Summary: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Köklü G, Ramsell J, Kvarnheden A. The complete genome sequence for a Turkish isolate of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) from barley confirms the presence of two distinct WDV strains. Virus Genes. 2007;34:359-66 pubmed
    ..The barley strain could also be divided into three subtypes based on relationships and geographic origin. This study shows the first complete published sequence for a barley isolate of WDV. ..
  2. Mansoor S, Briddon R, Bull S, Bedford I, Bashir A, Hussain M, et al. Cotton leaf curl disease is associated with multiple monopartite begomoviruses supported by single DNA beta. Arch Virol. 2003;148:1969-86 pubmed
    For bipartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) trans-replication of the DNA B component by the DNA A-encoded replication-associated protein (Rep) is achieved by virtue of a shared sequence, the "common region", which ..
  3. Mansoor S, Zafar Y, Briddon R. Geminivirus disease complexes: the threat is spreading. Trends Plant Sci. 2006;11:209-12 pubmed
    ..Further investigation into the promiscuous nature of these satellites and their ability to recruit further begomoviruses indicates that regions not yet affected by such begomovirus-satellite complexes are at great risk. ..
  4. Fondong V, Pita J, Rey M, De Kochko A, Beachy R, Fauquet C. Evidence of synergism between African cassava mosaic virus and a new double-recombinant geminivirus infecting cassava in Cameroon. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:287-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest the occurrence of a synergistic interaction between the two viruses...
  5. Hong Y, Robinson D, Harrison B. Nucleotide sequence evidence for the occurrence of three distinct whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in cassava. J Gen Virol. 1993;74 ( Pt 11):2437-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences between ACMV-K, ACMV-M and ICMV are considered great enough to justify their separation as isolates of three distinct WTGs: African cassava mosaic virus, East African cassava mosaic virus and Indian cassava mosaic virus...
  6. Dogra S, Eini O, Rezaian M, Randles J. A novel shaggy-like kinase interacts with the Tomato leaf curl virus pathogenicity determinant C4 protein. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;71:25-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential significance of ToLCV C4 and SlSK interaction is discussed. ..
  7. Fontes E, Gladfelter H, Schaffer R, Petty I, Hanley Bowdoin L. Geminivirus replication origins have a modular organization. Plant Cell. 1994;6:405-16 pubmed
  8. Xie Q, Sanz Burgos A, Hannon G, Gutierrez C. Plant cells contain a novel member of the retinoblastoma family of growth regulatory proteins. EMBO J. 1996;15:4900-8 pubmed
    ..Our results allow the extension of the Rb family of tumor suppressor proteins to plants and have implications on animal and plant strategies for cell growth control. ..
  9. Kong L, Hanley Bowdoin L. A geminivirus replication protein interacts with a protein kinase and a motor protein that display different expression patterns during plant development and infection. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1817-32 pubmed
    ..Together, our results establish that AL1 interacts with host proteins involved in plant cell division and development. Possible functions of these host factors in healthy and geminivirus-infected plants are discussed. ..

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tuttle J, Idris A, Brown J, Haigler C, Robertson D. Geminivirus-mediated gene silencing from Cotton leaf crumple virus is enhanced by low temperature in cotton. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments establish the use of the CLCrV silencing vector to study gene function in cotton and show that temperature can have a major impact on the extent of geminivirus-induced gene silencing. ..
  2. Schnippenkoetter W, Martin D, Hughes F, Fyvie M, Willment J, James D, et al. The relative infectivities and genomic characterisation of three distinct mastreviruses from South Africa. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1075-88 pubmed
    ..In the case of MSV-Set, this is the most distantly related MSV strain yet characterised...
  3. Vanitharani R, Chellappan P, Pita J, Fauquet C. Differential roles of AC2 and AC4 of cassava geminiviruses in mediating synergism and suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing. J Virol. 2004;78:9487-98 pubmed
    ..The specific and different roles played by these AC2 and AC4 proteins of cassava geminiviruses in regulating anti-PTGS activity and their relation to synergism are discussed. ..
  4. Crescenzi A, Comes S, Napoli C, Fanigliulo A, Pacella R, Accotto G. Severe outbreaks of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in Calabria, Southern Italy. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2004;69:575-80 pubmed
    ..Therefore the danger exists that also TYLCV will reach this area, furthermore complicating the management of tomato crops. ..
  5. Rojas M, Hagen C, Lucas W, Gilbertson R. Exploiting chinks in the plant's armor: evolution and emergence of geminiviruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2005;43:361-94 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms also evolved to circumvent the host antiviral defense systems. Effectively combatting diseases caused by geminiviruses represents a major challenge and opportunity for biotechnology. ..
  6. Raghavan V, Malik P, Choudhury N, Mukherjee S. The DNA-A component of a plant geminivirus (Indian mung bean yellow mosaic virus) replicates in budding yeast cells. J Virol. 2004;78:2405-13 pubmed
    ..This model system is expected to shed light on the machinery and mechanism involved in geminiviral DNA replication in plants. ..
  7. Vanderschuren H, Stupak M, Fütterer J, Gruissem W, Zhang P. Engineering resistance to geminiviruses--review and perspectives. Plant Biotechnol J. 2007;5:207-20 pubmed
  8. Yu X, Li B, Fu Y, Jiang D, Ghabrial S, Li G, et al. A geminivirus-related DNA mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to a plant pathogenic fungus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of an ssDNA mycovirus enhances the potential of exploring fungal viruses as valuable tools for molecular manipulation of fungi and for plant disease control and expands our knowledge of global virus ecology and evolution...
  9. Mansoor S, Briddon R, Zafar Y, Stanley J. Geminivirus disease complexes: an emerging threat. Trends Plant Sci. 2003;8:128-34 pubmed
  10. Vadivukarasi T, Girish K, Usha R. Sequence and recombination analyses of the geminivirus replication initiator protein. J Biosci. 2007;32:17-29 pubmed
    ..of recombination in the Rep gene and the adjoining 5' intergenic region (IR)of representative species of Geminiviridae have been identified using Recombination Detection Programs...
  11. Fauquet C, Briddon R, Brown J, Moriones E, Stanley J, Zerbini M, et al. Geminivirus strain demarcation and nomenclature. Arch Virol. 2008;153:783-821 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2003, due to difficulties inherent in species identification, the ICTV Geminiviridae Study Group proposed new species demarcation criteria, the most important of which being an 89% nucleotide (nt)..
  12. Aregger M, Borah B, Seguin J, Rajeswaran R, Gubaeva E, Zvereva A, et al. Primary and secondary siRNAs in geminivirus-induced gene silencing. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002941 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike transgenic mRNA, geminiviral mRNAs appear to be poor templates for RDR-dependent production of secondary siRNAs. ..
  13. Pant V, Gupta D, Choudhury N, Malathi V, Varma A, Mukherjee S. Molecular characterization of the Rep protein of the blackgram isolate of Indian mungbean yellow mosaic virus. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rep protein can be classified as a type-I topoisomerase because of its nicking activity and sensitivity towards camptothecin, a topoisomerase type-I inhibitor...
  14. Nishigawa H, Miyata S, Oshima K, Sawayanagi T, Komoto A, Kuboyama T, et al. In planta expression of a protein encoded by the extrachromosomal DNA of a phytoplasma and related to geminivirus replication proteins. Microbiology. 2001;147:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..EcOYW1 is the first phytoplasmal extrachromosomal DNA shown to express encoded genes...
  15. Pilartz M, Jeske H. Mapping of abutilon mosaic geminivirus minichromosomes. J Virol. 2003;77:10808-18 pubmed
    ..The role of variable chromatin structures for gene regulation of geminiviruses is discussed. ..
  16. Hanley Bowdoin L, Bejarano E, Robertson D, Mansoor S. Geminiviruses: masters at redirecting and reprogramming plant processes. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013;11:777-88 pubmed publisher
    The family Geminiviridae is one of the largest and most important families of plant viruses...
  17. Fontes E, Eagle P, Sipe P, Luckow V, Hanley Bowdoin L. Interaction between a geminivirus replication protein and origin DNA is essential for viral replication. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:8459-65 pubmed
    ..The in vitro and in vivo results suggest that binding of AL1 to the 3' repeat element is an essential step in DNA replication, while binding to the 5' repeat element may serve to enhance viral replication...
  18. Zhang Z, Chen H, Huang X, Xia R, Zhao Q, Lai J, et al. BSCTV C2 attenuates the degradation of SAMDC1 to suppress DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:273-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that C2 interferes with the host defense mechanism of DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing by attenuating the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of SAMDC1...
  19. Rodríguez Negrete E, Lozano Durán R, Piedra Aguilera A, Cruzado L, Bejarano E, Castillo A. Geminivirus Rep protein interferes with the plant DNA methylation machinery and suppresses transcriptional gene silencing. New Phytol. 2013;199:464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous data showed that the largest family of single-stranded DNA viruses, Geminiviridae, prevents methylation-mediated transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) by interfering with the proper functioning ..
  20. Morales F, Anderson P. The emergence and dissemination of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in Latin America. Arch Virol. 2001;146:415-41 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the existing knowledge on this important group of viruses and their vector in this region. ..
  21. Rothenstein D, Krenz B, Selchow O, Jeske H. Tissue and cell tropism of Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and its AV2 (precoat) gene product. Virology. 2007;359:137-45 pubmed
    ..viruses for challenging plants in resistance breeding programmes, Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV; family Geminiviridae) DNA clones were modified to monitor viral spread in plants by replacing the coat protein gene with the green ..
  22. Nash T, Dallas M, Reyes M, Buhrman G, Ascencio Iba ez J, Hanley Bowdoin L. Functional analysis of a novel motif conserved across geminivirus Rep proteins. J Virol. 2011;85:1182-92 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Geminiviridae have single-stranded DNA genomes that replicate in nuclei of infected plant cells. All geminiviruses encode a conserved protein (Rep) that catalyzes initiation of rolling-circle replication...
  23. Saunders K, Norman A, Gucciardo S, Stanley J. The DNA beta satellite component associated with ageratum yellow vein disease encodes an essential pathogenicity protein (betaC1). Virology. 2004;324:37-47 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the satellite encodes at least one protein that plays a major role in symptom development and is essential for disease progression in ageratum, the natural host of the AYVD complex. ..
  24. Alberter B, Ali Rezaian M, Jeske H. Replicative intermediates of Tomato leaf curl virus and its satellite DNAs. Virology. 2005;331:441-8 pubmed
  25. Shivaprasad P, Akbergenov R, Trinks D, Rajeswaran R, Veluthambi K, Hohn T, et al. Promoters, transcripts, and regulatory proteins of Mungbean yellow mosaic geminivirus. J Virol. 2005;79:8149-63 pubmed
    ..Early and constitutive expression of AC2 is consistent with its essential dual function as an activator of viral transcription and a suppressor of silencing. ..
  26. Varsani A, Shepherd D, Monjane A, Owor B, Erdmann J, Rybicki E, et al. Recombination, decreased host specificity and increased mobility may have driven the emergence of maize streak virus as an agricultural pathogen. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2063-74 pubmed publisher
    Maize streak virus (MSV; family Geminiviridae, genus Mastrevirus), the causal agent of maize streak disease, ranks amongst the most serious biological threats to food security in subSaharan Africa...
  27. van der Walt E, Rybicki E, Varsani A, Polston J, Billharz R, Donaldson L, et al. Rapid host adaptation by extensive recombination. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:734-46 pubmed publisher
  28. Fauquet C, Bisaro D, Briddon R, Brown J, Harrison B, Rybicki E, et al. Revision of taxonomic criteria for species demarcation in the family Geminiviridae, and an updated list of begomovirus species. Arch Virol. 2003;148:405-21 pubmed
  29. Singh D, Malik P, Choudhury N, Mukherjee S. MYMIV replication initiator protein (Rep): roles at the initiation and elongation steps of MYMIV DNA replication. Virology. 2008;380:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..initiator (Rep) protein encoded by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), a member of the family Geminiviridae, binds specifically to the iterons present in the viral DNA replication origin (CR-A) in a highly ordered ..
  30. Jovel J, Preiss W, Jeske H. Characterization of DNA intermediates of an arising geminivirus. Virus Res. 2007;130:63-70 pubmed
    ..SimMV nucleoprotein exhibited pleomorphic structures in addition to the typical twin particles. This report provides the first analysis of DNA intermediates of an arising geminivirus. ..
  31. Briddon R, Bedford I, Tsai J, Markham P. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the treehopper-transmitted geminivirus, tomato pseudo-curly top virus, suggests a recombinant origin. Virology. 1996;219:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome of TPCTV shows features typical of both subgroups I and III genera of the family Geminiviridae. The coat protein of TPCTV, although distinct from all previously characterized geminiviruses, exhibits ..
  32. Arguello Astorga G, Lopez Ochoa L, Kong L, Orozco B, Settlage S, Hanley Bowdoin L. A novel motif in geminivirus replication proteins interacts with the plant retinoblastoma-related protein. J Virol. 2004;78:4817-26 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the leucine residue in helix 4 of CaLCuV AL1 reduced binding. Together, these results suggest that helix 4 and the conserved leucine residue are part of a pRBR-binding interface in begomovirus replication proteins. ..
  33. Lucioli A, Sallustio D, Barboni D, Berardi A, Papacchioli V, Tavazza R, et al. A cautionary note on pathogen-derived sequences. Nat Biotechnol. 2008;26:617-9 pubmed publisher
  34. Egelkrout E, Mariconti L, Settlage S, Cella R, Robertson D, Hanley Bowdoin L. Two E2F elements regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter differently during leaf development. Plant Cell. 2002;14:3225-36 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that both E2F elements contribute to the repression of the PCNA promoter in mature leaves, whereas the E2F1 site counters the repression activity of the E2F2 element in young leaves...
  35. Rybicki E. A phylogenetic and evolutionary justification for three genera of Geminiviridae. Arch Virol. 1994;139:49-77 pubmed
    ..the coding capacities, clearly demonstrated that there are two major groups of viruses in the taxonomic family Geminiviridae. These are of the Subgroup I type, with one genomic component, which mainly infect monocots and are leafhopper-..
  36. Noris E, Vaira A, Caciagli P, Masenga V, Gronenborn B, Accotto G. Amino acids in the capsid protein of tomato yellow leaf curl virus that are crucial for systemic infection, particle formation, and insect transmission. J Virol. 1998;72:10050-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparisons among whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in terms of the CP region studied showed that combinations other than QQD are present in several cases, but never with a P129...
  37. Moriones E, Navas Castillo J. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, an emerging virus complex causing epidemics worldwide. Virus Res. 2000;71:123-34 pubmed
    ..The causal agents are a group of geminivirus species belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, all of them named Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (sensu lato)...
  38. Rojas M, Jiang H, Salati R, Xoconostle Cazares B, Sudarshana M, Lucas W, et al. Functional analysis of proteins involved in movement of the monopartite begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus. Virology. 2001;291:110-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, the V1 and/or C4 may be analogs of the bipartite begomovirus BC1 that have evolved to mediate TYLCV movement within phloem tissue...
  39. Bottcher B, Unseld S, Ceulemans H, Russell R, Jeske H. Geminate structures of African cassava mosaic virus. J Virol. 2004;78:6758-65 pubmed
    ..The differences of ACMV and MSV virion shapes are discussed with reference to their different animal vectors...
  40. Morilla G, Krenz B, Jeske H, Bejarano E, Wege C. Tête à tête of tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl sardinia virus in single nuclei. J Virol. 2004;78:10715-23 pubmed
    ..The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed...
  41. Bagewadi B, Chen S, Lal S, Choudhury N, Mukherjee S. PCNA interacts with Indian mung bean yellow mosaic virus rep and downregulates Rep activity. J Virol. 2004;78:11890-903 pubmed
    ..These observations lead to interesting speculations about the control of viral RCR and dynamic profiles of protein-protein interactions at the RCR origin of the geminiviruses...
  42. Ndunguru J, Legg J, Aveling T, Thompson G, Fauquet C. Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses. Virol J. 2005;2:21 pubmed
    ..The existence of multiple CMG isolates with high DNA genome diversity in Tanzania and the molecular forces behind this diversity pose a threat to cassava production throughout the African continent...
  43. Carvalho C, Santos A, Pires S, Rocha C, Saraiva D, Machado J, et al. Regulated nuclear trafficking of rpL10A mediated by NIK1 represents a defense strategy of plant cells against virus. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000247 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the virulence function of the particular geminivirus NSP studied here overcomes this layer of defense in Arabidopsis, the NIK1-mediated signaling response may be involved in restricting the host range of other viruses...
  44. Gutierrez C. Geminiviruses and the plant cell cycle. Plant Mol Biol. 2000;43:763-72 pubmed
    ..These and other aspects of the relationships between geminivirus replication and cell cycle control pathways will be discussed...
  45. Seemanpillai M, Dry I, Randles J, Rezaian A. Transcriptional silencing of geminiviral promoter-driven transgenes following homologous virus infection. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2003;16:429-38 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the hypermethylation of a virus-derived transgene associated with a DNA virus infection...
  46. Bisaro D. Silencing suppression by geminivirus proteins. Virology. 2006;344:158-68 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in our understanding of different geminivirus silencing suppressors indicate that they can affect all three pathways, suggesting that multiple aspects of silencing impact geminivirus replication...
  47. Nahid N, Amin I, Mansoor S, Rybicki E, van der Walt E, Briddon R. Two dicot-infecting mastreviruses (family Geminiviridae) occur in Pakistan. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1441-51 pubmed publisher
    Most mastreviruses (family Geminiviridae) infect monocotyledonous hosts and are transmitted by leafhopper vectors...
  48. Mills Lujan K, Deom C. Geminivirus C4 protein alters Arabidopsis development. Protoplasma. 2010;239:95-110 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that ectopic expression of the BCTV C4 protein in A. thaliana drastically alters plant development, possibly through the disruption of multiple hormonal pathways...
  49. Loconsole G, Saldarelli P, Doddapaneni H, Savino V, Martelli G, Saponari M. Identification of a single-stranded DNA virus associated with citrus chlorotic dwarf disease, a new member in the family Geminiviridae. Virology. 2012;432:162-72 pubmed publisher
    ..kb) and a number of differences in its structural organization, identified this virus as a highly divergent member of the family Geminiviridae, to which the provisional name of Citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV) is assigned.
  50. Eagle P, Hanley Bowdoin L. cis elements that contribute to geminivirus transcriptional regulation and the efficiency of DNA replication. J Virol. 1997;71:6947-55 pubmed
  51. Bigarr L, Salah M, Granier M, Frutos R, Thouvenel J, Peterschmitt M. Nucleotide sequence evidence for three distinct sugarcane streak mastreviruses. Arch Virol. 1999;144:2331-44 pubmed
    ..The diversity of the SSVs is discussed in relation to its host, sugarcane, an imported crop in Africa...
  52. Akbergenov R, Si Ammour A, Blevins T, Amin I, Kutter C, Vanderschuren H, et al. Molecular characterization of geminivirus-derived small RNAs in different plant species. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:462-71 pubmed
    ..We conclude that several distinct silencing pathways are involved in DNA virus-plant interactions...
  53. del Rosario Abraham Juárez M, del Carmen Rocha Granados M, Lopez M, Rivera Bustamante R, Ochoa Alejo N. Virus-induced silencing of Comt, pAmt and Kas genes results in a reduction of capsaicinoid accumulation in chili pepper fruits. Planta. 2008;227:681-95 pubmed
    ..Using this approach it was possible to generate non-pungent chili peppers at high efficiency...
  54. Buchmann R, Asad S, Wolf J, Mohannath G, Bisaro D. Geminivirus AL2 and L2 proteins suppress transcriptional gene silencing and cause genome-wide reductions in cytosine methylation. J Virol. 2009;83:5005-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report that viral proteins can inhibit TGS...
  55. Eini O, Dogra S, Selth L, Dry I, Randles J, Rezaian M. Interaction with a host ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme is required for the pathogenicity of a geminiviral DNA beta satellite. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009;22:737-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interaction of betaC1 with SlUBC3 is required for DNA-beta-specific symptom induction, and that this is possibly due to downregulation of the host ubiquitin proteasome pathway...
  56. Liu L, van Tonder T, Pietersen G, Davies J, Stanley J. Molecular characterization of a subgroup I geminivirus from a legume in South Africa. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 8):2113-7 pubmed publisher
  57. Briddon R, Mansoor S, Bedford I, Pinner M, Saunders K, Stanley J, et al. Identification of dna components required for induction of cotton leaf curl disease. Virology. 2001;285:234-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of this finding to our understanding of the evolution of new disease-causing agents are discussed...
  58. Briddon R, Bull S, Mansoor S, Amin I, Markham P. Universal primers for the PCR-mediated amplification of DNA beta: a molecule associated with some monopartite begomoviruses. Mol Biotechnol. 2002;20:315-8 pubmed
  59. Lucioli A, Noris E, Brunetti A, Tavazza R, Ruzza V, Castillo A, et al. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus rep-derived resistance to homologous and heterologous geminiviruses occurs by different mechanisms and is overcome if virus-mediated transgene silencing is activated. J Virol. 2003;77:6785-98 pubmed
    ..A model of Rep-210-mediated geminivirus resistance that takes transgene- and virus-mediated mechanisms into account is proposed...
  60. Morilla G, Castillo A, Preiss W, Jeske H, Bejarano E. A versatile transreplication-based system to identify cellular proteins involved in geminivirus replication. J Virol. 2006;80:3624-33 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of PCNA prevented GFP induction in veins and reduced viral DNA. We propose that these plants could be widely used to easily identify host factors required for geminivirus replication by virus-induced gene silencing...
  61. Singh D, Islam M, Choudhury N, Karjee S, Mukherjee S. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:755-70 pubmed
    ..Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay...
  62. Wu B, Melcher U, Guo X, Wang X, Fan L, Zhou G. Assessment of codivergence of mastreviruses with their plant hosts. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:335 pubmed publisher
    ..Several examples for RNA viruses of host-virus tree congruence are being challenged. DNA viruses, such as mastreviruses, are more likely than RNA viruses to have maintained a record of host lineage association...
  63. Sunter G, Sunter J, Bisaro D. Plants expressing tomato golden mosaic virus AL2 or beet curly top virus L2 transgenes show enhanced susceptibility to infection by DNA and RNA viruses. Virology. 2001;285:59-70 pubmed
    ..The data further indicate that the transcriptional activation activity of AL2 protein is not required for suppression. The nature of the response targeted by the AL2 and L2 gene products is discussed...
  64. Peele C, Jordan C, Muangsan N, Turnage M, Egelkrout E, Eagle P, et al. Silencing of a meristematic gene using geminivirus-derived vectors. Plant J. 2001;27:357-66 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that geminivirus-derived vectors can be used to study genes involved in meristem function in intact plants...
  65. Wang H, Hao L, Shung C, Sunter G, Bisaro D. Adenosine kinase is inactivated by geminivirus AL2 and L2 proteins. Plant Cell. 2003;15:3020-32 pubmed
    ..AL2 proteins also have been shown to act as suppressors of RNA silencing, an adaptive host defense response. A possible relationship between ADK inactivation and silencing suppression is discussed...
  66. Trinks D, Rajeswaran R, Shivaprasad P, Akbergenov R, Oakeley E, Veluthambi K, et al. Suppression of RNA silencing by a geminivirus nuclear protein, AC2, correlates with transactivation of host genes. J Virol. 2005;79:2517-27 pubmed
  67. Carvalho M, Turgeon R, Lazarowitz S. The geminivirus nuclear shuttle protein NSP inhibits the activity of AtNSI, a vascular-expressed Arabidopsis acetyltransferase regulated with the sink-to-source transition. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:1317-30 pubmed
  68. Ascencio Ibañez J, Sozzani R, Lee T, Chu T, Wolfinger R, Cella R, et al. Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression uncovers a complex array of changes impacting pathogen response and cell cycle during geminivirus infection. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:436-54 pubmed publisher
  69. Vanitharani R, Chellappan P, Fauquet C. Geminiviruses and RNA silencing. Trends Plant Sci. 2005;10:144-51 pubmed
  70. Settlage S, See R, Hanley Bowdoin L. Geminivirus C3 protein: replication enhancement and protein interactions. J Virol. 2005;79:9885-95 pubmed
    ..While C3-pRBR interaction is not required for viral replication in cycling cells, it may play a role during infection of differentiated cells in intact plants...
  71. Yazdi H, Heydarnejad J, Massumi H. Genome characterization and genetic diversity of beet curly top Iran virus: a geminivirus with a novel nonanucleotide. Virus Genes. 2008;36:539-45 pubmed publisher
    ..1 to 99.9, with the isolates being distributed between two subgroups. Based on biological and molecular properties, BCTIV is proposed as a new member of the genus Curtovirus...
  72. Razavinejad S, Heydarnejad J, Kamali M, Massumi H, Kraberger S, Varsani A. Genetic diversity and host range studies of turnip curly top virus. Virus Genes. 2013;46:345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed ~13 % diversity amongst all the TCTV isolates and found evidence of recombination in the CP- and Rep-coding regions of the genomes...
  73. Desbiez C, David C, Mettouchi A, Laufs J, Gronenborn B. Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus has an ATPase activity required for viral DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:5640-4 pubmed
    ..In vivo, mutant viruses carrying these Rep mutations do not replicate in plant cells. These results show that ATP binding by the Rep protein of geminiviruses is required for its function in viral DNA replication...
  74. Briddon R, Markham P. Complementation of bipartite begomovirus movement functions by topocuviruses and curtoviruses. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1811-9 pubmed
    The DNA A components of bipartite species of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) encode all viral functions required for replication and encapsidation but require gene products encoded on DNA B for cell-to-cell movement in ..
  75. Selth L, Randles J, Rezaian M. Agrobacterium tumefaciens supports DNA replication of diverse geminivirus types. FEBS Lett. 2002;516:179-82 pubmed
    ..These findings were reinforced by expression studies using beta-glucuronidase which revealed that all six TLCV promoters are active in Agrobacterium, and two are functional in E. coli...
  76. Chen L, Gilbertson R. Curtovirus-cucurbit interaction: acquisition host plays a role in leafhopper transmission in a host-dependent manner. Phytopathology. 2009;99:101-8 pubmed publisher
    Curly top disease (CTD) of vegetable crops is caused by viruses in the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae)...
  77. García Neria M, Rivera Bustamante R. Characterization of Geminivirus resistance in an accession of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:172-82 pubmed publisher
    Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) and Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV), members of the Geminiviridae family, are important pathogens of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and other solanaceous crops. Accession BG-3821 of C...
  78. Preiss W, Jeske H. Multitasking in replication is common among geminiviruses. J Virol. 2003;77:2972-80 pubmed
  79. Muangsan N, Beclin C, Vaucheret H, Robertson D. Geminivirus VIGS of endogenous genes requires SGS2/SDE1 and SGS3 and defines a new branch in the genetic pathway for silencing in plants. Plant J. 2004;38:1004-14 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that SGS2/SDE1 and SGS3 are needed for endogenous gene silencing from DNA viruses, and suggest that SGS2/SDE1 may reduce geminivirus symptoms by targeting viral mRNAs...
  80. Bananej K, Kheyr Pour A, Salekdeh G, Ahoonmanesh A. Complete nucleotide sequence of Iranian tomato yellow leaf curl virus isolate: further evidence for natural recombination amongst begomoviruses. Brief Report. Arch Virol. 2004;149:1435-43 pubmed
  81. Arguello Astorga G, Ascencio Ibañez J, Dallas M, Orozco B, Hanley Bowdoin L. High-frequency reversion of geminivirus replication protein mutants during infection. J Virol. 2007;81:11005-15 pubmed
    ..These data also suggested that high mutation rates contribute to the rapid evolution of geminivirus genomes in plants...
  82. Gutierrez C. DNA replication and cell cycle in plants: learning from geminiviruses. EMBO J. 2000;19:792-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Current efforts to understand the coupling of geminivirus DNA replication to cell cycle and growth control as well as the directions in which future research is aiming are reviewed...
  83. García Andrés S, Monci F, Navas Castillo J, Moriones E. Begomovirus genetic diversity in the native plant reservoir Solanum nigrum: Evidence for the presence of a new virus species of recombinant nature. Virology. 2006;350:433-42 pubmed
    ..This recombinant represents an isolate of a new begomovirus species for which the name Tomato yellow leaf curl Axarquia virus is proposed. Spread into commercial tomatoes is shown...
  84. Shepherd D, Martin D, Lefeuvre P, Monjane A, Owor B, Rybicki E, et al. A protocol for the rapid isolation of full geminivirus genomes from dried plant tissue. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This method should be extremely useful for the study of any circular DNA plant viruses with genome component lengths smaller than the maximum size amplifiable by RCA...
  85. Poojari S, Alabi O, Fofanov V, Naidu R. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64194 pubmed publisher blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses...
  86. Padidam M, Sawyer S, Fauquet C. Possible emergence of new geminiviruses by frequent recombination. Virology. 1999;265:218-25 pubmed
    ..Geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae) are a group of plant viruses characterized by a genome of circular single-stranded DNA (approximately 2700 ..
  87. Kirthi N, Priyadarshini C, Sharma P, Maiya S, Hemalatha V, Sivaraman P, et al. Genetic variability of begomoviruses associated with cotton leaf curl disease originating from India. Arch Virol. 2004;149:2047-57 pubmed
    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) causing viruses belong to the Begomovirus genus of the family Geminiviridae. Most begomoviruses are bipartite with two molecules of circular single stranded DNA (A and B) encapsidated in icosahedral ..
  88. Wang H, Buckley K, Yang X, Buchmann R, Bisaro D. Adenosine kinase inhibition and suppression of RNA silencing by geminivirus AL2 and L2 proteins. J Virol. 2005;79:7410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, since AL2(1-100) is as effective a suppressor as the full-length AL2 protein, activation and silencing suppression appear to be independent activities...
  89. Schubert J, Habekuss A, Kazmaier K, Jeske H. Surveying cereal-infecting geminiviruses in Germany--diagnostics and direct sequencing using rolling circle amplification. Virus Res. 2007;127:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, RCA proves to be a reliable technique allowing for the detection of new geminivirus species as it does not depend on the knowledge of specific primers...
  90. Rodríguez Negrete E, Carrillo Tripp J, Rivera Bustamante R. RNA silencing against geminivirus: complementary action of posttranscriptional gene silencing and transcriptional gene silencing in host recovery. J Virol. 2009;83:1332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The participation of both PTGS and TGS mechanisms in host recovery is discussed...
  91. Frischmuth T, Stanley J. Recombination between viral DNA and the transgenic coat protein gene of African cassava mosaic geminivirus. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 5):1265-71 pubmed
    ..Recombinant virus from several transgenic plants was analysed by PCR and parts of DNA A of virus progeny were cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that only a few nucleotides were changed from the published sequence...
  92. Kvarnheden A, Lindblad M, Lindsten K, Valkonen J. Genetic diversity of Wheat dwarf virus. Arch Virol. 2002;147:205-16 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the barley-infecting isolate was clearly different with 16% of sequence divergence compared to the wheat isolates. The WDV isolates infecting barley or wheat seem to represent two differentiated strains...