human herpesvirus 2

Summary

Summary: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.

Top Publications

  1. Tobian A, Serwadda D, Quinn T, Kigozi G, Gravitt P, Laeyendecker O, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision for the prevention of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and syphilis in HIV-negative adolescent boys and men...
  2. Ushijima Y, Koshizuka T, Goshima F, Kimura H, Nishiyama Y. Herpes simplex virus type 2 UL56 interacts with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and increases its ubiquitination. J Virol. 2008;82:5220-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that UL56 regulates Nedd4 in HSV-2-infected cells, although deletion of UL56 had no apparent effect on viral growth in vitro...
  3. O Ng ayo M, Bukusi E, A Morrow R, Rowhani Rahbar A, A Obare B, Friedrich D, et al. Sexual and demographic determinants for herpes simplex virus type 2 among fishermen along Lake Victoria, Kenya. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:140-2 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity among fishermen along the shores of Lake Victoria in Kisumu district, Kenya...
  4. Zhu J, Hladik F, Woodward A, Klock A, Peng T, Johnston C, et al. Persistence of HIV-1 receptor-positive cells after HSV-2 reactivation is a potential mechanism for increased HIV-1 acquisition. Nat Med. 2009;15:886-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The persistence and enrichment of HIV receptor-positive inflammatory cells in the genitalia help explain the inability of anti-HSV-2 therapy to reduce HIV acquisition...
  5. Jewkes R, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Dunkle K, Puren A, et al. Impact of stepping stones on incidence of HIV and HSV-2 and sexual behaviour in rural South Africa: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a506 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the impact of Stepping Stones, a HIV prevention programme, on incidence of HIV and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) and sexual behaviour...
  6. Celum C, Wald A, Hughes J, Sanchez J, Reid S, Delany Moretlwe S, et al. Effect of aciclovir on HIV-1 acquisition in herpes simplex virus 2 seropositive women and men who have sex with men: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;371:2109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether HSV-2 suppression with aciclovir would reduce the risk of HIV-1 acquisition...
  7. Zuckerman R, Lucchetti A, Whittington W, Sanchez J, Coombs R, Magaret A, et al. HSV suppression reduces seminal HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2009;23:479-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Suppressive herpes simplex virus (HSV) therapy can decrease plasma, cervical, and rectal HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons. We evaluated the effect of HSV-2 suppression on seminal HIV-1 levels...
  8. Iijima N, Linehan M, Zamora M, Butkus D, Dunn R, Kehry M, et al. Dendritic cells and B cells maximize mucosal Th1 memory response to herpes simplex virus. J Exp Med. 2008;205:3041-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results revealed a distinct mechanism by which memory Th1 cells mediate noncytolytic IFN-gamma-dependent antiviral protection after recognition of processed viral antigens by local DCs and B cells...
  9. Mark K, Wald A, Magaret A, Selke S, Olin L, Huang M, et al. Rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus reactivation in immunocompetent adults. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent in situ data show the localization of HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells at the dermal epidermal junction next to peripheral sensory nerve endings, suggesting that viral reactivation may occur more frequently than previously appreciated...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Cowan F, Pascoe S, Langhaug L, Dirawo J, Chidiya S, Jaffar S, et al. The Regai Dzive Shiri Project: a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a multi-component community-based HIV prevention intervention for rural youth in Zimbabwe--study design and baseline results. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:1235-44 pubmed publisher
  2. Cherpes T, Hillier S, Meyn L, Busch J, Krohn M. A delicate balance: risk factors for acquisition of bacterial vaginosis include sexual activity, absence of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli, black race, and positive herpes simplex virus type 2 serology. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:78-83 pubmed
    ..The etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is poorly understood, but better definition of the risk factors associated with its acquisition should improve our understanding of this complex disease entity...
  3. Gamiel J, Tobian A, Laeyendecker O, Reynolds S, Morrow R, Serwadda D, et al. Improved performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and the effect of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on the serologic detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 in Rakai, Uganda. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:888-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher-than-standard-index cutoff values gave optimal sensitivity and specificity. Kalon ELISA was the optimal assay when an index value of 1.5 was used (sensitivity, 91.7%; specificity, 92.4%)...
  4. Watson Jones D, Weiss H, Rusizoka M, Baisley K, Mugeye K, Changalucha J, et al. Risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV among women at high risk in northwestern Tanzania: preparing for an HSV-2 intervention trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46:631-42 pubmed
    ..To determine prevalence of and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV among women being screened for a randomized, controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy in northwestern Tanzania...
  5. Gupta R, Warren T, Wald A. Genital herpes. Lancet. 2007;370:2127-37 pubmed
    ..Antiviral treatment of the infected partners and condom use reduce the risk of sexual transmission of HSV-2...
  6. Thapa M, Welner R, Pelayo R, Carr D. CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression are critical for control of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection through mobilization of HSV-specific CTL and NK cells to the nervous system. J Immunol. 2008;180:1098-106 pubmed
    ..Thus, the absence of CXCL9 or CXCL10 expression significantly alters the ability of the host to control genital HSV-2 infection through the mobilization of effector cells to sites of infection...
  7. Ashkar A, Mossman K, Coombes B, Gyles C, MacKenzie R. FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae is a potent inducer of innate antimicrobial responses which requires TLR4 and type 1 interferon signalling. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000233 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that FimH can potentially be used as an innate microbicide against mucosal pathogens...
  8. Gray R, Wawer M. Reassessing the hypothesis on STI control for HIV prevention. Lancet. 2008;371:2064-5 pubmed publisher
  9. Baeten J, Strick L, Lucchetti A, Whittington W, Sanchez J, Coombs R, et al. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-suppressive therapy decreases plasma and genital HIV-1 levels in HSV-2/HIV-1 coinfected women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1804-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001]), as was cervical HIV-1 level (-0.35 log10 copies/swab, a 55% decrease [P < .001]). Suppressive HSV-2 therapy has the potential to reduce HIV-1 infectiousness and slow HIV-1 disease progression...
  10. O Loughlin J, Millwood I, McDonald H, Price C, Kaldor J, Paull J. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of SPL7013 gel (VivaGel): a dose ranging, phase I study. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate safety, tolerability and systemic pharmacokinetics of escalating doses of SPL7013 Gel in healthy women...
  11. Rose W, Tuthill C, Pyles R. An immunomodulating dipeptide, SCV-07, is a potential therapeutic for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;32:262-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data illustrate that SCV-07 may provide an easily administered alternative or supplemental treatment option for genital HSV-2 recurrent disease...
  12. Reszka N, Dudek T, Knipe D. Construction and properties of a herpes simplex virus 2 dl5-29 vaccine candidate strain encoding an HSV-1 virion host shutoff protein. Vaccine. 2010;28:2754-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The results have implications for the design of future HSV-2 vaccine candidates and mechanisms of induction of protective immunity against genital herpes...
  13. Brans R, Akhrameyeva N, Yao F. Prevention of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 disease in mice immunized with a gD-expressing dominant-negative recombinant HSV-1. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2470-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Fife K, Warren T, Justus S, Heitman C. An international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, study of valacyclovir for the suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 genital herpes in newly diagnosed patients. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:668-73 pubmed publisher
  15. Lund J, Hsing L, Pham T, Rudensky A. Coordination of early protective immunity to viral infection by regulatory T cells. Science. 2008;320:1220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Tregs facilitate early protective responses to local viral infection by allowing a timely entry of immune cells into infected tissue...
  16. Legoff J, Mayaud P, Gresenguet G, Weiss H, Nzambi K, Frost E, et al. Performance of HerpeSelect and Kalon assays in detection of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1914-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Low index values obtained with the HerpeSelect assay may correspond to true HSV-2 infection, in particular to nonprimary first episodes of genital HSV-2 infection, and need to be interpreted in the context of clinical history...
  17. Butler D, Smith D, Cachay E, Hightower G, Nugent C, Richman D, et al. Herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus and viral loads of HIV-1 in blood and semen as risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2008;22:1667-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the relationships of HIV-1 transmission risk with blood plasma viral load, seminal plasma viral load, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus and other factors...
  18. Zuckerman R, Lucchetti A, Whittington W, Sanchez J, Coombs R, Zuniga R, et al. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppression with valacyclovir reduces rectal and blood plasma HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2-seropositive men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1500-8 pubmed
    ..We studied HIV-1 levels during HSV suppression in coinfected persons in a placebo-controlled crossover trial...
  19. Sobngwi Tambekou J, Taljaard D, Lissouba P, Zarca K, Puren A, Lagarde E, et al. Effect of HSV-2 serostatus on acquisition of HIV by young men: results of a longitudinal study in Orange Farm, South Africa. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:958-64 pubmed publisher
  20. Watson Jones D, Weiss H, Rusizoka M, Changalucha J, Baisley K, Mugeye K, et al. Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1560-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that HSV-2 suppressive therapy reduces the risk of HIV acquisition...
  21. Koelle D, Corey L. Herpes simplex: insights on pathogenesis and possible vaccines. Annu Rev Med. 2008;59:381-95 pubmed publisher
  22. Kaul R, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Bwayo J, MacDonald K, et al. Prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is associated with altered vaginal flora and an increased susceptibility to multiple sexually transmitted infections. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1692-7 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that HSV-2 infection might also predispose individuals to acquire other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  23. Hoshino Y, Pesnicak L, Dowdell K, Lacayo J, Dudek T, Knipe D, et al. Comparison of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of genital herpes vaccine candidates herpes simplex virus 2 dl5-29 and dl5-29-41L in mice and guinea pigs. Vaccine. 2008;26:4034-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Both dl5-29-41L and dl5-29 are equally effective and immunogenic in guinea pigs, and dl5-29 is very safe in immunocompromised animals...
  24. Zhang X, Chentoufi A, Dasgupta G, Nesburn A, Wu M, Zhu X, et al. A genital tract peptide epitope vaccine targeting TLR-2 efficiently induces local and systemic CD8+ T cells and protects against herpes simplex virus type 2 challenge. Mucosal Immunol. 2009;2:129-143 pubmed publisher
    ..IVAG immunization with self-adjuvanting lipid-tailed peptides appears to be a novel mucosal vaccine approach, which has attractive practical and immunological features...
  25. Zhu J, Koelle D, Cao J, Vazquez J, Huang M, Hladik F, et al. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells accumulate near sensory nerve endings in genital skin during subclinical HSV-2 reactivation. J Exp Med. 2007;204:595-603 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the frequency and clinical course of HSV-2 reactivation in humans is influenced by virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that persist in peripheral mucosa and genital skin after resolution of herpes lesions...
  26. Xu F, Markowitz L, Sternberg M, Aral S. Prevalence of circumcision and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in men in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:479-84 pubmed
    ..47). The prevalence of circumcision apparently peaked in those born in the 1970s and declined in those born in the 1980s. Circumcision was not associated with HSV-2 infection. ..
  27. Herbst Kralovetz M, Pyles R. Quantification of poly(I:C)-mediated protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. J Virol. 2006;80:9988-97 pubmed
  28. Lund J, Linehan M, Iijima N, Iwasaki A. Cutting Edge: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells provide innate immune protection against mucosal viral infection in situ. J Immunol. 2006;177:7510-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, by way of migrating directly into the peripheral mucosa, pDCs act strictly as innate antiviral effector cells against mucosal viral infection in situ. ..
  29. Gill N, Deacon P, Lichty B, Mossman K, Ashkar A. Induction of innate immunity against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection via local delivery of Toll-like receptor ligands correlates with beta interferon production. J Virol. 2006;80:9943-50 pubmed
    ..Results from these in vivo studies clearly suggest a strong correlation between IFN-beta production and innate antiviral immunity against HSV-2. ..
  30. Xu F, Sternberg M, Kottiri B, McQuillan G, Lee F, Nahmias A, et al. Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States. JAMA. 2006;296:964-73 pubmed
    ..Seroprevalence of HSV-1 decreased but the incidence of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 may be increasing. ..
  31. Kasubi M, Nilsen A, Marsden H, Bergstrom T, Langeland N, Haarr L. Prevalence of antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in children and young people in an urban region in Tanzania. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2801-7 pubmed
    ..There was no statistically significant association between seropositivities for HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus. ..
  32. Nieuwenhuis R, van Doornum G, Mulder P, Neumann H, van der Meijden W. Importance of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) in primary genital herpes. Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86:129-34 pubmed
    ..054) and that HSV-2 was associated with "a higher number of sexual partners in the last 6 months" (p = 0.085). Our data confirm the growing importance of HSV-1 in primary genital herpes; oro-genital sex is the main risk factor. ..
  33. Sarmati L, Babudieri S, Longo B, Starnini G, Carbonara S, Monarca R, et al. Human herpesvirus 8 and human herpesvirus 2 infections in prison population. J Med Virol. 2007;79:167-73 pubmed
    ..004). A relatively high seroprevalence of HHV-8 and HSV-2 among Italian prison inmates was found. The association of HHV-8 and HSV-2 infections suggest sexual transmission of these viruses among Italian prison inmates. ..
  34. Freeman E, Orroth K, White R, Glynn J, Bakker R, Boily M, et al. Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83 Suppl 1:i17-24 pubmed
    ..In generalised HIV epidemics where control programmes for curable STIs are already in place, interventions against HSV-2 may have a key role in HIV prevention. ..
  35. Cachay E, Frost S, Richman D, Smith D, Little S. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection does not influence viral dynamics during early HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1270-7 pubmed
    ..We sought to compare baseline and longitudinal plasma HIV-1 loads between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-seropositive and -seronegative individuals who are enrolled in a primary HIV-1 infection cohort in San Diego, California...
  36. Shalabi M, Whitley R. Recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1194-7 pubmed
    ..This therapy is thought to be beneficial, although there is no controlled trial data to support efficacy and safety...
  37. Wald A, Krantz E, Selke S, Lairson E, Morrow R, Zeh J. Knowledge of partners' genital herpes protects against herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:42-52 pubmed
    ..However, unlike partners with genital herpes in prospectively monitored couples, most persons who transmit genital herpes are not aware of having the infection...
  38. Strick L, Wald A, Celum C. Management of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in HIV type 1-infected persons. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:347-56 pubmed
    ..Studies to quantify the potential clinical and public health benefits of treating individuals who have HIV-1 and HSV-2 coinfection with anti-HSV therapy are underway...
  39. Brown E, Wald A, Hughes J, Morrow R, Krantz E, Mayer K, et al. High risk of human immunodeficiency virus in men who have sex with men with herpes simplex virus type 2 in the EXPLORE study. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:733-41 pubmed
    ..5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) infection compared with HSV-2 seronegative participants. HIV intervention strategies targeting HSV-2 prevention and suppression among men who have sex with men should be evaluated...
  40. Franzen Rohl E, Tiveljung Lindell A, Grillner L, Aurelius E. Increased detection rate in diagnosis of herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis by real-time PCR using cerebrospinal fluid samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2516-20 pubmed
    ..Quantification of DNA enables further research of disease prognosis and treatment...
  41. Santos F, de Oliveira S, Setúbal S, Camacho L, Faillace T, Leite J, et al. Seroepidemiological study of herpes simplex virus type 2 in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:315-9 pubmed
    ..8% of the HSV-2 positive subjects, indicating low awareness of the HSV-2 infection. These results may have public health importance for Brazil as the high rate of HSV-2 infection may act as a cofactor of HIV transmission...
  42. Cairns T, Friedman L, Lou H, Whitbeck J, Shaner M, Cohen G, et al. N-terminal mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 gH are transported without gL but require gL for function. J Virol. 2007;81:5102-11 pubmed
    ..Additional mutagenesis identified L66 and L72 as important for function. Together, our results highlight several key gH residues: R39, Y41, W42, and D44 for gH transport and L66 and L72 for gH/gL structure and function...
  43. Nagot N, Ouedraogo A, Defer M, Vallo R, Mayaud P, Van de Perre P. Association between bacterial vaginosis and Herpes simplex virus type-2 infection: implications for HIV acquisition studies. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83:365-8 pubmed
    ..Recent research suggests an association between BV and HSV-2 acquisition, but the converse has not been studied. Here, we investigate whether an association exists between BV and HSV-2 infection..
  44. Nagot N, Ouedraogo A, Foulongne V, Konate I, Weiss H, Vergne L, et al. Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:790-9 pubmed
    ..Epidemiologic data suggest that infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with increased genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and HIV-1 transmissibility...
  45. Jin F, Prestage G, Mao L, Kippax S, Pell C, Donovan B, et al. Transmission of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in a prospective cohort of HIV-negative gay men: the health in men study. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:561-70 pubmed
    ..Despite increasing reports of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1)-associated anogenital herpes, there are very limited data comparing the seroepidemiological profile of and risk factors for HSV-1 and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) infection...
  46. Duerst R, Morrison L. Herpes simplex virus type 2-mediated disease is reduced in mice lacking RNase L. Virology. 2007;360:322-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, RNase L does not play a significant role in control of HSV-2 infection in vivo; instead, RNase L may regulate aspects of the inflammatory response that contribute to disease...
  47. Hosken N, McGowan P, Meier A, Koelle D, Sleath P, Wagener F, et al. Diversity of the CD8+ T-cell response to herpes simplex virus type 2 proteins among persons with genital herpes. J Virol. 2006;80:5509-15 pubmed
    ..Whether this variability in the CD8(+) T-cell response within individuals is associated with the frequency of viral reactivation warrants further study...
  48. Mark K, Corey L, Meng T, Magaret A, Huang M, Selke S, et al. Topical resiquimod 0.01% gel decreases herpes simplex virus type 2 genital shedding: a randomized, controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1324-31 pubmed
    ..In animal models, induction of Th1-specific responses modifies experimental herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection...
  49. Legoff J, Bouhlal H, Lecerf M, Klein C, Hocini H, Si Mohamed A, et al. HSV-2- and HIV-1- permissive cell lines co-infected by HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-replicate HSV-2 and HIV-1 without production of HSV-2/HIV-1 pseudotype particles. Virol J. 2007;4:2 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated whether HIV-1 and HSV-2 may interact at the cellular level by forming HIV-1 hybrid virions pseudotyped with HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins, as was previously reported for HSV type 1...
  50. Herbst Kralovetz M, Pyles R. Toll-like receptors, innate immunity and HSV pathogenesis. Herpes. 2006;13:37-41 pubmed
    ..Such devices prime innate immune responses, enhancing host resistance to viral infections, including experimental HSV infections...
  51. Carr D, Wuest T, Tomanek L, Silverman R, Williams B. The lack of RNA-dependent protein kinase enhances susceptibility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Immunology. 2006;118:520-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, activation of PKR, but not of OAS, contributes significantly to the local control and spread of HSV-2 following genital infection...
  52. Nilsen A, Kasubi M, Mohn S, Mwakagile D, Langeland N, Haarr L. Herpes simplex virus infection and genital ulcer disease among patients with sexually transmitted infections in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87:355-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, HSV-1 can also be the cause of genital ulcer disease in Africa. Regular surveillance of genital ulcer disease aetiology is important in programs for management of genital ulcer disease and HIV in Africa...
  53. Margolis T, Imai Y, Yang L, Vallas V, Krause P. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) establishes latent infection in a different population of ganglionic neurons than HSV-1: role of latency-associated transcripts. J Virol. 2007;81:1872-8 pubmed
  54. Svensson A, Bellner L, Magnusson M, Eriksson K. Role of IFN-alpha/beta signaling in the prevention of genital herpes virus type 2 infection. J Reprod Immunol. 2007;74:114-23 pubmed
    ..These studies have shown that IFN-alpha/beta receptor signaling is important for multiple events in the anti-viral defense...
  55. Bird M, Chu C, Johnson A, Milligan G. Early resolution of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of the murine genital tract involves stimulation of genital parenchymal cells by gamma interferon. J Virol. 2007;81:423-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that early IFN-gamma-mediated protection was manifested mainly by stimulation of genital parenchymal cells...
  56. Patel S, Hazrati E, Cheshenko N, Galen B, Yang H, Guzman E, et al. Seminal plasma reduces the effectiveness of topical polyanionic microbicides. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1394-402 pubmed
    ..0007, log rank test). If these findings are reflective of what occurs in humans, modifications to microbicides to ensure that they retain activity in the presence of seminal plasma are indicated...
  57. Corey L. Herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV-1: the dialogue between the 2 organisms continues. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1242-4 pubmed
  58. Corey L. Synergistic copathogens--HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:854-6 pubmed
  59. Handsfield H, Warren T, Werner M, Phillips J. Suppressive therapy with valacyclovir in early genital herpes: a pilot study of clinical efficacy and herpes-related quality of life. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:339-43 pubmed
    ..Suppressive therapy has not been studied during the first year after acquisition of genital herpes, the time of maximum frequency of reactivation, potential for transmission, and impact on quality of life...
  60. Cone R, Hoen T, Wong X, Abusuwwa R, Anderson D, Moench T. Vaginal microbicides: detecting toxicities in vivo that paradoxically increase pathogen transmission. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:90 pubmed
  61. Kim H, Wald A, Harris J, Almekinder J, Heitman C, Corey L. Does frequency of genital herpes recurrences predict risk of transmission? Further analysis of the valacyclovir transmission study. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:124-8 pubmed
    ..The benefit of suppressive antiviral therapy for reducing the risk of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 transmission to sex partners may be enhanced if persons at high risk for transmission can be identified...
  62. Kapiga S, Sam N, Bang H, Ni Q, Ao T, Kiwelu I, et al. The role of herpes simplex virus type 2 and other genital infections in the acquisition of HIV-1 among high-risk women in northern Tanzania. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1260-9 pubmed
  63. Fife K, Warren T, Ferrera R, Young D, Justus S, Heitman C, et al. Effect of valacyclovir on viral shedding in immunocompetent patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 genital herpes: a US-based randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81:1321-7 pubmed