equid herpesvirus 1

Summary

Summary: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.

Top Publications

  1. Stierstorfer B, Eichhorn W, Schmahl W, Brandmuller C, Kaaden O, Neubauer A. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy: a case report. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:37-41 pubmed
    ..Virological findings confirmed an acute equine herpesvirus type 1 infection and virus was isolated from the spinal cord of a 26-year-old mare...
  2. Goodman L, Wagner B, Flaminio M, Sussman K, Metzger S, Holland R, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of inactivated combination and modified-live virus vaccines against challenge infection with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). Vaccine. 2006;24:3636-45 pubmed
  3. Galosi C, Barbeito C, Vila Roza M, Cid de la Paz V, Ayala M, Corva S, et al. Argentine strain of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from an aborted foetus shows low virulence in mouse respiratory and abortion models. Vet Microbiol. 2004;103:1-12 pubmed
    ..More specific studies about genomic alterations to the SPv are necessary for identifying, more clearly, if the intra-strain variations have relation with the low virulence in the mouse respiratory and abortion model...
  4. Van De Walle G, May M, Sukhumavasi W, von Einem J, Osterrieder N. Herpesvirus chemokine-binding glycoprotein G (gG) efficiently inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol. 2007;179:4161-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that EHV-1 gG not only binds to chemokines but is also capable of inhibiting their chemotactic function both in vitro and in vivo, thereby contributing to viral pathogenesis and virulence...
  5. Goodman L, Loregian A, Perkins G, Nugent J, Buckles E, Mercorelli B, et al. A point mutation in a herpesvirus polymerase determines neuropathogenicity. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e160 pubmed
  6. von Einem J, Smith P, Van De Walle G, O Callaghan D, Osterrieder N. In vitro and in vivo characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) mutants devoid of the viral chemokine-binding glycoprotein G (gG). Virology. 2007;362:151-62 pubmed
    ..Therefore we concluded that deletion of gG in EHV-1 seems to lead to an exacerbation of respiratory disease in the mouse...
  7. von Einem J, Wellington J, Whalley J, Osterrieder K, O Callaghan D, Osterrieder N. The truncated form of glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vaccine strain KyA is not functionally equivalent to full-length gp2 encoded by EHV-1 wild-type strain RacL11. J Virol. 2004;78:3003-13 pubmed
    ..From the results we conclude that full-length and truncated EHV-1 gp2 are not functionally equivalent and cannot compensate for the action of their homologues in allogeneic virus backgrounds...
  8. Nugent J, Birch Machin I, Smith K, Mumford J, Swann Z, Newton J, et al. Analysis of equid herpesvirus 1 strain variation reveals a point mutation of the DNA polymerase strongly associated with neuropathogenic versus nonneuropathogenic disease outbreaks. J Virol. 2006;80:4047-60 pubmed
    b>Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) can cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from inapparent respiratory infection to the induction of abortion and, in extreme cases, neurological disease resulting in paralysis and ultimately death...
  9. Edington N, Smyth B, Griffiths L. The role of endothelial cell infection in the endometrium, placenta and foetus of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) abortions. J Comp Pathol. 1991;104:379-87 pubmed
    ..The evidence suggests that infection of maternal endothelial cells has a major role in the pathogenesis of abortion, and that endothelial cells are also involved in dissemination of virus within the foetus...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Allen G, Breathnach C. Quantification by real-time PCR of the magnitude and duration of leucocyte-associated viraemia in horses infected with neuropathogenic vs. non-neuropathogenic strains of EHV-1. Equine Vet J. 2006;38:252-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate further this pathogenesis-relevant question, the present study was performed using a greater number of horses and a more precise method for quantification of EHV-1 DNA present in viraemic leucocytes...
  2. Ambagala A, Gopinath R, Srikumaran S. Peptide transport activity of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is inhibited by an early protein of equine herpesvirus-1. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:349-53 pubmed
    ..Metabolic inhibition studies indicated that an early protein(s) of EHV-1 is responsible for this effect...
  3. Frampton A, Smith P, Zhang Y, Matsumura T, Osterrieder N, O Callaghan D. Contribution of gene products encoded within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus 1 to virulence in a murine model. Virus Res. 2002;90:287-301 pubmed
    ..These findings show that gI, and/or gI and gE restore a virulent phenotype to the EHV-1 KyA strain, and indicate that virulence factors, in addition to gI and gE, contribute to the pathogenesis of the RacL11 strain...
  4. von Einem J, Schumacher D, O Callaghan D, Osterrieder N. The alpha-TIF (VP16) homologue (ETIF) of equine herpesvirus 1 is essential for secondary envelopment and virus egress. J Virol. 2006;80:2609-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that ETIF has an essential function in the replication cycle of EHV-1, and its main role appears to be in secondary envelopment...
  5. Kydd J, Townsend H, Hannant D. The equine immune response to equine herpesvirus-1: the virus and its vaccines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;111:15-30 pubmed
    ..Finally, based on the available data, a rational strategy designed to stimulate protective immune responses by vaccination is outlined...
  6. Smith D, Hamblin A, Edington N. Equid herpesvirus 1 infection of endothelial cells requires activation of putative adhesion molecules: an in vitro model. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;129:281-7 pubmed
    ..In an in vitro flow system, using equine veins or arteries, equid herpesvirus 1 in leucocytes was only transferred to infect endothelial cells if both leucocytes and endothelial cells ..
  7. Tsujimura K, Yamanaka T, Kondo T, Fukushi H, Matsumura T. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 mutants defective in either gI or gE gene in murine and hamster models. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:1029-38 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the EHV-1 mutants defective in gI and in gE are attenuated but have ability to elicit immune responses in inoculated mice that contribute to virus clearance...
  8. Hasebe R, Kimura T, Nakamura K, Ochiai K, Okazaki K, Wada R, et al. Differential susceptibility of equine and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells to equine herpesvirus 1 infection. Arch Virol. 2006;151:775-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that viral entry is an important determinant of the susceptibility of EBMECs and MBMECs to EHV-1 infection...
  9. Rudolph J, Seyboldt C, Granzow H, Osterrieder N. The gene 10 (UL49.5) product of equine herpesvirus 1 is necessary and sufficient for functional processing of glycoprotein M. J Virol. 2002;76:2952-63 pubmed
    ..5 product. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the expression of the EHV-1 UL49.5 product is necessary and sufficient for gM processing and that it is required for efficient virus replication...
  10. Osterrieder N, Neubauer A, Brandmuller C, Braun B, Kaaden O, Baines J. The equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gp21/22a, the herpes simplex virus type 1 gM homolog, is involved in virus penetration and cell-to-cell spread of virions. J Virol. 1996;70:4110-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that EHV-1 gM plays important roles in the penetration of virus into the target cell and in spread of EHV-1 from cell to cell...
  11. Van De Walle G, Sakamoto K, Osterrieder N. CCL3 and viral chemokine-binding protein gg modulate pulmonary inflammation and virus replication during equine herpesvirus 1 infection. J Virol. 2008;82:1714-22 pubmed
    ..The immunomodulatory activity of CCL3 is balanced by the expression of viral gG, whose chemokine-binding activity is mitigated in secondary infections by the production of anti-gG antibodies...
  12. Henninger R, Reed S, Saville W, Allen G, Hass G, Kohn C, et al. Outbreak of neurologic disease caused by equine herpesvirus-1 at a university equestrian center. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:157-65 pubmed
    ..Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection causes neurologic disease in horses. However, risk factors for the disease and long-term prognosis are poorly characterized...
  13. Loregian A, Case A, Cancellotti E, Valente C, Marsden H, Palu G. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the equine herpesvirus 1 DNA polymerase and its accessory subunit. J Virol. 2006;80:6247-58 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results indicate that pORF30 and pORF18 are the equine herpesvirus 1 counterparts of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL30 and UL42 and share many, but not all, of their characteristics...
  14. Kydd J, Smith K. Equine herpesvirus neurologic disease: reflections from across the pond. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:467-8 pubmed
  15. Balasuriya U, Lee P, Tsai Y, Tsai C, Shen Y, Chang H, et al. Translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time PCR assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using POCKIT™ nucleic acid analyzer. J Virol Methods. 2017;241:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..48-99.90%) with a kappa value of 0.90. In conclusion, the newly developed EHV-1 iiPCR assay is robust to provide specificity and sensitivity comparable to qPCR assays for the detection of EHV-1 nucleic acid in clinical specimens. ..
  16. Allen G. Risk factors for development of neurologic disease after experimental exposure to equine herpesvirus-1 in horses. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:1595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of achieving immunity related to high concentrations of vaccine-induced CTLPs in horses at high risk for exposure to neuropathogenic strains of EHV-1 is indicated. ..
  17. Albrecht R, Kim S, O Callaghan D. The EICP27 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is recruited to viral promoters by its interaction with the immediate-early protein. Virology. 2005;333:74-87 pubmed
    ..These results support our hypothesis that the EICP27 protein participates in the trans-activation of EHV-1 promoters, and suggest its presence within RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes that assemble at viral promoters. ..
  18. Kydd J, Davis Poynter N, Birch J, Hannant D, Minke J, Audonnet J, et al. A molecular approach to the identification of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes within equine herpesvirus 1. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2507-15 pubmed
    ..These techniques are broadly applicable to the identification of additional CTL target proteins and their presenting MHC alleles, not only for EHV-1, but for other equine viruses. ..
  19. van Maanen C. Equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 infections: an update. Vet Q. 2002;24:58-78 pubmed
    ..Consequently, research priorities should be made in an attempt to answer these questions. Therefore, this review ends with some personal recommendations for important priorities for future research...
  20. Crandell R, Drysdale S, Stein T. A comparative study of bovine herpesvirus 1247 and equine herpesvirus 1 in ponies. Can J Comp Med. 1979;43:94-7 pubmed
    ..Virus was recovered from nasal secretions collected from the four inoculated and one contact pony. All ponies developed a serum neutralizing antibody to each virus. The data show that the two viruses are similar. ..
  21. Kondo T, McGregor M, Chu Q, Chen D, Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y. A protective effect of epidermal powder immunization in a mouse model of equine herpesvirus-1 infection. Virology. 2004;318:414-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the powder vaccine is a promising approach for the immunological control of EHV-1 infection, either alone or as a part of prime-boost vaccination strategies. ..
  22. Murray M, del Piero F, Jeffrey S, Davis M, Furr M, Dubovi E, et al. Neonatal equine herpesvirus type 1 infection on a thoroughbred breeding farm. J Vet Intern Med. 1998;12:36-41 pubmed
    ..g., abortion, neurologic disease, or respiratory disease) occurred during this outbreak. Three foals were treated with acyclovir (1 died, 2 survived), which may have influenced the clinical outcome in the surviving foals. ..
  23. Robertson G, Whalley J. Evolution of the herpes thymidine kinase: identification and comparison of the equine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase gene reveals similarity to a cell-encoded thymidylate kinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:11303-17 pubmed
    ..The implications for the evolution of enzyme activities within a pathway of nucleotide metabolism are discussed. ..
  24. Negussie H, Li Y, Tessema T, Nauwynck H. Replication characteristics of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 3: comparative analysis using ex vivo tissue cultures. Vet Res. 2016;47:19 pubmed publisher
  25. Balasuriya U, Crossley B, Timoney P. A review of traditional and contemporary assays for direct and indirect detection of Equid herpesvirus 1 in clinical samples. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015;27:673-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is one of the most economically important equine viral pathogens...
  26. Trapp S, von Einem J, Hofmann H, Kostler J, Wild J, Wagner R, et al. Potential of equine herpesvirus 1 as a vector for immunization. J Virol. 2005;79:5445-54 pubmed
  27. Studdert M, Hartley C, Dynon K, Sandy J, Slocombe R, Charles J, et al. Outbreak of equine herpesvirus type 1 myeloencephalitis: new insights from virus identification by PCR and the application of an EHV-1-specific antibody detection ELISA. Vet Rec. 2003;153:417-23 pubmed
    ..In contrast, sera from the five unaffected in-contact mares were all EHV-1-antibody positive when they were first tested seven or 13 days after the index case. ..
  28. Fulton A, Peters S, Perkins G, Jarosinski K, Damiani A, Brosnahan M, et al. Effective treatment of respiratory alphaherpesvirus infection using RNA interference. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4118 pubmed publisher
    ..Intranasal treatment did not require a transport vehicle and proved effective when given up to 12 h before or after infection. siRNA treatment has potential for both prevention and early treatment of EHV-1 infections. ..
  29. Zhao J, Negussie H, Laval K, Poelaert K, Nauwynck H. Dual infections of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine arteritis virus in equine respiratory mucosa explants. Virus Res. 2016;220:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, it can be concluded that EAV and EHV-1 are only slightly influencing each other's infection and that they do not infect the same mucosal leukocytes. ..
  30. Weerasinghe C, Learmonth G, Gilkerson J, Foote C, Wellington J, Whalley J. Equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D expressed in E. coli provides partial protection against equine herpesvirus infection in mice and elicits virus-neutralizing antibodies in the horse. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;111:59-66 pubmed
    ..coli may be a useful vehicle for large scale production of EHV-1 gD for vaccine studies. ..
  31. Pusterla N, Wilson W, Mapes S, Finno C, Isbell D, Arthur R, et al. Characterization of viral loads, strain and state of equine herpesvirus-1 using real-time PCR in horses following natural exposure at a racetrack in California. Vet J. 2009;179:230-9 pubmed
    ..The molecular approach used in this study showed promise for assessing the risk of exposing other horses to EHV-1 and for studying viral kinetics in infected horses. ..
  32. Irwin V, Traub Dargatz J, Newton J, Scase T, Davis Poynter N, Nugent J, et al. Investigation and management of an outbreak of abortion related to equine herpesvirus type 1 in unvaccinated ponies. Vet Rec. 2007;160:378-80 pubmed
  33. Allen G. Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid diagnosis of neuropathogenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:69-72 pubmed
    ..The ability to rapidly identify horses infected with neuropathogenic strains of EHV-1 using a single-step, PCR-based method has significant implications for future diagnostic evaluation of suspect animals. ..
  34. Gryspeerdt A, Vandekerckhove A, Garré B, Barbe F, Van de Walle G, Nauwynck H. Differences in replication kinetics and cell tropism between neurovirulent and non-neurovirulent EHV1 strains during the acute phase of infection in horses. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Viremia was detected very early pi and infected cells were mainly CD172a(+) for both strains. In summary, these results are valuable for understanding EHV1 pathogenesis at the port of entry, the URT. ..
  35. Mesquita L, Arévalo A, Zanatto D, Miyashiro S, Cunha E, de Souza M, et al. Equine herpesvirus type 1 induces both neurological and respiratory disease in Syrian hamsters. Vet Microbiol. 2017;203:117-124 pubmed publisher
    ..Brazilian EHV-1 strains caused both severe CNS and respiratory disease in hamsters, thus making this species an interesting model for EHV-1 infection in the CNS and respiratory system. ..
  36. Taouji S, Collobert C, Gicquel B, Sailleau C, Brisseau N, Moussu C, et al. Detection and isolation of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 from horses in Normandy: an autopsy study of tissue distribution in relation to vaccination status. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:394-9 pubmed
    ..In vaccinated animals, the nervous ganglia (i.e. TG) were less frequently positive than in unvaccinated animals. Detection of positive TG was strongly correlated to the presence of EHV-1 in nasal epithelium...
  37. Huang J, Hartley C, Ficorilli N, Crabb B, Studdert M. Glycoprotein G deletion mutants of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1; equine abortion virus) and EHV4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus). Arch Virol. 2005;150:2583-92 pubmed
    ..The mutant viruses may be useful as vaccine candidates and the deletion of gG may act as a marker to distinguish vaccinated from the naturally infected horses...
  38. Yu M, Kasem S, Tsujimura K, Matsumura T, Yanai T, Yamaguchi T, et al. Diverse pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) isolates in CBA mouse model. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:301-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that field isolates of EHV-1 have varying degrees of pathogenicity in CBA mice. ..
  39. Dynon K, Black W, Ficorilli N, Hartley C, Studdert M. Detection of viruses in nasal swab samples from horses with acute, febrile, respiratory disease using virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction and serology. Aust Vet J. 2007;85:46-50 pubmed
    ..Design Nasal swab and serum samples were collected from 20 horses with acute febrile upper respiratory disease that was clinically assessed to have a viral origin...
  40. Frampton A, Uchida H, von Einem J, Goins W, Grandi P, Cohen J, et al. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) utilizes microtubules, dynein, and ROCK1 to productively infect cells. Vet Microbiol. 2010;141:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our data support a role for the cellular kinase, ROCK1, in virus trafficking to the nucleus. ..
  41. Osterrieder N, Seyboldt C, Elbers K. Deletion of gene 52 encoding glycoprotein M of equine herpesvirus type 1 strain RacH results in increased immunogenicity. Vet Microbiol. 2001;81:219-26 pubmed
    ..HDeltagM-HS-immunised mice were completely protected even after immunisation with 1x10(3) PFU. Mice immunised with 1x10(3) PFU of HDeltagM-Ins but not the higher doses showed signs of disease after challenge infection. ..
  42. Cymerys J, Słońska A, Tucholska A, Golke A, Chmielewska A, Banbura M. Influence of long-term equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection on primary murine neurons-the possible effects of the multiple passages of EHV-1 on its neurovirulence. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2018;63:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results showed that certain balance between EHV-1 and neurons has been established during in vitro infection allowing neurons to survive long-term infection. ..
  43. Rosas C, Goodman L, von Einem J, Osterrieder N. Equine herpesvirus type 1 modified live virus vaccines: quo vaditis?. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006;5:119-31 pubmed
    ..The improvement of modified live virus vaccines will likely be a major focus of research in the future, and will hopefully help to more completely protect horses against one of the most important and devastating viral diseases. ..
  44. Foote C, Love D, Gilkerson J, Rota J, Trevor Jones P, Ruitenberg K, et al. Serum antibody responses to equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D in horses, pregnant mares and young foals. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;105:47-57 pubmed
    ..The ability of EHV-1 gD to evoke comparable neutralizing antibody responses in horses to those of a whole virus vaccine confirms EHV-1 gD as a promising candidate for inclusion in subunit vaccines against EHV-1. ..
  45. Smith K. Equine herpesviruses 1 and 4: creeping to a solution. Vet J. 2005;170:6-7 pubmed
  46. Patel J, Heldens J. Equine herpesviruses 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4)--epidemiology, disease and immunoprophylaxis: a brief review. Vet J. 2005;170:14-23 pubmed
    ..However recent data with a live temperature sensitive EHV-1 vaccine show promise...
  47. Perkins G, Goodman L, Dubovi E, Kim S, Osterrieder N. Detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in nasal swabs of horses by quantitative real-time PCR. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:1234-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recommended reference ranges of C(T) values are provided as well as justification of a minimum 10-day quarantine period. ..
  48. Paillot R, Daly J, Luce R, Montesso F, Davis Poynter N, Hannant D, et al. Frequency and phenotype of EHV-1 specific, IFN-gamma synthesising lymphocytes in ponies: the effects of age, pregnancy and infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:202-14 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the complexity of the relationship between EHV-1, a common pathogen in horses, and the virus-specific cellular immune response as measured using IFN-gamma synthesis. ..
  49. Ahn B, Breitenbach J, Kim S, O Callaghan D. The equine herpesvirus-1 IR3 gene that lies antisense to the sole immediate-early (IE) gene is trans-activated by the IE protein, and is poorly expressed to a protein. Virology. 2007;363:15-25 pubmed
    ..The possible role of the IR3 transcript in EHV-1 infection is discussed. ..
  50. Tsujimura K, Yamada M, Nagata S, Yamanaka T, Nemoto M, Kondo T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of penciclovir after oral administration of its prodrug famciclovir to horses. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:357-61 pubmed
    ..34 + or - 13.93 hr. These pharmacokinetic profiles observed were similar to those of another antiherpesvirus drug, acyclovir, previously reported in horses following oral dosing of its prodrug valacyclovir...
  51. Molinkova D, Celer V. Recombinant single chain Fv antibodies specific for glycoprotein D of equid herpesvirus 1. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2006;51:492-6 pubmed
    ..The recombinant glycoprotein D of Equid herpesvirus 1 was successfully expressed in E. coli cells...
  52. Garré B, Gryspeerdt A, Croubels S, De Backer P, Nauwynck H. Evaluation of orally administered valacyclovir in experimentally EHV1-infected ponies. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Although sufficiently high acyclovir levels could be reached in plasma and nasal mucus, no effect was seen of the treatment with valacyclovir on clinical signs, viral shedding and viremia of EHV1-infected ponies...
  53. Robertson G, Scott N, Miller J, Sabine M, Zheng M, Bell C, et al. Sequence characteristics of a gene in equine herpesvirus 1 homologous to glycoprotein H of herpes simplex virus. DNA Seq. 1991;1:241-9 pubmed
    ..An origin of replication is predicted to occur at approximately 300 nucleotides downstream of the EHV-1 gH coding region, on the basis of similarity to other herpesvirus origins...
  54. Kim S, Jang H, Albrecht R, Derbigny W, Zhang Y, O Callaghan D. Interaction of the equine herpesvirus 1 EICP0 protein with the immediate-early (IE) protein, TFIIB, and TBP may mediate the antagonism between the IE and EICP0 proteins. J Virol. 2003;77:2675-85 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that interaction of the EICP0 protein with the IE protein, TFIIB, and TBP may mediate the antagonism between the IE and EICP0 proteins...
  55. Albrecht R, Jang H, Kim S, O Callaghan D. Direct interaction of TFIIB and the IE protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is required for maximal trans-activation function. Virology. 2003;316:302-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that an interaction of the IE protein with TFIIB is an important aspect of the regulatory role of the IE protein in the trans-activation of EHV-1 promoters...
  56. Ma G, Lu C, Osterrieder N. Residue 752 in DNA polymerase of equine herpesvirus type 1 is non-essential for virus growth in vitro. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that amino acid residue 752 in EHV-1 Pol is not required for virus growth, and that only the N752 mutation confers a drug-sensitive phenotype to the virus...
  57. Vengust M, Wen X, Bienzle D. Herpesvirus-associated neurological disease in a donkey. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:820-3 pubmed
    ..The current case illustrates the potential of a novel asinine herpesvirus to induce neurological disease in donkeys and provides a large viral sequence allowing confident assignment of this virus to the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae...
  58. Varrasso A, Dynon K, Ficorilli N, Hartley C, Studdert M, Drummer H. Identification of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 by polymerase chain reaction. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:563-9 pubmed
  59. Ghanem Y, Ibrahim E, Yamada S, Matsumura T, Osterrieder N, Yamaguchi T, et al. Molecular characterization of the equine herpesvirus 1 strains RacL11 and Kentucky D. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:573-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that point nucleotide differences in RacL11 and Kentucky D might be responsible for their pathogenicity in rodent models...
  60. Ibrahim E, Pagmajav O, Yamaguchi T, Matsumura T, Fukushi H. Growth and virulence alterations of equine herpesvirus 1 by insertion of a green fluorescent protein gene in the intergenic region between ORFs 62 and 63. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:831-42 pubmed
    ..Ab4-loxP exhibited properties similar to those of the wild type. These results suggest that the intergenic region between ORF 62 and ORF 63 plays various roles in the virus growth...
  61. Ibrahim E, Kinoh M, Matsumura T, Kennedy M, Allen G, Yamaguchi T, et al. Genetic relatedness and pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from onager, zebra and gazelle. Arch Virol. 2007;152:245-55 pubmed
    ..The histopathological findings were related to the virulence of each isolate. The results indicated that EHV-1 isolates from onager, zebra and gazelle differ from horse EHV-1 and are much more virulent in hamsters...
  62. Soboll G, Breathnach C, Kydd J, Hussey S, Mealey R, Lunn D. Vaccination of ponies with the IE gene of EHV-1 in a recombinant modified live vaccinia vector protects against clinical and virological disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:108-17 pubmed publisher
  63. Villalobos E, Ueno T, de Souza S, Cunha E, do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold Lara M, Gennari S, et al. Association between the presence of serum antibodies against Neospora spp. and fetal loss in equines. Vet Parasitol. 2006;142:372-5 pubmed
    ..001) to infection with protozoa belonging to the genus Neospora and point to the fact that the participation of this group of coccidia in the genesis of reproductive disorders in equine must be investigated...
  64. Patel J, Foldi J, Bateman H, Williams J, Didlick S, Stark R. Equid herpesvirus (EHV-1) live vaccine strain C147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following EHV types 1 and 4 challenges. Vet Microbiol. 2003;92:1-17 pubmed
    ..However, only 1 of 7 vaccinated horses showed a significant antibody rise and only to EHV-4...
  65. Bentz B, Maxwell L, Erkert R, Royer C, Davis M, MacAllister C, et al. Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir after single intravenous and oral administration to adult horses. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:589-94 pubmed
    ..The results of this study do not support a therapeutic benefit for the oral administration of acyclovir up to doses of 20 mg/kg...
  66. Hasebe R, Kimura T, Sato E, Okazaki K, Ochiai K, Wada R, et al. Equine herpesvirus-1-induced encephalomyelitis in mice: a comparative study of neuroadapted virus and its parental strain. J Comp Pathol. 2002;127:118-25 pubmed
    ..Although EHV-1 has been considered to be primarily endotheliotropic in horses, both NHH1 and HH1 showed tropism for the parenchymal cells of the CNS in mice, namely neurons, glial cells and ependymal cells...
  67. Jang H, Albrecht R, Buczynski K, Kim S, Derbigny W, O Callaghan D. Mapping the sequences that mediate interaction of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early protein and human TFIIB. J Virol. 2001;75:10219-30 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the interaction of the IE protein with TFIIB is necessary for its full transactivation function and that the IE-TFIIB interaction may be part of the mechanism by which the IE protein activates transcription...
  68. Keane D, Little P, Wilkie B, Artsob H, Thorsen J. Agents of equine viral encephalomyelitis: correlation of serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies. Can J Vet Res. 1988;52:229-35 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to Powassan virus were detected in sera of all animals but in cerebrospinal fluids of only two. Powassan virus was isolated from brain and spinal cord of only the intracerebrally inoculated animal...
  69. Luce R, Shepherd M, Paillot R, Blacklawst B, Wood J, Kydd J. Equine herpesvirus-1-specific interferon gamma (IFNgamma) synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:202-9 pubmed
    ..The method requires validation in the field...
  70. Friday P, Scarratt W, Elvinger F, Timoney P, Bonda A. Ataxia and paresis with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in a herd of riding school horses. J Vet Intern Med. 2000;14:197-201 pubmed
    ..A significantly greater proportion of horses that seroconverted were mares (P = .014). Of the 19 horses exhibiting ataxia and paresis, 17 made a complete recovery, 1 made a partial recovery, and 1 was euthanized...
  71. Galosi C, Vila Roza M, Oliva G, Pecoraro M, Echeverria M, Corva S, et al. A polymerase chain reaction for detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in routine diagnostic submissions of tissues from aborted foetuses. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001;48:341-6 pubmed
    ..Viral isolation was confirmed by cytopathic effect and indirect immunofluorescence. The specificity of the PCR results was confirmed by the restriction endonuclease digestion of PCR products and hybridization...
  72. Breathnach C, Yeargan M, Timoney J, Allen G. Detection of equine herpesvirus-specific effector and memory cytotoxic immunity in the equine upper respiratory tract. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;111:117-25 pubmed
    ..Virus-specific memory cytotoxic activity was elevated in the circulation, and detectable in the draining lymph nodes of all horses following challenge infection...
  73. Foote C, Love D, Gilkerson J, Whalley J. Serological responses of mares and weanlings following vaccination with an inactivated whole virus equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 4 vaccine. Vet Microbiol. 2002;88:13-25 pubmed
  74. Kirisawa R, Hosoi Y, Yamaya R, Taniyama H, Okamoto M, Tsunoda N, et al. Isolation of equine herpesvirus-1 lacking glycoprotein C from a dead neonatal foal in Japan. Arch Virol. 2005;150:2549-65 pubmed
  75. van Maanen C, de Boer Luijtze E, Terpstra C. Development and validation of a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies against both equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV4). Vet Microbiol. 2000;71:37-51 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the Mab blocking ELISA is more sensitive, easier to perform, more rapid and more reproducible than the VN test. We consider this test as a valuable tool for serological diagnosis of both EHV1 and EHV4 infections...
  76. Osterrieder N, Neubauer A, Brandmuller C, Kaaden O, O Callaghan D. The equine herpesvirus 1 IR6 protein that colocalizes with nuclear lamins is involved in nucleocapsid egress and migrates from cell to cell independently of virus infection. J Virol. 1998;72:9806-17 pubmed
  77. Tsujimura K, SHIOSE T, Yamanaka T, Nemoto M, Kondo T, Matsumura T. Equine herpesvirus type 1 mutant defective in glycoprotein E gene as candidate vaccine strain. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1439-48 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the virus load of nasal shedding and viremia were reduced by vaccination. These results suggest that DeltagE would be a good candidate as an MLV vaccine...
  78. Bell S, Balasuriya U, Gardner I, Barry P, Wilson W, Ferraro G, et al. Temporal detection of equine herpesvirus infections of a cohort of mares and their foals. Vet Microbiol. 2006;116:249-57 pubmed
    ..Although herpesvirus infections were ubiquitous in this cohort of horses, there were distinct clinical consequences and clear epidemiological differences between infections with the different viruses...
  79. Minke J, Audonnet J, Fischer L. Equine viral vaccines: the past, present and future. Vet Res. 2004;35:425-43 pubmed
  80. Whittaker G, Bonass W, Elton D, Halliburton I, Killington R, Meredith D. Glycoprotein 300 is encoded by gene 28 of equine herpesvirus type 1: a new family of herpesvirus membrane proteins?. J Gen Virol. 1992;73 ( Pt 11):2933-40 pubmed
    ..Gp300 was also shown to be modified by palmitic acid residues, and a second MAb (1G12) directed against gp300 inhibited fusion between EHV-1-infected cells...
  81. Breathnach C, Soboll G, Suresh M, Lunn D. Equine herpesvirus-1 infection induces IFN-gamma production by equine T lymphocyte subsets. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;103:207-15 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that EHV-1 challenge infection of ponies results in increased production of IFN-gamma by virus-specific T lymphocytes, and that this response can be quantitated using flow cytometry...
  82. Matsumura T, Smith R, O Callaghan D. DNA sequence and transcriptional analyses of the region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 Kentucky A strain genome encoding glycoprotein C. Virology. 1993;193:910-23 pubmed
    ..To examine the regulation of the EHV-1 gC gene, transient transfection assays using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter gene constructs of gC were performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  83. Corrochano L, Madueno F, Field H, De La Fuente R. Sequence analysis of thymidine kinase-defective mutants of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). Gene. 1993;126:257-60 pubmed
    ..This mutation modifies the amino acid sequence of a domain involved in binding ATP, leading to non-detectable enzymatic activity. Lys38 thus appears to be essential for the activity of the TK of EHV-1...
  84. Turowska A, Pajak B, Godlewski M, Dzieciatkowski T, Chmielewska A, Tucholska A, et al. Opposite effects of two different strains of equine herpesvirus 1 infection on cytoskeleton composition in equine dermal ED and African green monkey kidney Vero cell lines: application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysi. Arch Virol. 2010;155:733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that examination of viral-induced pathogenic effects in species specific cell lines is more symptomatic than in heterologous cell lines...
  85. Ghanem Y, Fukushi H, Ibrahim E, Ohya K, Yamaguchi T, Kennedy M. Molecular phylogeny of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from onager, zebra and Thomson's gazelle. Arch Virol. 2008;153:2297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Within this group, the onager and gazelle isolates were closely related, while the Grevy's zebra isolate was distantly related to these two isolates. The epizootiological origin of the viruses is discussed...
  86. Hoenerhoff M, Janovitz E, Richman L, Murphy D, Butler T, Kiupel M. Fatal herpesvirus encephalitis in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Vet Pathol. 2006;43:769-72 pubmed
    ..This raises concerns for cross-species transmission of EHV-1 when housing equids together with other species in zoologic collections...
  87. Diallo I, Hewitson G, Wright L, Kelly M, Rodwell B, Corney B. Multiplex real-time PCR for the detection and differentiation of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equid herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4). Vet Microbiol. 2007;123:93-103 pubmed
    A multiplex real-time PCR was designed to detect and differentiate equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equid herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4). The PCR targets the glycoprotein B gene of EHV-1 and EHV-4...
  88. Van De Walle G, May M, Peters S, Metzger S, Rosas C, Osterrieder N. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus. Vaccine. 2010;28:1048-55 pubmed publisher
  89. Learmonth G, Love D, Wellington J, Gilkerson J, Whalley J. The C-terminal regions of the envelope glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 are antigenically distinct. Arch Virol. 2002;147:607-15 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the C-terminal region of EHV-1 gp2 is antigenically distinct from that of EHV-4 gp2 and can be detected only after an EHV-1-specific immune response...