gallid herpesvirus 2

Summary

Summary: The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.

Top Publications

  1. Schumacher D, Tischer B, Trapp S, Osterrieder N. The protein encoded by the US3 orthologue of Marek's disease virus is required for efficient de-envelopment of perinuclear virions and involved in actin stress fiber breakdown. J Virol. 2005;79:3987-97 pubmed
  2. Burnside J, Bernberg E, Anderson A, Lu C, Meyers B, Green P, et al. Marek's disease virus encodes MicroRNAs that map to meq and the latency-associated transcript. J Virol. 2006;80:8778-86 pubmed
    ..We propose that the MDV miRNAs function to enable MDV pathogenesis and contribute to MDV-induced transformation of chicken T cells...
  3. Lee L, Wu P, Sui D, Ren D, Kamil J, Kung H, et al. The complete unique long sequence and the overall genomic organization of the GA strain of Marek's disease virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6091-6 pubmed
    ..These remnant sequences are derived from the U3-enhancer region through ancestral insertions by reticuloendotheliosis virus proviruses...
  4. Dorange F, Tischer B, Vautherot J, Osterrieder N. Characterization of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) deletion mutants that lack UL46 to UL49 genes: MDV-1 UL49, encoding VP22, is indispensable for virus growth. J Virol. 2002;76:1959-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that an alphaherpesvirus UL49-homologous gene is essential for virus growth in cell culture...
  5. Tischer B, Schumacher D, Messerle M, Wagner M, Osterrieder N. The products of the UL10 (gM) and the UL49.5 genes of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 are essential for virus growth in cultured cells. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:997-1003 pubmed
    ..Thus, MDV-1 represents the first example of a member of the family Herpesviridae for which the highly conserved membrane proteins are indispensable for cell-to-cell spread...
  6. Hughes A, Rivailler P. Phylogeny and recombination history of gallid herpesvirus 2 (Marek's disease virus) genomes. Virus Res. 2007;130:28-33 pubmed
    ..The two loci (UL49.5 and RLORF12) that were homogenized among the virulent genomes GA, Md5, and Md11 are candidates for contributing to viral virulence...
  7. Coussens P, Velicer L. Structure and complete nucleotide sequence of the Marek's disease herpesvirus gp57-65 gene. J Virol. 1988;62:2373-9 pubmed
    ..This sequence appears to be less prominent than those commonly found in integral membrane glycoproteins. The lack of a strong hydrophobic anchor sequence may help to explain the predominantly secretory nature of MDHV gp57-65. ..
  8. Davidson I, Malkinson M, Weisman Y. Marek's disease in turkeys. II. Characterization of the viral glycoprotein B gene and antigen of a turkey strain of Marek's disease virus. Avian Dis. 2002;46:322-33 pubmed
    ..While the chicken MDV had two epitope types, heat-labile but dithiothreitol (DTT)-stable and heat-stable but DTT-labile, the turkey MDV gB epitope is both heat and DTT-labile. ..
  9. Laurent S, Esnault E, Rasschaert D. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in two Marek's disease virus genes (Meq and gD): application to a retrospective molecular epidemiology study (1982-1999) in France. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1387-92 pubmed
    ..5 %) clustered in the C1 type, which has been present for over 17 years. Waves of non-C1-type isolates appeared when vaccine efficacy decreased. Furthermore, specific discriminating sequences were obtained for the CVI-988 vaccine strain. ..

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Shi W, Liu C, Zhang Y, Qin Y, Zhang X, Li J, et al. [Cloning and sequence analysis of the Meq gene of 4 Marek's disease virus isolates from China]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2008;24:117-25 pubmed
    ..It seems that some regularities exist between such mutations in four Chinese local MDV isolates and the virulence of MDV, but the regularities need further research. ..
  2. Chbab N, Chabanne Vautherot D, Francineau A, Osterrieder N, Denesvre C, Vautherot J. The Marek's disease virus (MDV) protein encoded by the UL17 ortholog is essential for virus growth. Vet Res. 2009;40:28 pubmed publisher
    ..Although our results strongly suggest that another viral protein retains (or relocate) pUL17 to the nucleus, we report that none of the tegument protein tested so far were able to mediate pUL17 relocation to the nucleus. ..
  3. Koptidesová D, Kopacek J, Zelnik V, Ross N, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J. Identification and characterization of a cDNA clone derived from the Marek's disease tumour cell line RPL1 encoding a homologue of alpha-transinducing factor (VP16) of HSV-1. Arch Virol. 1995;140:355-62 pubmed
    ..In vitro translation demonstrated that both MDV UL49 and UL48 can be expressed from a single mRNA. ..
  4. Ohashi K, Morimura T, Takagi M, Lee S, Cho K, Takahashi H, et al. Expression of bcl-2 and bcl-x genes in lymphocytes and tumor cell lines derived from MDV-infected chickens. Acta Virol. 1999;43:128-32 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that bcl-xL rather than bcl-2 might play an important role in the transformation process by MDV. ..
  5. Ewert D, Duhadaway J. Inhibition of apoptosis by Marek's disease viruses. Acta Virol. 1999;43:133-5 pubmed
  6. Laurent S, Esnault E, Dambrine G, Goudeau A, Choudat D, Rasschaert D. Detection of avian oncogenic Marek's disease herpesvirus DNA in human sera. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:233-40 pubmed
    ..65%. However, four 'hot-spot' mutation sites were identified, defining four groups. Interestingly, two groups contained only human MDV-gD sequences. The status of the MDV genome detected in human blood is discussed. ..
  7. Tan X, Brunovskis P, Velicer L. Transcriptional analysis of Marek's disease virus glycoprotein D, I, and E genes: gD expression is undetectable in cell culture. J Virol. 2001;75:2067-75 pubmed
    ..Compared to the highly gD-dependent herpes simplex virus and the other extreme of the varicella-zoster virus which lacks the gD gene, MDV is an intermediate type of alphaherpesvirus. ..
  8. Karpathy R, Firth G, Tannock G. Field evaluations of safety and efficacy of an Australian Marek's disease vaccine. Aust Vet J. 2003;81:222-5 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the Marek's Disease Virus-1 vaccine (strain BH 16) from field studies in comparison with the CVI 988 Rispens vaccine currently available in Australia...
  9. Niikura M, Dodgson J, Cheng H. Direct evidence of host genome acquisition by the alphaherpesvirus Marek's disease virus. Arch Virol. 2006;151:537-49 pubmed
  10. Sarson A, Parvizi P, Lepp D, Quinton M, Sharif S. Transcriptional analysis of host responses to Marek's disease virus infection in genetically resistant and susceptible chickens. Anim Genet. 2008;39:232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These gene expression profiles provide a platform for defining novel candidate genes for resistance or susceptibility to MD. ..
  11. Parcells M, Lin S, Dienglewicz R, Majerciak V, Robinson D, Chen H, et al. Marek's disease virus (MDV) encodes an interleukin-8 homolog (vIL-8): characterization of the vIL-8 protein and a vIL-8 deletion mutant MDV. J Virol. 2001;75:5159-73 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data describe the identification and characterization of a chemokine homolog encoded within the MDV genome that is dispensable for transformation but may affect the level of MDV in vivo lytic infection...
  12. Lee S, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C, Onuma M. Heparin inhibits plaque formation by cell-free Marek's disease viruses in vitro. J Vet Med Sci. 2001;63:427-32 pubmed
    ..From these results, it was suggested that the MDV entry, at least in the case of cell-free MDV, is dependent on the presence of cell surface glycosaminoglycans, principally HS...
  13. Butter C, Staines K, Baaten B, Smith L, Davison T. Route of challenge is critical in determining the clinical outcome of infection with a very virulent oncogenic herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:93-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that instillation of infective dust produces a more aggressive infection that depends on the route of entry and form of virus, and not just on the challenge dose. ..
  14. Schumacher D, McKinney C, Kaufer B, Osterrieder N. Enzymatically inactive U(S)3 protein kinase of Marek's disease virus (MDV) is capable of depolymerizing F-actin but results in accumulation of virions in perinuclear invaginations and reduced virus growth. Virology. 2008;375:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The unaltered disruption of F-actin by the K220A pU(S)3 mutant suggests that F-actin disassembly is unrelated to MDV growth restrictions in the absence of the unique-short protein kinase. ..
  15. Kano R, Konnai S, Onuma M, Ohashi K. Microarray analysis of host immune responses to Marek's disease virus infection in vaccinated chickens. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:603-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, CD8alpha(high) TCR1(+) cell population is probably one of the key factors involved in the protective mechanism induced by a vaccine strain, CVI988...
  16. Wu P, Reed W, Lee L. Glycoproteins H and L of Marek's disease virus form a hetero-oligomer essential for translocation and cell surface expression. Arch Virol. 2001;146:983-92 pubmed
    ..The binding domain of gH was mapped to the amino acids 451-659 (SacI-HindIII) fragment and was essential for gH-L complex formation. ..
  17. Lee L, Liu J, Cui X, Kung H. Marek's disease virus latent protein MEQ: delineation of an epitope in the BR1 domain involved in nuclear localization. Virus Genes. 2003;27:211-8 pubmed
    ..Since both BR1 and BR2 domains contain sequences important for nuclear entry, we now have reagent to further study and elucidate the mechanism of MEQ's involvement in nuclear and nucleolar localization. ..
  18. Baaten B, Butter C, Davison T. Study of host-pathogen interactions to identify sustainable vaccine strategies to Marek's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;100:165-77 pubmed
    ..Resistance conferred by vaccination and the implications of targeting replicative stages of the virus will also be examined...
  19. Spatz S, Zhao Y, Petherbridge L, Smith L, Baigent S, Nair V. Comparative sequence analysis of a highly oncogenic but horizontal spread-defective clone of Marek's disease virus. Virus Genes. 2007;35:753-66 pubmed
    ..Although further studies are needed to evaluate the role of these genes in the horizontal-spreading defective phenotype, our data clearly indicate that mutations in these genes do not affect the oncogenicity of MDV. ..
  20. Zhang C, Qin A, Chen H, Deng X, Su Y, Qian K. MDV-1 VP22: a transporter that can selectively deliver proteins into cells. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1027-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, infectious bursa disease VP2 protein could not be transported by MDV-1 VP22. ..
  21. Okamura H, Sakaguchi M, Yokogawa K, Tokunaga E, Abe S, Tokiyoshi S, et al. Lack of contact transmission of recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 expressing the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus. Vaccine. 2001;20:483-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that dander from chickens inoculated with rMDV1 includes viral DNA, but does not contain infectious virus. ..
  22. Wakenell P, Bryan T, Schaeffer J, Avakian A, Williams C, Whitfill C. Effect of in ovo vaccine delivery route on herpesvirus of turkeys/SB-1 efficacy and viremia. Avian Dis. 2002;46:274-80 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in ovo MD vaccines must be injected either via the amniotic route or the intraembryonic route for optimal performance...
  23. Ross L, Sanderson M, Scott S, Binns M, Doel T, Milne B. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the Marek's disease virus homologue of glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus. J Gen Virol. 1989;70 ( Pt 7):1789-804 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence tests indicated that MDV gB is associated with granules in the cytoplasm and is present at the surface of MDV-infected cells. ..
  24. Békési L, Ball B, Dobos Kovacs M, Bakonyi T, Rusvai M. Occurrence of acute paralysis virus of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) in a Hungarian apiary infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni. Acta Vet Hung. 1999;47:319-24 pubmed
    ..In spite of the application of acaricide treatments the bee population in several colonies had collapsed by the end of summer and the apiary suffered severe wintering losses. ..
  25. Djeraba AitLounis A, Lounis A, Soubieux D, Klapper W, Rasschaert D. Induction of telomerase activity in avian lymphoblastoid cell line transformed by Marek's disease virus, MDCC-MSB1. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:405-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that telomerase is more intense in one transformed cell line than in normal cells, suggesting a potential role for telomerase in carcinogenesis induced by an avian virus. ..
  26. Abdul Careem M, Read L, Parvizi P, Thanthrige Don N, Sharif S. Marek's disease virus-induced expression of cytokine genes in feathers of genetically defined chickens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply the usefulness of genetic control approach in reducing virulent MDV transmission...
  27. Baigent S, Smith L, Currie R, Nair V. Correlation of Marek's disease herpesvirus vaccine virus genome load in feather tips with protection, using an experimental challenge model. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:467-74 pubmed
    ..The potential of this assay, and its limitations for monitoring protection in the field, are discussed. ..
  28. Spatz S, Rue C. Sequence determination of a mildly virulent strain (CU-2) of Gallid herpesvirus type 2 using 454 pyrosequencing. Virus Genes. 2008;36:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most occur in proteins of unknown function, a significant percentage is in proteins involved in virion assembly...
  29. Lan D, Shi X, Wang Y, Liu C, Wang M, Cui H, et al. [Construction of a recombinant HVT virus expressing the HA gene of avian influenza virus H5N1 via Rde/ET recombination system]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2009;49:78-84 pubmed
    ..With these BAC clones in hand,we manipulated the genome of HVT by utilizing Red/ET recombination system, and developed a biologically safe live vaccine based on the HVT BACs...
  30. Abdul Careem M, Haq K, Shanmuganathan S, Read L, Schat K, Heidari M, et al. Induction of innate host responses in the lungs of chickens following infection with a very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2009;393:250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study demonstrates induction of innate host responses to MDV infection in the respiratory system. Further studies are needed to characterize other host responses generated in the lungs following MDV infection. ..
  31. Lucas A, Dai E, Liu L, Nation P. Atherosclerosis in Marek's disease virus infected hypercholesterolemic roosters is reduced by HMGCoA reductase and ACE inhibitor therapy. Cardiovasc Res. 1998;38:237-46 pubmed
    ..2) MDV infection in cholesterol fed roosters provides a model for virus-induced arterial injury in atherogenesis. ..
  32. Liu H, Soderblom E, Goshe M. A mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach to study Marek's Disease Virus gene expression. J Virol Methods. 2006;135:66-75 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that this approach will be a viable method for determining how viral and host proteome changes occurring in Marek's Disease pathogenesis regulate the switch between the lytic and latent phases of the MDV life cycle. ..
  33. Lambeth L, Zhao Y, Smith L, Kgosana L, Nair V. Targeting Marek's disease virus by RNA interference delivered from a herpesvirus vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Delivery of RNAi-based gene silencing through live attenuated vaccines for reducing replication of pathogenic viruses is a novel approach for the control of infectious diseases...
  34. Tahiri Alaoui A, Matsuda D, Xu H, Panagiotis P, Burman L, Lambeth L, et al. The 5' leader of the mRNA encoding the marek's disease virus serotype 1 pp14 protein contains an intronic internal ribosome entry site with allosteric properties. J Virol. 2009;83:12769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In analogy with allosteric models in proteins, we propose IRES allostery to describe such a novel phenomenon. The functional implications of our findings are discussed in relation to host-virus interactions and translational control. ..
  35. Tai S, Hearn C, Umthong S, Agafitei O, Cheng H, Dunn J, et al. Expression of Marek's Disease Virus Oncoprotein Meq During Infection in the Natural Host. Virology. 2017;503:103-113 pubmed publisher
    b>Gallid herpesvirus 2 (Marek's disease virus, MDV) causes lymphoproliferative Marek's disease (MD), and is unique among alphaherpesviruses as the viral genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq...
  36. Yoshida S, Lee L, Yanagida N, Nazerian K. Identification and characterization of a Marek's disease virus gene homologous to glycoprotein L of herpes simplex virus. Virology. 1994;204:414-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, similar to HSV-1 coexpression and complex formation of MDV gL and gH may be required for proper processing and transport of gL to the cell surface. ..
  37. Geerligs H, Weststrate M, Pertile T, Rodenberg J, Kumar M, Chu S. Efficacy of a combination vaccine containing MDV CVI 988 strain and HVT against challenge with very virulent MDV. Acta Virol. 1999;43:198-200 pubmed
  38. Raja A, Dhinakar Raj G, Bhuvaneswari P, Balachandran C, Kumanan K. Detection of virulent Marek's disease virus in poultry in India. Acta Virol. 2009;53:255-60 pubmed
    ..The present study showed the presence of virulent/very virulent MDV strains in the Indian poultry flocks. ..
  39. Haq K, Abdul Careem M, Shanmuganthan S, Thanthrige Don N, Read L, Sharif S. Vaccine-induced host responses against very virulent Marek's disease virus infection in the lungs of chickens. Vaccine. 2010;28:5565-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed more light on the immunological events that occur in the lungs after vaccination or infection with MDV...
  40. Song C, Chen H, Qin A, Zhang C. [Preparation and immunological characterization of monoclonal antibodies against VP22 carboxyl terminus of Marek's disease virus serotype 1]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;23:249-52 pubmed
    ..The preparation of the mAb is very important to further research in protein transduction domain of MDV-1 VP22. ..
  41. Isfort R, Qian Z, Jones D, Silva R, Witter R, Kung H. Integration of multiple chicken retroviruses into multiple chicken herpesviruses: herpesviral gD as a common target of integration. Virology. 1994;203:125-33 pubmed
    ..Finally, this is the first instance of a full-length provirus found integrated into a herpesvirus genome, indicating that a retrovirus could alter its route of infection by being carried in a herpesvirus genome...
  42. Davidson I, Borenstein R. Multiple infection of chickens and turkeys with avian oncogenic viruses: prevalence and molecular analysis. Acta Virol. 1999;43:136-42 pubmed
    ..1992)...
  43. Gimeno I, Witter R, Neumann U. Neuropathotyping: a new system to classify Marek's disease virus. Avian Dis. 2002;46:909-18 pubmed
    ..This finding illustrates how neuropathotyping may extend important information not identified by conventional pathotyping...
  44. Morgan R, Anderson A, Bernberg E, Kamboj S, Huang E, Lagasse G, et al. Sequence conservation and differential expression of Marek's disease virus microRNAs. J Virol. 2008;82:12213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the meq cluster microRNAs play an important role in the pathogenicity of MDV...
  45. Suchodolski P, Izumiya Y, Lupiani B, Ajithdoss D, Lee L, Kung H, et al. Both homo and heterodimers of Marek's disease virus encoded Meq protein contribute to transformation of lymphocytes in chickens. Virology. 2010;399:312-21 pubmed publisher
    Marek' disease virus serotype-1, also know as Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), elicits T-cell lymphomas in chickens. The GaHV-2 genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq, with similarity to the Jun/Fos family of proteins...
  46. Zelnik V, Majerciak V, Szabová D, Geerligs H, Kopacek J, Ross L, et al. Glycoprotein gD of MDV lacks functions typical for alpha-herpesvirus gD homologues. Acta Virol. 1999;43:164-8 pubmed
  47. Ramaroson M, Ruby J, Goshe M, Liu H. Changes in the Gallus gallus proteome induced by Marek's disease virus. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:4346-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Subtle differences were observed for subcellular localizations of the identified proteins. These results suggest that MDV infection may alter host cell biochemistry by perturbing the host's proteomic composition...
  48. Gimeno I. Marek's disease vaccines: a solution for today but a worry for tomorrow?. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 3:C31-41 pubmed
    ..Other solutions to improve vaccine-induced protection are discussed in this paper...
  49. Singh S, Baigent S, Petherbridge L, Smith L, Nair V. Comparative efficacy of BAC-derived recombinant SB-1 vaccine and the parent wild type strain in preventing replication, shedding and disease induced by virulent Marek's disease virus. Res Vet Sci. 2010;89:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccine viruses derived from each of these clones demonstrated protective efficacies at levels similar to those produced by the respective parent viruses, demonstrating their suitability to be used as vaccine candidates...
  50. Stik G, Laurent S, Coupeau D, Coutaud B, Dambrine G, Rasschaert D, et al. A p53-dependent promoter associated with polymorphic tandem repeats controls the expression of a viral transcript encoding clustered microRNAs. RNA. 2010;16:2263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..here that the latency-associated cluster of microRNAs (miRNA) encoded by an oncogenic herpesvirus, gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), is a direct target of p53...
  51. Yanagida N, Yoshida S, Nazerian K, Lee L. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of Marek's disease virus homologues of herpes simplex virus major tegument proteins. J Gen Virol. 1993;74 ( Pt 9):1837-45 pubmed
    ..This homologue, like the VZV homologue of UL48, may be involved in the trans-activation of immediate early genes and may function as an important component of the structural proteins...
  52. Simmons A. Herpesvirus and multiple sclerosis. Herpes. 2001;8:60-3 pubmed
    ..One of the greatest challenges in confirming or refuting a role for herpesviruses in chronic diseases is their ubiquitous nature. It is stated from the outset that the associations described here remain controversial...
  53. Levy A, Davidson I, Burgess S, Dan Heller E. Major histocompatibility complex class I is downregulated in Marek's disease virus infected chicken embryo fibroblasts and corrected by chicken interferon. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;26:189-98 pubmed
    ..Our results show that only an oncogenic serotype 1 strain of MDV (RB1B) was able to markedly decrease MHC class I expression, and that addition of IFN reversed this MDV effect...
  54. Schat K. Isolation of Marek's disease virus: revisited. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:91-5 pubmed
    ..Recommendations on procedures for successful virus isolation are provided...
  55. Debba Pavard M, Ait Lounis A, Soubieux D, Rasschaert D, Dambrine G. Vaccination against Marek's disease reduces telomerase activity and viral gene transcription in peripheral blood leukocytes from challenged chickens. Vaccine. 2008;26:4904-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, telomerase activity and gene transcription in challenge MDV strains are potential new reliable criteria of protection in vaccinated chickens...
  56. Bumstead N, Sillibourne J, Rennie M, Ross N, Davison F. Quantification of Marek's disease virus in chicken lymphocytes using the polymerase chain reaction with fluorescence detection. J Virol Methods. 1997;65:75-81 pubmed
  57. Schat K, Xing Z. Specific and nonspecific immune responses to Marek's disease virus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2000;24:201-21 pubmed
    ..A proposed model for the interactions of cytokines and immune responses as part of the pathogenesis of MD is discussed...
  58. Chang K, Ohashi K, Onuma M. Diversity (polymorphism) of the meq gene in the attenuated Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1 and MDV-transformed cell lines. J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:1097-101 pubmed
    ..Thus, the meq gene is polymorphic in the attenuated MDV1 and the MDV-transformed cell lines, and gene products from different meq genes may have different functions from each other...
  59. Anobile J, Arumugaswami V, Downs D, Czymmek K, Parcells M, Schmidt C. Nuclear localization and dynamic properties of the Marek's disease virus oncogene products Meq and Meq/vIL8. J Virol. 2006;80:1160-6 pubmed
    ..Our data provide new insight regarding the dynamic cellular properties of two forms of a herpesvirus-encoded oncoprotein and suggest that these forms may have fundamentally different functions in MDV-infected cells...
  60. Morissette G, Flamand L. Herpesviruses and chromosomal integration. J Virol. 2010;84:12100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we provide a historical perspective on chromosomal integration by herpesviruses and present the current state of knowledge on integration by HHV-6 with the possible clinical implications associated with viral integration...
  61. Jones D, Lee L, Liu J, Kung H, Tillotson J. Marek disease virus encodes a basic-leucine zipper gene resembling the fos/jun oncogenes that is highly expressed in lymphoblastoid tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4042-6 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, a herpesvirus gene closely related to the fos/jun family of oncogenes has not been reported previously...
  62. Cui Z, Lee L, Liu J, Kung H. Structural analysis and transcriptional mapping of the Marek's disease virus gene encoding pp38, an antigen associated with transformed cells. J Virol. 1991;65:6509-15 pubmed
    ..The pp38 protein is the only presently known antigen that is consistently associated with the transformation state. It may play a significant role in MDV transformation...
  63. Reimann I, Werner O. Use of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus in Marek's disease vaccines and chicken tissues. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1996;43:75-84 pubmed
    ..The PCR results correlated well with the diagnosis obtained by conventional procedures, i.e. virus isolation or indirect immuno-fluorescence test (IIFT)...
  64. Cui Z, Qin A, Lee L, Wu P, Kung H. Construction and characterization of a H19 epitope point mutant of MDV CVI988/Rispens strain. Acta Virol. 1999;43:169-73 pubmed
    ..The result of this study provides a direct evidence for the location of the identified H19 epitope in pp38. This mutant is potentially useful to further explore the biological function of pp38 and its H19 epitope...
  65. Liu J, Kung H. Marek's disease herpesvirus transforming protein MEQ: a c-Jun analogue with an alternative life style. Virus Genes. 2000;21:51-64 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will attempt to summarize the past research progress on MDV meq, with a focused on the similarities and differences between MEQ and cellular proteins, and between MEQ and other viral oncoproteins...
  66. Burgess S, Basaran B, Davison T. Resistance to Marek's disease herpesvirus-induced lymphoma is multiphasic and dependent on host genotype. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:129-42 pubmed
    ..The rank order, determined by clinical signs and pathology, for MD susceptibility (highest to lowest) was 7(2) > 15I > 6(1) > N...
  67. Miles A, Reddy S, Morgan R. Coinfection of specific-pathogen-free chickens with Marek's disease virus (MDV) and chicken infectious anemia virus: effect of MDV pathotype. Avian Dis. 2001;45:9-18 pubmed
    ..Coinfection with CIAV exacerbated vvMDV strain RB1B infection. The extent of this exacerbation was less evident when birds were coinfected with 584A and CIAV...
  68. Bobryshev Y, Konovalov H, Lord R. Ultrastructural recognition of dendritic cells in the intimal lesions of aortas of chickens affected with Marek's disease. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 1999;31:179-85 pubmed
    ..Our observations show that dendritic cells are present in the aortic lesions of Marek's disease and are presumably involved in related immune mechanisms...
  69. Zhang Y, Sharma J. Early posthatch protection against Marek's disease in chickens vaccinated in ovo with a CVI988 serotype 1 vaccine. Avian Dis. 2001;45:639-45 pubmed
    ..Additional efforts with more sensitive techniques than used in this study are needed to identify the nature of viral expression in embryos...
  70. Hennig H, Osterrieder N, Müller Steinhardt M, Teichert H, Kirchner H, Wandinger K. Detection of Marek's disease virus DNA in chicken but not in human plasma. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2428-32 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, Marek's disease in chickens can be diagnosed by detection of MDV DNA in plasma as well as in leukocytes. Once again, we found no evidence for the spread of MDV to humans...
  71. Kang J, Cho S, Mo I, Lee D, Kwon H. Prevalence and molecular characterization of meq in feather follicular epithelial cells of Korean broiler chickens. Virus Genes. 2007;35:339-45 pubmed
    ..However, the existence of CVI988-related meq in unvaccinated chickens necessitates further study regarding the origins and pathoimmunological effects of the viruses on chickens...
  72. Sarson A, Abdul Careem M, Read L, Brisbin J, Sharif S. Expression of cytotoxicity-associated genes in Marek's disease virus-infected chickens. Viral Immunol. 2008;21:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed more light on the mechanisms of host response to MDV infection in chickens...
  73. Peng F, Bradley G, Tanaka A, Lancz G, Nonoyama M. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs from BamHI-H gene family RNAs associated with the tumorigenicity of Marek's disease virus. J Virol. 1992;66:7389-96 pubmed
    ..69-kbp cDNA and a putative 75-amino-acid protein encoded by the first open reading frame in the 1.5-kbp cDNA showed limited homology with the mouse T-cell lymphoma oncogene and the fes/fps family of kinase-related transforming proteins...
  74. Ding J, Cui Z, Lee L, Cui X, Reddy S. The role of pp38 in regulation of Marek's disease virus bi-directional promoter between pp38 and 1.8-kb mRNA. Virus Genes. 2006;32:193-201 pubmed
    ..All these data taken together suggest pp38 plays an important role in regulating the transcriptional activity of the bi-directional promoter...
  75. Murata S, Chang K, Lee S, Konnai S, Onuma M, Ohashi K. Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction method to detect oncogenic Marek's disease virus from feather tips. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:471-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the meq gene was mainly detected even in chickens co-infected with both Md5 and CVI988. These results suggest that this method is appropriate for the surveillance of the highly virulent MDV infection in the field...
  76. Yao Y, Zhao Y, Xu H, Smith L, Lawrie C, Watson M, et al. MicroRNA profile of Marek's disease virus-transformed T-cell line MSB-1: predominance of virus-encoded microRNAs. J Virol. 2008;82:4007-15 pubmed publisher
    ..High levels of expression of MDV-1-encoded miRNAs and potentially oncogenic host miRNAs suggest that miRNAs may have major roles in MDV pathogenesis and neoplastic transformation...
  77. Li Y, Kang M, Su S, Ding J, Cui Z, Zhu H. [Evaluation the immuno-protective effect of an infectious clone of meq- deleted Marek's disease virus]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2010;50:942-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the immuno-protective effect of GX0101 deltameq-BAC containing an infectious meq-null Marek's disease virus genome...
  78. Lütticken D. Viral diseases of the immune system and strategies to control infectious bursal disease by vaccination. Acta Vet Hung. 1997;45:239-49 pubmed
    ..Successful vaccination strategies applied in the past and options for the future will be discussed...
  79. Osterrieder N. Sequence and initial characterization of the U(L)10 (glycoprotein M) and U(L)11 homologous genes of serotype 1 Marek's Disease Virus. Arch Virol. 1999;144:1853-63 pubmed
    ..Coupled in vitro transcription-translation confirmed that the U(L)10 product is a 47 kD N-glycosylated viral protein that aggregated upon boiling, whereas the U(L)11 protein exhibited a size of 12 kD after in vitro translation...
  80. Jarosinski K, O Connell P, Schat K. Impact of deletions within the Bam HI-L fragment of attenuated Marek's disease virus on vIL-8 expression and the newly identified transcript of open reading frame LORF4. Virus Genes. 2003;26:255-69 pubmed
  81. Yao Y, Zhao Y, Xu H, Smith L, Lawrie C, Sewer A, et al. Marek's disease virus type 2 (MDV-2)-encoded microRNAs show no sequence conservation with those encoded by MDV-1. J Virol. 2007;81:7164-70 pubmed
    ..The identification of these novel miRNAs adds to the growing list of virus-encoded miRNAs...
  82. Dudnikova E, Norkina S, Vlasov A, Slobodchuk A, Lee L, Witter R. Evaluation of Marek's disease field isolates by the "best fit" pathotyping assay. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:135-43 pubmed
    ..In addition, the pathogenicity of Russian isolates appeared comparable with that of United States isolates...
  83. Isfort R, Jones D, Kost R, Witter R, Kung H. Retrovirus insertion into herpesvirus in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:991-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, retrovirus may provide a useful tool to characterize herpesviral function by insertional mutagenesis...
  84. Jarosinski K, Jia W, Sekellick M, Marcus P, Schat K. Cellular responses in chickens treated with IFN-alpha orally or inoculated with recombinant Marek's disease virus expressing IFN-alpha. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2001;21:287-96 pubmed
    ..Treatment of chicken embryo cell cultures with rChIFN-alpha inhibited replication of the very virulent MDV RB-1B strain in vitro, and oral treatment of chickens with rChIFN-alpha reduced MDV R2/23 replication in vivo...
  85. Burgess S, Davison T. Identification of the neoplastically transformed cells in Marek's disease herpesvirus-induced lymphomas: recognition by the monoclonal antibody AV37. J Virol. 2002;76:7276-92 pubmed
    ..Identification of the neoplastically transformed cells in MD facilitates a detailed understanding of MD pathogenesis and also improves the utility of MD as a general model for herpesvirus oncology...
  86. Cui X, Lee L, Reed W, Kung H, Reddy S. Marek's disease virus-encoded vIL-8 gene is involved in early cytolytic infection but dispensable for establishment of latency. J Virol. 2004;78:4753-60 pubmed
    ..To study the significance of this variation, we generated recombinant MDV, rMd5/vIL-8-ELR, carrying the ELR motif. Both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that the DKR motif is as competent as ELR in pathogenesis of MDV...
  87. Chang K, Ohashi K, Lee S, Takagi M, Onum M. Detection of the meq gene in the T cell subsets from chickens infected with Marek's disease virus serotype 1. Jpn J Vet Res. 2005;53:3-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a dominant subpopulation of MDV 1 changes depending on the T cell subsets, and that L-meq is dominantly present in the CD8+ T cells which play a role in the clearance of pathogenic agents...
  88. Heine H, Foord A, Young P, Hooper P, Lehrbach P, Boyle D. Recombinant fowlpox virus vaccines against Australian virulent Marek's disease virus: gene sequence analysis and comparison of vaccine efficacy in specific pathogen free and production chickens. Virus Res. 1997;50:23-33 pubmed
    ..The failure to provide protection against MD may be related to the impact of maternally derived immunity to MDV and FPV and possibly the genotype of the chickens...
  89. Djeraba A, Musset E, Lowenthal J, Boyle D, Chaussé A, Péloille M, et al. Protective effect of avian myelomonocytic growth factor in infection with Marek's disease virus. J Virol. 2002;76:1062-70 pubmed
    ..Second, it may enhance the acquired immune response, indicated by its ability to enhance vaccine efficacy...
  90. Davidson I, Borenshtain R. The feather tips of commercial chickens are a favorable source of DNA for the amplification of Marek's disease virus and avian leukosis virus, subgroup J. Avian Pathol. 2002;31:237-40 pubmed
    ..We show that the polymerase chain reaction for MDV and ALV-J env using DNA from feather tips was more effective for diagnosis of naturally infected commercial chickens than using the liver and spleen...
  91. Blondeau C, Marc D, Courvoisier K, Vautherot J, Denesvre C. Functional homologies between avian and human alphaherpesvirus VP22 proteins in cell-to-cell spreading as revealed by a new cis-complementation assay. J Virol. 2008;82:9278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, heterologous avian and human VP22 proteins share sufficient structural homology to support MDV cell-to-cell spreading, albeit with different efficiencies...
  92. Choudat D, Dambrine G, Delemotte B, Coudert F. Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Marek's disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53:403-10 pubmed
    ..To compare the prevalence of antibodies against Marek's disease herpes virus (MDV) and against avian leukosis viruses type C (ALV) in groups of workers exposed to poultry and in unexposed groups...