saimiriine herpesvirus 2

Summary

Summary: The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.

Top Publications

  1. Nicholas J, Cameron K, Honess R. Herpesvirus saimiri encodes homologues of G protein-coupled receptors and cyclins. Nature. 1992;355:362-5 pubmed
  2. Heck E, Lengenfelder D, Schmidt M, Müller Fleckenstein I, Fleckenstein B, Biesinger B, et al. T-cell growth transformation by herpesvirus saimiri is independent of STAT3 activation. J Virol. 2005;79:5713-20 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates that growth transformation by HVS is independent of STAT3 activation...
  3. Mitchell J, Trible R, Emert Sedlak L, Weis D, Lerner E, Applen J, et al. Functional characterization and conformational analysis of the Herpesvirus saimiri Tip-C484 protein. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1282-93 pubmed
    ..Overall, it was found that, although recombinant Tip is still functional and capable of binding and activating its target Lck, it is largely unstructured...
  4. Cho N, Feng P, Lee S, Lee B, Liang X, Chang H, et al. Inhibition of T cell receptor signal transduction by tyrosine kinase-interacting protein of Herpesvirus saimiri. J Exp Med. 2004;200:681-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a lymphotropic herpesvirus has evolved a novel mechanism to deregulate T cell activation to disarm host immune surveillance. This process contributes to the establishment and maintenance of viral latency...
  5. Albrecht J, Biesinger B, Müller Fleckenstein I, Lengenfelder D, Schmidt M, Fleckenstein B, et al. Herpesvirus ateles Tio can replace herpesvirus saimiri StpC and Tip oncoproteins in growth transformation of monkey and human T cells. J Virol. 2004;78:9814-9 pubmed
    ..Simian as well as human T lymphocytes were growth transformed by the chimeric Tio-expressing viruses. Thus, a single herpesvirus protein appears to be responsible for the oncogenic effects of herpesvirus ateles...
  6. Cho N, Kingston D, Chang H, Kwon E, Kim J, Lee J, et al. Association of herpesvirus saimiri tip with lipid raft is essential for downregulation of T-cell receptor and CD4 coreceptor. J Virol. 2006;80:108-18 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that the signaling and targeting activities of HVS Tip rely on functionally and genetically separable mechanisms, which may independently modulate T-cell function for viral persistence or pathogenesis...
  7. Fickenscher H, Bökel C, Knappe A, Biesinger B, Meinl E, Fleischer B, et al. Functional phenotype of transformed human alphabeta and gammadelta T cells determined by different subgroup C strains of herpesvirus Saimiri. J Virol. 1997;71:2252-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, closely related subgroup C strains of herpesvirus saimiri cause major differences in the functional phenotype of growth-transformed human T cells...
  8. Gompels U, Craxton M, Honess R. Conservation of glycoprotein H (gH) in herpesviruses: nucleotide sequence of the gH gene from herpesvirus saimiri. J Gen Virol. 1988;69 ( Pt 11):2819-29 pubmed
  9. Narazaki H, Watari E, Shimizu M, Owaki A, Das H, Fukunaga Y, et al. Perforin-dependent killing of tumor cells by Vgamma1Vdelta1-bearing T-cells. Immunol Lett. 2003;86:113-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results raise the possibility that some Vgamma1Vdelta1(+) T-cells could potentially be stimulated and lyse tumor cells via ligation of TCR/CD3-unassociated molecules. ..

More Information

Publications95

  1. Henning G, Kraft M, Derfuss T, Pirzer R, de Saint Basile G, Aversa G, et al. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) regulates T cellular cytotoxicity. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:2741-50 pubmed
    ..SLAM-enhanced cytotoxicity implies an immunoregulatory function by facilitating the elimination of APC and a role in overcoming infections with pathogens requiring a cytotoxic immune response. ..
  2. Jeong S, Cho I, An W, Jhun B, Lee B, Park K, et al. STP-A11, an oncoprotein of Herpesvirus saimiri augments both NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription activity through TRAF6. Exp Mol Med. 2007;39:56-64 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that STP-A11 oncoprotein up-regulates both NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription activity through TRAF6, which would ultimately contribute cellular transformation. ..
  3. Singh A, Yadav V, Pyaram K, Mullick J, Sahu A. Mapping of functional domains in herpesvirus saimiri complement control protein homolog: complement control protein domain 2 is the smallest structural unit displaying cofactor and decay-accelerating activities. J Virol. 2009;83:10299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CCPH is the first example wherein a single SCR domain has been shown to display complement regulatory functions. ..
  4. Holm G, Zhang C, Gorry P, Peden K, Schols D, De Clercq E, et al. Apoptosis of bystander T cells induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with increased envelope/receptor affinity and coreceptor binding site exposure. J Virol. 2004;78:4541-51 pubmed
  5. Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin M, Lee F, Culpepper J, Knowles D, et al. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science. 1994;266:1865-9 pubmed
    ..These KS-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) sequences appear to define a new human herpesvirus. ..
  6. Fickenscher H, Biesinger B, Knappe A, Wittmann S, Fleckenstein B. Regulation of the herpesvirus saimiri oncogene stpC, similar to that of T-cell activation genes, in growth-transformed human T lymphocytes. J Virol. 1996;70:6012-9 pubmed
    ..Constitutive and induced expression engage different transcription start sites. The T-cell regulation of the viral genes stpC and tip may contribute to the T-cell tropism of growth transformation by herpesvirus saimiri. ..
  7. Yao Z, Fanslow W, Seldin M, Rousseau A, Painter S, Comeau M, et al. Herpesvirus Saimiri encodes a new cytokine, IL-17, which binds to a novel cytokine receptor. Immunity. 1995;3:811-21 pubmed
    ..These results define CTLA8 and HVS13 as novel cytokines that bind to a novel cytokine receptor. We propose to call these molecules IL-17, vIL-17, and IL-17R, respectively. ..
  8. Calderwood M, White R, Griffiths R, Whitehouse A. Open reading frame 73 is required for herpesvirus saimiri A11-S4 episomal persistence. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2703-8 pubmed
    ..This indicates that ORF73 is the key trans-acting factor for episomal persistence and efficient establishment of a latent infection. ..
  9. Schäfer A, Lengenfelder D, Grillhösl C, Wieser C, Fleckenstein B, Ensser A. The latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog of herpesvirus saimiri inhibits lytic virus replication. J Virol. 2003;77:5911-25 pubmed
    ..The HVS ORF73 gene product efficiently suppresses lytic viral replication in permissive cells, indicating that it defines a critical control point between viral persistence and lytic replication. ..
  10. Goltz M, Broll H, Mankertz A, Weigelt W, Ludwig H, Buhk H, et al. Glycoprotein B of bovine herpesvirus type 4: its phylogenetic relationship to gB equivalents of the herpesviruses. Virus Genes. 1994;9:53-9 pubmed
    ..The alignment of the amino acid sequences revealed that 10 cysteine and 7 proline residues, as well as the motifs SPF and GQLG, were completely conserved among the 20 investigated gBs. ..
  11. Vogel B, Full F, Biesinger B, Linden C, Alberter B, Ensser A. Episomal replication timing of gamma-herpesviruses in latently infected cells. Virology. 2010;400:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Both gammaherpesviruses replicated very early in S-phase, together with cellular euchromatin. Our work suggests that early S-phase DNA replication is a general characteristic of episomal herpesviral genomes...
  12. Uribe Salas F, Hernandez Giron C, Conde Gonzalez C, Cruz Valdez A, Juárez Figueroa L, Hernandez Avila M. [Characteristics related to STD/HIV in men working in Mexico City bars where female prostitution takes place]. Salud Publica Mex. 1995;37:385-93 pubmed
    ..These findings evidence a relationship between men working in bars and FCSW in terms of STD transmission and show the need for preventive care directed to this group. ..
  13. Lee H, Choi J, Li M, Kaye K, Kieff E, Jung J. Role of cellular tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors in NF-kappaB activation and lymphocyte transformation by herpesvirus Saimiri STP. J Virol. 1999;73:3913-9 pubmed
    ..Other factors are implicated in immortalization of common marmoset T lymphocytes and may also be critical in the transformation of human lymphocytes and rodent fibroblasts. ..
  14. Whitehouse A. Herpesvirus saimiri: a potential gene delivery vector (review). Int J Mol Med. 2003;11:139-48 pubmed
    ..These properties merit its continual development as a possible gene delivery vector for the future. ..
  15. Whitehouse A, Cooper M, Hall K, Meredith D. The open reading frame (ORF) 50a gene product regulates ORF 57 gene expression in herpesvirus saimiri. J Virol. 1998;72:1967-73 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we propose that the intron-containing ORF 57 gene downregulates itself by the same mechanism as that for ORF 50a, as both genes are downregulated at similar times during the replication cycle. ..
  16. White R, Calderwood M, Whitehouse A. Generation and precise modification of a herpesvirus saimiri bacterial artificial chromosome demonstrates that the terminal repeats are required for both virus production and episomal persistence. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3393-403 pubmed
    ..In addition, the HVS-BAC promises to be a valuable tool that can be used for the routine and precise production and analysis of viral mutants to further explore gammaherpesvirus biology. ..
  17. Goodwin D, Whitehouse A. A gamma-2 herpesvirus nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein interacts with importin alpha 1 and alpha 5. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19905-12 pubmed
    ..These results identify novel cellular interactions essential for the functioning of this important herpesvirus regulatory protein. ..
  18. Okroj M, Mark L, Stokowska A, Wong S, Rose N, Blackbourn D, et al. Characterization of the complement inhibitory function of rhesus rhadinovirus complement control protein (RCP). J Biol Chem. 2009;284:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This makes RRV a superior model for future in vivo investigations of complement evasion, as RCP does not play a supportive role in viral attachment as KCP does. ..
  19. Aguilera Montilla N, Perez Blas M, Valeri A, Lopez Santalla M, Rodríguez Juan C, Mencia A, et al. Higher proliferative capacity of T lymphocytes from patients with Crohn disease than from ulcerative colitis is disclosed by use of Herpesvirus saimiri-transformed T-cell lines. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:1236-42 pubmed
  20. Griffiths R, Whitehouse A. Herpesvirus saimiri episomal persistence is maintained via interaction between open reading frame 73 and the cellular chromosome-associated protein MeCP2. J Virol. 2007;81:4021-32 pubmed
  21. Ensser A, Glykofrydes D, Niphuis H, Kuhn E, Rosenwirth B, Heeney J, et al. Independence of herpesvirus-induced T cell lymphoma from viral cyclin D homologue. J Exp Med. 2001;193:637-42 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the viral cyclin of H. saimiri strain C488 is not required for viral replication, T cell transformation, and pathogenicity in New World primates. ..
  22. Calderwood M, Hall K, Matthews D, Whitehouse A. The herpesvirus saimiri ORF73 gene product interacts with host-cell mitotic chromosomes and self-associates via its C terminus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:147-53 pubmed
    ..This suggests that HVS ORF73 has a similar role to KSHV ORF73 in episomal maintenance and that association of ORF73 to host mitotic chromosomes is dependent on its ability to form multimers. ..
  23. Singh A, Mullick J, Bernet J, Sahu A. Functional characterization of the complement control protein homolog of herpesvirus saimiri: ARG-118 is critical for factor I cofactor activities. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23119-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data indicate that HVS encodes a potent complement inhibitor that allows HVS to evade the host complement attack. ..
  24. Lomonte P, Bublot M, van Santen V, Keil G, Pastoret P, Thiry E. Bovine herpesvirus 4: genomic organization and relationship with two other gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and herpesvirus saimiri. Vet Microbiol. 1996;53:79-89 pubmed
    ..Genes homologous to cellular genes have been described in both HVS and EBV genomes. No genes homologous to presently sequenced cellular genes were found among those found in the BHV-4 genome to date. ..
  25. Conrad N, Fok V, Cazalla D, Borah S, Steitz J. The challenge of viral snRNPs. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2006;71:377-84 pubmed
    ..Continuing studies of these viral RNAs will provide insights into both cellular and viral gene expression. ..
  26. Reiss C, Niedobitek G, Hor S, Lisner R, Friedrich U, Bodemer W, et al. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma in herpesvirus saimiri-infected tamarins: tumor cell lines reveal subgroup-specific differences. Virology. 2002;294:31-46 pubmed
    ..The lack of these activities in HVS B-SMHI-transformed cells may correlate with the reduced oncogenic phenotype of this virus in species other than tamarins. ..
  27. Trimble J, Murthy S, Bakker A, Grassmann R, Desrosiers R. A gene for dihydrofolate reductase in a herpesvirus. Science. 1988;239:1145-7 pubmed
    ..The herpesvirus saimiri DHFR gene is devoid of intron sequences, suggesting that it was acquired by some process involving reverse transcription. This is to our knowledge the first example of a mammalian virus with a gene for DHFR. ..
  28. Wehner L, Schroder N, Kamino K, Friedrich U, Biesinger B, Ruther U. Herpesvirus saimiri Tip gene causes T-cell lymphomas in transgenic mice. DNA Cell Biol. 2001;20:81-8 pubmed
    ..At high expression levels, the mice developed T-cell lymphomas. Thus, Tip can induce lymphomas and is therefore very likely responsible for the oncogenicity of Herpesvirus saimiri. ..
  29. Whitehouse A, Cooper M, Meredith D. The immediate-early gene product encoded by open reading frame 57 of herpesvirus saimiri modulates gene expression at a posttranscriptional level. J Virol. 1998;72:857-61 pubmed
    ..This suggests that it regulates gene expression through a posttranscriptional mechanism. ..
  30. Lopez Santalla M, Krishnan S, Valeri A, Aguilera Montilla N, Fisher C, Perez Blas M, et al. Defective CD3zeta chain expression in Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS)-derived T-cell lines in gastric adenocarcinoma. Cell Immunol. 2005;238:113-22 pubmed
    ..The low CD3zeta expression would render T lymphocytes unable to control the growth of tumor cells. ..
  31. Henderson E, Tsygankov A, Merlo J, Romano G, Guan M. Altered replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in T cell lines retrovirally transduced to express Herpesvirus saimiri proteins StpC and/or Tip. Virology. 1999;264:125-33 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of the effects of Tip and StpC proteins on the biology of human hemopoietic stem cells may lead to novel therapeutic interventions for the treatment of AIDS. ..
  32. Schulze Gahmen U, Kim S. Structural basis for CDK6 activation by a virus-encoded cyclin. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:177-81 pubmed
  33. Boyne J, Colgan K, Whitehouse A. Herpesvirus saimiri ORF57: a post-transcriptional regulatory protein. Front Biosci. 2008;13:2928-38 pubmed
    ..This enables the efficient nuclear export and cytoplasmic accumulation of virus intronless mRNA...
  34. Albrecht J, Fleckenstein B. New member of the multigene family of complement control proteins in herpesvirus saimiri. J Virol. 1992;66:3937-40 pubmed
    ..Expression of complement control proteins suggests a novel mechanism of counteracting host immune defense to prevent elimination of a virus that is capable of persisting in circulating lymphocytes...
  35. Williams B, Boyne J, Goodwin D, Roaden L, Hautbergue G, Wilson S, et al. The prototype gamma-2 herpesvirus nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, ORF 57, transports viral RNA through the cellular mRNA export pathway. Biochem J. 2005;387:295-308 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that HVS utilizes ORF 57 to recruit components of the exon junction complex and subsequently TAP to promote viral RNA export through the cellular mRNA export pathway...
  36. Albrecht J, Nicholas J, Biller D, Cameron K, Biesinger B, Newman C, et al. Primary structure of the herpesvirus saimiri genome. J Virol. 1992;66:5047-58 pubmed
    ..Several herpesvirus saimiri genes are potential candidates to cooperate with the gene for saimiri transformation-associated protein of subgroup A (STP-A) in T-lymphocyte growth stimulation...
  37. Wakenshaw L, Walters M, Whitehouse A. The Herpesvirus saimiri replication and transcription activator acts synergistically with CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha to activate the DNA polymerase promoter. J Virol. 2005;79:13548-60 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data suggest a cooperative interaction between HVS ORF 50a and C/EBPalpha proteins to activate the DNA polymerase promoter during early stages of the lytic replication cycle...
  38. Tsygankov A, Romano G. Mechanisms of cell transformation by Herpesvirus saimiri. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:973-83 pubmed
    ..saimiri proteins Tip and StpC are crucial for T-cell transformation. Potential mechanisms mediating the effects of Tip and StpC, as well as the possible role of other H. saimiri proteins, are discussed in this review...
  39. Griffiths R, Harrison S, Macnab S, Whitehouse A. Mapping the minimal regions within the ORF73 protein required for herpesvirus saimiri episomal persistence. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2843-50 pubmed publisher
  40. Schweimer K, Hoffmann S, Bauer F, Friedrich U, Kardinal C, Feller S, et al. Structural investigation of the binding of a herpesviral protein to the SH3 domain of tyrosine kinase Lck. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5120-30 pubmed
    ..Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that Tip binds to the SH3 domains of several Src kinases (Lck, Hck, Lyn, Src, Fyn, Yes), exhibiting the highest affinities for Lyn, Hck, and Lck...
  41. Kjellen P, Amdjadi K, Lund T, Medveczky P, Sefton B. The herpesvirus saimiri tip484 and tip488 proteins both stimulate lck tyrosine protein kinase activity in vivo and in vitro. Virology. 2002;297:281-8 pubmed
    ..Our data support the model that HVS infection increases the activity of Lck through the action of Tip...
  42. Giles M, Smith P, Coletta P, Hall K, Whitehouse A. The herpesvirus saimiri ORF 73 regulatory region provides long-term transgene expression in human carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Gene Ther. 2003;10:49-56 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the ORF 73 regulatory region may be suitable for use in HVS-based cancer gene therapy applications...
  43. Lehner M, Grillhoesl C, Full F, Vogel B, Weller P, Müller Fleckenstein I, et al. Transformation efficiency by Herpesvirus saimiri is not a limiting factor in clonal CD8pos T cell outgrowth. Virology. 2009;388:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The practical use of the improved immortalization of antigen-expanded CD8(pos) T cell lines, however, is limited by the arbitrary outgrowth of subdominant populations of unpredictable specificity...
  44. Alcover A, Thoulouze M. Vesicle traffic to the immunological synapse: a multifunctional process targeted by lymphotropic viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;340:191-207 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss how some lymphotropic viruses target the vesicle traffic in T lymphocytes, inhibiting the formation of immunological synapses and modulating the response of infected T cells...
  45. Honess R, Bodemer W, Cameron K, Niller H, Fleckenstein B, Randall R. The A+T-rich genome of Herpesvirus saimiri contains a highly conserved gene for thymidylate synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3604-8 pubmed
  46. Ensser A, Pfinder A, Müller Fleckenstein I, Fleckenstein B. The URNA genes of herpesvirus saimiri (strain C488) are dispensable for transformation of human T cells in vitro. J Virol. 1999;73:10551-5 pubmed
    ..Although the HSURs are expressed in wild-type virus-transformed human T-cell lines, the deletion does not affect viral transformation in cell culture...
  47. Golembe T, Yong J, Dreyfuss G. Specific sequence features, recognized by the SMN complex, identify snRNAs and determine their fate as snRNPs. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10989-1004 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the SMN complex is the identifier, as well as assembler, of the abundant class of snRNAs in cells because it is able to recognize an snRNP code that they contain...
  48. Vella C, Zheng N, Easterbrook P, Daniels R. Herpesvirus saimiri-immortalized human lymphocytes: novel hosts for analyzing HIV type 1 in vitro neutralization. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002;18:933-46 pubmed
    ..Thus CN-2 cells are suitable hosts for assaying neutralization and could be useful in standardizing neutralization assays performed in different laboratories...
  49. Damania B. Oncogenic gamma-herpesviruses: comparison of viral proteins involved in tumorigenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:656-68 pubmed
  50. Colgan K, Boyne J, Whitehouse A. Identification of a response element in a herpesvirus saimiri mRNA recognized by the ORF57 protein. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:596-601 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the GAAGRG motif may be required within a HVS intronless mRNA for recognition by the ORF57 protein...
  51. Verma S, Robertson E. ORF73 of herpesvirus Saimiri strain C488 tethers the viral genome to metaphase chromosomes and binds to cis-acting DNA sequences in the terminal repeats. J Virol. 2003;77:12494-506 pubmed
    ..This cis-acting element is sufficient to bind HVS ORF73 from strains C488 and A11, and plasmids containing the HVS C488 TR element are maintained and replicate in HVS C488 ORF73-expressing cells...
  52. Fleckenstein B, Ensser A. Herpesvirus saimiri transformation of human T lymphocytes. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2004;Chapter 7:Unit 7.21 pubmed publisher
    ..Support protocols for preparing and titrating HSV C488 stocks and testing the functional status of transformed T cells are also included...
  53. Ensser A, Thurau M, Wittmann S, Fickenscher H. The genome of herpesvirus saimiri C488 which is capable of transforming human T cells. Virology. 2003;314:471-87 pubmed
    ..In these new isolates, the orf50/orf51 alleles of the respective subgroup segregate with the stp and/or tip oncogene alleles, which are essential for transformation...
  54. Colgan K, Boyne J, Whitehouse A. Uncoupling of hTREX demonstrates that UAP56 and hTHO-complex recruitment onto herpesvirus saimiri intronless transcripts is required for replication. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1455-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, using a transdominant form of Aly which inhibits UAP56 and hTHO-complex association with viral intronless mRNA, we show that complete hTREX recruitment is required for efficient HVS mRNA nuclear export and replication...
  55. Pon R, Freedman M. Study of Herpesvirus saimiri immortalization of gammadelta T cells derived from peripheral blood and CSF of multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;139:119-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that HVS transformation of gammadelta T cells can be used to generate lines and clones from both the CSF and PB compartments for further study and elucidation of their potential role in MS pathogenesis...
  56. Smith P, Burchill S, Brooke D, Coletta P, Whitehouse A. Efficient infection and persistence of a herpesvirus saimiri-based gene delivery vector into human tumor xenografts and multicellular spheroid cultures. Cancer Gene Ther. 2005;12:248-56 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HVS-based vectors may be suitable for cancer gene therapy applications...
  57. Tang H, Wong Staal F. Specific interaction between RNA helicase A and Tap, two cellular proteins that bind to the constitutive transport element of type D retrovirus. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32694-700 pubmed
    ..The nuclear transport domain of RHA also interfered with Tap-mediated transactivation of the CTE function in quail cells, in which the function of CTE is dependent on the expression of a functional human Tap cDNA...
  58. Chung Y, Cho N, Garcia M, Lee S, Feng P, Jung J. Activation of Stat3 transcription factor by Herpesvirus saimiri STP-A oncoprotein. J Virol. 2004;78:6489-97 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that STP-A11 independently targets two important cellular signaling molecules, Src and Stat3, and that these proteins cooperate efficiently to induce STP-A11-mediated transformation...
  59. Hasham M, Tsygankov A. Tip, an Lck-interacting protein of Herpesvirus saimiri, causes Fas- and Lck-dependent apoptosis of T lymphocytes. Virology. 2004;320:313-29 pubmed
    ..Finally, the apoptotic effect of Tip in T cells is mediated by Fas and requires the presence of active Lck in the cell...
  60. Zheng N, Vella C, Easterbrook P, Daniels R. Selection following isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and herpesvirus saimiri-transformed T cells is comparable. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1343-52 pubmed
    ..This further supports a common selection for viral sequences that display a macrophage-tropic/NSI phenotype and shows that HVS T cells are a viable alternative to PBMCs for HIV-1 isolation...
  61. Cazalla D, Yario T, Steitz J, STEITZ J. Down-regulation of a host microRNA by a Herpesvirus saimiri noncoding RNA. Science. 2010;328:1563-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This viral strategy illustrates use of a ncRNA to manipulate host-cell gene expression via the miRNA pathway...
  62. Albrecht J, Fleckenstein B. Structural organization of the conserved gene block of Herpesvirus saimiri coding for DNA polymerase, glycoprotein B, and major DNA binding protein. Virology. 1990;174:533-42 pubmed
    ..H. saimiri DNA is strongly depleted in the dinucleotide CpG, possibly the consequence of de novo methylation of persisting viral DNA in lymphoid cells...
  63. Stevenson A, Cooper M, Griffiths J, Gibson P, Whitehouse A, Jones E, et al. Assessment of Herpesvirus saimiri as a potential human gene therapy vector. J Med Virol. 1999;57:269-77 pubmed
  64. Frolova Jones E, Ensser A, Stevenson A, Kinsey S, Meredith D. Stable marker gene transfer into human bone marrow stromal cells and their progenitors using novel herpesvirus saimiri-based vectors. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2000;9:573-81 pubmed
    ..The ability of HVS to infect nondividing cells can be considered advantageous in the development of both ex vivo and in vivo strategies...
  65. White R, Carline L, Allday M. Mutagenesis of the herpesvirus saimiri terminal repeat region reveals important elements for virus production. J Virol. 2007;81:6765-70 pubmed
    ..Analysis of episomes from productive cells indicates a propensity to amplify TR numbers during the lytic cycle...
  66. Smith P, Coletta P, Markham A, Whitehouse A. In vivo episomal maintenance of a herpesvirus saimiri-based gene delivery vector. Gene Ther. 2001;8:1762-9 pubmed
    ..These in vivo results suggest that HVS-based vectors have potential for gene therapy applications...
  67. Aguilera Montilla N, Perez Blas M, Valeri A, Lopez Santalla M, Rodríguez Juan C, Mencia A, et al. Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS)-transformed T-cell lines: a method to study mucosal T cells in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:1361-3 pubmed
  68. Collins C, Medveczky M, Lund T, Medveczky P. The terminal repeats and latency-associated nuclear antigen of herpesvirus saimiri are essential for episomal persistence of the viral genome. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2269-78 pubmed
    ..Moreover, LANA and terminal repeats are sufficient for stable plasmid persistence. Cloned HVS can also be utilized for mutagenesis of HVS and for the expression of foreign genes through efficient manipulation of plasmids in E. coli...
  69. Goodwin D, Walters M, Smith P, Thurau M, Fickenscher H, Whitehouse A. Herpesvirus saimiri open reading frame 50 (Rta) protein reactivates the lytic replication cycle in a persistently infected A549 cell line. J Virol. 2001;75:4008-13 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, although the ORF 50 proteins of HVS strains A11 and C488 are structurally divergent, they were both capable of inducing the lytic replication cycle in this model of HVS latency...
  70. Wieser C, Stumpf D, Grillhösl C, Lengenfelder D, Gay S, Fleckenstein B, et al. Regulated and constitutive expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines by nontransforming herpesvirus saimiri vectors. Gene Ther. 2005;12:395-406 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of this system in future studies, in suitable long-term SCID models of RA or in non-human primate models, will exploit the possible in vivo benefits of nontransforming HVS vectors in gene therapy...
  71. Walters M, Hall K, Whitehouse A. The herpesvirus saimiri Rta gene autostimulates via binding to a non-consensus response element. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:581-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis showed that this RE has no direct similarity to previously identified ORF 50 REs. Therefore, it is concluded that ORF 50a is capable of stimulating its own promoter via a novel RE...
  72. Martin F, Toscano M, Blundell M, Frecha C, Srivastava G, Santamaria M, et al. Lentiviral vectors transcriptionally targeted to hematopoietic cells by WASP gene proximal promoter sequences. Gene Ther. 2005;12:715-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, lentiviral vectors incorporating proximal promoter sequences from the WASP gene confer hematopoietic-specific, and physiological protein expression...
  73. Toscano M, Frecha C, Ortega C, Santamaria M, Martin F, Molina I. Efficient lentiviral transduction of Herpesvirus saimiri immortalized T cells as a model for gene therapy in primary immunodeficiencies. Gene Ther. 2004;11:956-61 pubmed
    ..We also observed that although the lentiviral transduction efficiency achieved on HVS-T cells is lower than that obtained with tumor or primary endothelial cells, it is nevertheless similar to that found with activated primary T cells...
  74. Boyne J, Whitehouse A. gamma-2 Herpes virus post-transcriptional gene regulation. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:110-7 pubmed
    ..The major role of the ORF 57 protein in mediating viral mRNA export is considered, and the ORF 57-host cell interactions that are required for this function are discussed...
  75. Nakamura H, Zarycki J, Sullivan J, Jung J. Abnormal T cell receptor signal transduction of CD4 Th cells in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. J Immunol. 2001;167:2657-65 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CD4 T cells from XLP patients exhibit aberrant TCR signal transduction and that the defect in SAP function is likely responsible for this phenotype...
  76. Harnack U, Lehmann C, Matthes E, Pecher G. Up-regulation of telomerase activity in Herpesvirus saimiri immortalized human T-lymphocytes. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:3969-72 pubmed
    ..The HVS immortalized T-cell clone provides a useful tool for studying the regulation of telomerase activity during carcinogenesis and for testing of telomerase-inhibitory drugs...
  77. Lee S, Chung Y, Cho N, Gwack Y, Feng P, Jung J. Modulation of T-cell receptor signal transduction by herpesvirus signaling adaptor protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5369-82 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that HVS utilizes a novel signaling protein, ORF5, to activate TCR signal transduction. This activation probably facilitates viral gene expression and, thereby, persistent infection...
  78. Borah S, Verma S, Robertson E. ORF73 of herpesvirus saimiri, a viral homolog of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, modulates the two cellular tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb. J Virol. 2004;78:10336-47 pubmed
    ..However, preliminary cross-linking studies do not detect disruption of p53 tetramerization by either LANA or HVS-encoded ORF73, suggesting that p53 inactivation may be by a mechanism independent of tetramer disruption...
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    ..This review aims to describe the assessment of HVS-based vectors in both in vitro and in vivo studies, highlighting new developments and possible applications for the treatment of genetic diseases...
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    ..More generally, CTLA-8 may belong to the growing set of virus-captured functionally important cellular genes related to the immune system or to cell death and cell survival...
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    ..5 kilobases). Although some analogies can be drawn between STP and LMP (lymphocyte membrane protein) of Epstein-Barr virus, STP is not related in sequence to LMP...
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    ..This finding represents a unique and fundamental role for the nucleolus in nuclear export of viral mRNA...
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    ..Crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(1)22 or P6(5)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.14, c = 448.77 A, gamma = 120 degrees, and diffract X-rays to at least 3.1 A resolution...
  84. Schulze Gahmen U, Jung J, Kim S. Crystal structure of a viral cyclin, a positive regulator of cyclin-dependent kinase 6. Structure. 1999;7:245-54 pubmed
    ..A virus-encoded cyclin (v-cyclin) from herpesvirus saimiri has been shown to exhibit highest sequence homology to type D cyclins and specifically activates CDK6 of host cells to a very high degree...
  85. Fossiez F, Djossou O, Chomarat P, Flores Romo L, Ait Yahia S, Maat C, et al. T cell interleukin-17 induces stromal cells to produce proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. J Exp Med. 1996;183:2593-603 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that hIL-17 may constitute (a) an early initiator of the T cell-dependent inflammmatory reaction; and (b) an element of the cytokine network that bridges the immune system to hematopoiesis...
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    ..These results suggest new ways for functional modulation of activated T-cells interacting with collagen...