed
    ..There are substantial differences in VZV sero-epidemiology within the European region, which will need to be taken into account in designing national policies regarding VZV vaccination...
  12. Berarducci B, Rajamani J, Zerboni L, Che X, Sommer M, Arvin A. Functions of the unique N-terminal region of glycoprotein E in the pathogenesis of varicella-zoster virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:282-7 pubmed publisher
    ..VZV tropism for T cells and skin, which is necessary for its life cycle in the human host, requires this nonconserved region of the N-terminal region of VZV gE...
  13. Torda A. Vaccination and screening of medical students: results of a student health initiative. Med J Aust. 2008;189:484-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the immune status and vaccination needs of first-year medical students in relation to bloodborne viruses and common vaccine-preventable diseases...
  14. Tillieux S, Halsey W, Thomas E, Voycik J, Sathe G, Vassilev V. Complete DNA sequences of two oka strain varicella-zoster virus genomes. J Virol. 2008;82:11023-44 pubmed publisher
  15. Sadaoka T, Yoshii H, Imazawa T, Yamanishi K, Mori Y. Deletion in open reading frame 49 of varicella-zoster virus reduces virus growth in human malignant melanoma cells but not in human embryonic fibroblasts. J Virol. 2007;81:12654-65 pubmed
    ..VZV may use different mechanisms for virus growth in MeWo and MRC-5 cells. If so, understanding the role of ORF49p should help elucidate how VZV accomplishes cell-cell infections in different cell types...
  16. Quinlivan M, Ayres K, Ran H, McElwaine S, Leedham Green M, Scott F, et al. Effect of viral load on the outcome of herpes zoster. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3909-14 pubmed
    ..Prodromal pain was significantly associated with higher baseline viral loads. Viral load levels were not associated with the development or persistence of PHN at 6, 12, or 26 weeks...
  17. Carpenter J, Henderson E, Grose C. Enumeration of an extremely high particle-to-PFU ratio for Varicella-zoster virus. J Virol. 2009;83:6917-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We enumerated the total number of viral particles within 25 cm(2) of the infected monolayer at 415 million. Based on these numbers, the VZV particle:PFU ratio was approximately 40,000:1 for a cell-free inoculum...
  18. Sauerbrei A, Zell R, Philipps A, Wutzler P. Genotypes of varicella-zoster virus wild-type strains in Germany. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible recombinant could not be classified definitely by the scattered SNP method used and, therefore, has to be confirmed by full-genome sequencing studies...
  19. Erazo A, Yee M, Osterrieder N, Kinchington P. Varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 66 protein kinase is required for efficient viral growth in primary human corneal stromal fibroblast cells. J Virol. 2008;82:7653-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the unique short region VZV kinase has important cell-type-specific functions that are separate from those affecting IE62 and apoptosis...
  20. Loparev V, Rubtcova E, Bostik V, Tzaneva V, Sauerbrei A, Robo A, et al. Distribution of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) wild-type genotypes in northern and southern Europe: evidence for high conservation of circulating genotypes. Virology. 2009;383:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..No M3 or J strains were observed...
  21. Breuer J, Schmid D, Gershon A. Use and limitations of varicella-zoster virus-specific serological testing to evaluate breakthrough disease in vaccinees and to screen for susceptibility to varicella. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Although several of these methods are useful for various specific applications, simpler and more accurate tests to measure antibodies to VZV are a high priority for future research and development...
  22. Malavige G, Jones L, Kamaladasa S, Wijewickrama A, Seneviratne S, Black A, et al. Viral load, clinical disease severity and cellular immune responses in primary varicella zoster virus infection in Sri Lanka. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3789 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between viral load, disease severity and cellular immune responses in primary VZV infection has not been well studied...
  23. Loparev V, Rubtcova E, Bostik V, Govil D, Birch C, Druce J, et al. Identification of five major and two minor genotypes of varicella-zoster virus strains: a practical two-amplicon approach used to genotype clinical isolates in Australia and New Zealand. J Virol. 2007;81:12758-65 pubmed
    ..Two-amplicon typing was in complete accord with genotypes derived using SNP in multiple ORFs (ORFs 1, 21, 22, 38, 50, 54, and 62). Two additional minor genotypes, M3 and M4, could also be resolved using two-amplicon typing...
  24. Tischer B, Kaufer B, Sommer M, Wussow F, Arvin A, Osterrieder N. A self-excisable infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of varicella-zoster virus allows analysis of the essential tegument protein encoded by ORF9. J Virol. 2007;81:13200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The essential nature of ORF9 for VZV replication was ultimately confirmed by restoration of the growth of the ORF9-deficient mutant virus using trans-complementation via baculovirus-mediated gene transfer...
  25. Jones L, Black A, Malavige G, Ogg G. Phenotypic analysis of human CD4+ T cells specific for immediate-early 63 protein of varicella-zoster virus. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:3393-403 pubmed
    ..In summary these data implicate persistent low-level or recurrent VZV antigen exposure in healthy immune donors and are compatible with a role for IE63-specific CD4+ T cells in the control of viral reactivation...
  26. Malavige G, Jones L, Black A, Ogg G. Rapid effector function of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein I-specific CD4+ T cells many decades after primary infection. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:660-4 pubmed
    ..We characterized the optimal peptide of the strongest response in our cohort showing restriction through DRB4*01. These findings are consistent with gI-specific CD4(+) T cell involvement in the control of VZV replication. ..
  27. Quinlivan M, Breuer J. Molecular studies of Varicella zoster virus. Rev Med Virol. 2006;16:225-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, a rat model has been developed and successfully used to uncover which viral proteins are important for both the establishment and maintenance of latent VZV infection. ..
  28. Tyler S, Peters G, Grose C, Severini A, Gray M, Upton C, et al. Genomic cartography of varicella-zoster virus: a complete genome-based analysis of strain variability with implications for attenuation and phenotypic differences. Virology. 2007;359:447-58 pubmed
    ..Although VZV has been considered to be one of the most genetically stable human herpesviruses, this initial assessment of genomic VZV cartography provides insight into ORFs with previously unreported variations. ..
  29. Ambagala A, Cohen J. Varicella-Zoster virus IE63, a major viral latency protein, is required to inhibit the alpha interferon-induced antiviral response. J Virol. 2007;81:7844-51 pubmed
    ..Since IFN-alpha has been shown to limit VZV replication in human skin xenografts, the ability of VZV IE63 to block the effects of the cytokine may play a critical role in VZV pathogenesis. ..
  30. Sergeev N, Rubtcova E, Chizikov V, Schmid D, Loparev V. New mosaic subgenotype of varicella-zoster virus in the USA: VZV detection and genotyping by oligonucleotide-microarray. J Virol Methods. 2006;136:8-16 pubmed
    ..5%), J (3%) and M (15.5%). In addition, a new M variant (M3) was identified. ..
  31. Ito H, Sommer M, Zerboni L, Baiker A, Sato B, Liang R, et al. Role of the varicella-zoster virus gene product encoded by open reading frame 35 in viral replication in vitro and in differentiated human skin and T cells in vivo. J Virol. 2005;79:4819-27 pubmed
  32. Hambleton S. Chickenpox. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005;18:235-40 pubmed
    ..Our ability to prevent and treat varicella still outstrips our knowledge of pathogenetic and immune mechanisms. Further clinical advances are likely to arise from growing understanding of VZV biology. ..
  33. Chaves S, Gargiullo P, Zhang J, Civen R, Guris D, Mascola L, et al. Loss of vaccine-induced immunity to varicella over time. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1121-9 pubmed
    ..2 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 36.0 to 94.0) at 9 years. A second dose of varicella vaccine, now recommended for all children, could improve protection from both primary vaccine failure and waning vaccine-induced immunity. ..
  34. Molyneaux P, Parker S, Khan I, Millar C, Breuer J. Use of genomic analysis of varicella-zoster virus to investigate suspected varicella-zoster transmission within a renal unit. J Clin Virol. 2006;36:76-8 pubmed
    ..An identical genotype in the variable R1 region of the VZV was isolated from the two patients. Inapparent hospital-acquired transmission was the most likely route of infection. ..
  35. Jacobi C, Lange P, Reiber H. Quantitation of intrathecal antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, herpes simplex encephalitis and multiple sclerosis: discrimination between microorganism-driven and polyspecific immune response. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;187:139-46 pubmed
    ..So this concept gains increasingly relevance for analysis of the polyspecific immune response in brain...
  36. Hambleton S, Steinberg S, Gershon M, Gershon A. Cholesterol dependence of varicella-zoster virion entry into target cells. J Virol. 2007;81:7548-58 pubmed
    ..Lipid rafts are likely to contribute directly to viral envelope integrity and, in the host membrane, may influence endocytosis, evoke downstream signaling, and/or facilitate membrane fusion. ..
  37. Kimberlin D, Whitley R. Varicella-zoster vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1338-43 pubmed
  38. Wirgart B, Estrada V, Jackson W, Linde A, Grose C. A novel varicella-zoster virus gE mutation discovered in two Swedish isolates. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:134-6 pubmed
    ..It is unknown whether widespread varicella vaccination programs will alter the rate at which these mutant viruses are isolated. ..
  39. Eisfeld A, Yee M, Erazo A, Abendroth A, Kinchington P. Downregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex surface expression by varicella-zoster virus involves open reading frame 66 protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Virol. 2007;81:9034-49 pubmed
    ..5 revealed no effects on MHC-I. These results establish a new role for viral protein kinases in immune evasion and suggest that VZV utilizes unique mechanisms to inhibit antigen presentation. ..
  40. Chen J, Zhu Z, Gershon A, Gershon M. Mannose 6-phosphate receptor dependence of varicella zoster virus infection in vitro and in the epidermis during varicella and zoster. Cell. 2004;119:915-26 pubmed
    ..Biopsies from VZV-infected human skin supported the idea that because MPRci expression is naturally lost in maturing superficial epidermal cells, these cells do not divert VZV to endosomes and constitutively secrete infectious VZV. ..
  41. Wang J, Kurt Jones E, Shin O, Manchak M, Levin M, Finberg R. Varicella-zoster virus activates inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and macrophages via Toll-like receptor 2. J Virol. 2005;79:12658-66 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that TLR2 may play a role in the inflammatory response to VZV infection. ..
  42. Graue N, Grabbe S, Dissemond J. [Disseminated herpes zoster in diabetes mellitus]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2006;131:384-6 pubmed
    ..The diabetes was thought to be causally related to the ineffective immune response to varicella zoster virus. There has been no previous published report of this relationship. ..
  43. Nagel M, Forghani B, Mahalingam R, Wellish M, Cohrs R, Russman A, et al. The value of detecting anti-VZV IgG antibody in CSF to diagnose VZV vasculopathy. Neurology. 2007;68:1069-73 pubmed
    ..Only when the CSF is negative for both VZV DNA and anti-VZV IgG antibody can the diagnosis of VZV vasculopathy be excluded. ..
  44. Alfonsi V, Montomoli E, Manini I, Alberini I, Gentile C, Rota M, et al. Susceptibility to varicella in childbearing age women, Central Italy: is there a need for vaccinating this population group?. Vaccine. 2007;25:6086-8 pubmed
    ..This study further supports the importance of vaccinating susceptible adolescents and women of childbearing age in order to reduce both maternal and foetal complications associated with varicella in pregnancy...
  45. Mossong J, Putz L, Schneider F. Seroprevalence and force of infection of varicella-zoster virus in Luxembourg. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:1121-7 pubmed
    ..05 (95% CI 0.024-0.082) respectively. Our results indicate that transmission of VZV is highest in children below the age of 6 years and that much lower levels of VZV transmission occur in secondary schools and throughout adulthood...
  46. Hambleton S, Gershon A. Preventing varicella-zoster disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:70-80 pubmed
    ..However, the huge pool of latent wild-type virus in the population represents a continuing threat. Both the biology and the epidemiology of VZV disease suggest that new vaccination strategies will be required over time...
  47. Ku C, Besser J, Abendroth A, Grose C, Arvin A. Varicella-Zoster virus pathogenesis and immunobiology: new concepts emerging from investigations with the SCIDhu mouse model. J Virol. 2005;79:2651-8 pubmed
  48. Cohen J, Krogmann T, Ross J, Pesnicak L, Prikhod ko E. Varicella-zoster virus ORF4 latency-associated protein is important for establishment of latency. J Virol. 2005;79:6969-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to VZV ORF63, which was previously shown to be critical for efficient establishment of latency, ORF4 is also important for latent infection...
  49. Grose C. Varicella vaccination of children in the United States: assessment after the first decade 1995-2005. J Clin Virol. 2005;33:89-95; discussion 96-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, data from varicella vaccination programs in Europe should provide further insight into the effectiveness of varicella vaccination in different geographic and ethnic populations...
  50. Taylor S, Moffat J. Replication of varicella-zoster virus in human skin organ culture. J Virol. 2005;79:11501-6 pubmed
    ..The SOC system for VZV replication has applications for testing virus mutants and antiviral drugs...
  51. Li Q, Ali M, Cohen J. Insulin degrading enzyme is a cellular receptor mediating varicella-zoster virus infection and cell-to-cell spread. Cell. 2006;127:305-16 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that IDE is a cellular receptor for both cell-free and cell-associated VZV...
  52. Ou Y, Davis K, Traina Dorge V, Gray W. Simian varicella virus expresses a latency-associated transcript that is antisense to open reading frame 61 (ICP0) mRNA in neural ganglia of latently infected monkeys. J Virol. 2007;81:8149-56 pubmed
    ..In this regard, SVV gene expression during latency is similar to that of HSV-1 and other neurotropic animal alphaherpesviruses but differs from that reported for VZV...
  53. Rothberg M, Virapongse A, Smith K. Cost-effectiveness of a vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1280-8 pubmed
    ..A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of this vaccine for different age groups...
  54. Dworkin R, Johnson R, Breuer J, Gnann J, Levin M, Backonja M, et al. Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 1:S1-26 pubmed
    ..Specific recommendations for the use of these medications are provided. In addition, suggestions are made for treatments that, when used in combination with antiviral therapy, may further reduce pain and other complications of HZ...
  55. Gershon A, Arvin A, Shapiro E. Varicella vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2648-9; author reply 2648-9 pubmed
  56. Gowrishankar K, Slobedman B, Cunningham A, Miranda Saksena M, Boadle R, Abendroth A. Productive varicella-zoster virus infection of cultured intact human ganglia. J Virol. 2007;81:6752-6 pubmed
    ..This model enables VZV infection of ganglionic cells to be studied in the context of intact DRG...
  57. Tang J, Eames I, Li Y, Taha Y, Wilson P, Bellingan G, et al. Door-opening motion can potentially lead to a transient breakdown in negative-pressure isolation conditions: the importance of vorticity and buoyancy airflows. J Hosp Infect. 2005;61:283-6 pubmed
    ..An experimental model demonstrated that, despite negative pressure, opening the door could have resulted in transport of infectious air out of the isolation room, leading to a breakdown in isolation conditions...
  58. Oxman M. Vaccination to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Hum Vaccin. 2007;3:64-8 pubmed
  59. Hoover S, Cohrs R, Rangel Z, Gilden D, Munson P, Cohen J. Downregulation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immediate-early ORF62 transcription by VZV ORF63 correlates with virus replication in vitro and with latency. J Virol. 2006;80:3459-68 pubmed
    ..The ability of ORF63 to downregulate ORF62 transcription may play an important role in virus replication and latency...
  60. Che X, Berarducci B, Sommer M, Ruyechan W, Arvin A. The ubiquitous cellular transcriptional factor USF targets the varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 10 promoter and determines virulence in human skin xenografts in SCIDhu mice in vivo. J Virol. 2007;81:3229-39 pubmed
  61. Peters G, Tyler S, Grose C, Severini A, Gray M, Upton C, et al. A full-genome phylogenetic analysis of varicella-zoster virus reveals a novel origin of replication-based genotyping scheme and evidence of recombination between major circulating clades. J Virol. 2006;80:9850-60 pubmed
    ..The very low rate of single-nucleotide polymorphisms scattered across the genome made full-genome sequencing the only definitive method for identifying specific VZV recombination events...
  62. Schaap A, Fortin J, Sommer M, Zerboni L, Stamatis S, Ku C, et al. T-cell tropism and the role of ORF66 protein in pathogenesis of varicella-zoster virus infection. J Virol. 2005;79:12921-33 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the ORF66 kinase plays a unique role during infection of T cells and supports VZV T-cell tropism by contributing to immune evasion and enhancing survival of infected T cells...
  63. Liyanage N, Fernando S, Malavige G, Mallikahewa R, Sivayogan S, Jiffry M, et al. Seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus infections in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Indian J Med Sci. 2007;61:128-34 pubmed
    ..Although Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) infections occur worldwide, the epidemiology is remarkably different in tropical and temperate climates. VZV infections result in significant morbidity and mortality among adults in Sri Lanka...
  64. Sauerbrei A, Zell R, Harder M, Wutzler P. Genotyping of different varicella vaccine strains. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:109-17 pubmed
    ..These findings need attention since mutations in the vaccine strain could result in changes of virulence and efficacy of the vaccine...
  65. Oxman M, Levin M, Johnson G, Schmader K, Straus S, Gelb L, et al. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2271-84 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that vaccination against VZV would decrease the incidence, severity, or both of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults...
  66. Zhang Z, Rowe J, Wang W, Sommer M, Arvin A, Moffat J, et al. Genetic analysis of varicella-zoster virus ORF0 to ORF4 by use of a novel luciferase bacterial artificial chromosome system. J Virol. 2007;81:9024-33 pubmed
    ..This work has validated and justified the use of the novel luciferase VZV BAC system to efficiently generate recombinant VZV variants and ease subsequent viral growth kinetic analysis both in vitro and in vivo...
  67. Vyse A, Gay N, Hesketh L, Morgan Capner P, Miller E. Seroprevalence of antibody to varicella zoster virus in England and Wales in children and young adults. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:1129-34 pubmed
    ..This was shown to be a more accurate approach to categorizing data from an epidemiological perspective...
  68. Habran L, Bontems S, Di Valentin E, Sadzot Delvaux C, Piette J. Varicella-zoster virus IE63 protein phosphorylation by roscovitine-sensitive cyclin-dependent kinases modulates its cellular localization and activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29135-43 pubmed
    ..These observations clearly demonstrated the importance of CDK1-mediated IE63 phosphorylation for a correct distribution of IE63 between both cellular compartments and for its repressive activity toward the promoter tested...
  69. Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Serological detection of varicella-zoster virus-specific immunoglobulin G by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using glycoprotein antigen. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3094-7 pubmed
    ..The test can also be recommended for measuring antibody response after varicella vaccination, particularly after the cutoff value was optimized...
  70. Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Different genotype pattern of varicella-zoster virus obtained from patients with varicella and zoster in Germany. J Med Virol. 2007;79:1025-31 pubmed
    ..As reasons, the spread of viruses, which may be imported originally by persons immigrating from warmer climates, or the recombination between wild-and vaccine-type viruses have to be considered...
  71. Gray W, Davis K, Ou Y, Ashburn C, Ward T. Simian varicella virus gene 61 encodes a viral transactivator but is non-essential for in vitro replication. Arch Virol. 2007;152:553-63 pubmed
    ..SVV gene 61 is expressed in liver, lung, and neural ganglia of infected monkeys during acute simian varicella...