Summary: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting New World primates and other species. HERPESVIRUS 2, SAIMIRIINE is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Lee B, Giannoni F, Lyon A, Yada S, Lu B, Gerard C, et al. Role of CXCR3 in the immune response to murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2005;79:9351-5 pubmed
    ..Splenomegaly and the numbers of latently infected cells per spleen were transiently increased. However, CXCR3-/- mice showed normal virus-specific antibody titers and effective long-term control of MHV-68 infection. ..
  2. Lee B, Koszinowski U, Sarawar S, Adler H. A gammaherpesvirus G protein-coupled receptor homologue is required for increased viral replication in response to chemokines and efficient reactivation from latency. J Immunol. 2003;170:243-51 pubmed
    ..Utilizing a viral CXCR2 homologue to enhance replication and reactivation from latency represents a novel mechanism by which gammaherpesviruses can subvert the immune response. ..
  3. Blasdell K, McCracken C, Morris A, Nash A, Begon M, Bennett M, et al. The wood mouse is a natural host for Murid herpesvirus 4. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:111-3 pubmed
    ..The sites of detection of viral DNA were the lungs and, less commonly, the spleen, emphasizing the importance of the former in virus persistence during natural infection and confirming similar data in laboratory mice. ..
  4. Madureira P, Matos P, Soeiro I, Dixon L, Simas J, Lam E. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 latency protein M2 binds to Vav signaling proteins and inhibits B-cell receptor-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in WEHI-231 B cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37310-8 pubmed
  5. Bilello J, Morgan J, Damania B, Lang S, Desrosiers R. A genetic system for rhesus monkey rhadinovirus: use of recombinant virus to quantitate antibody-mediated neutralization. J Virol. 2006;80:1549-62 pubmed
    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a simian gamma-2 herpesvirus closely related to the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, replicates lytically in cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts and establishes persistence in B cells...
  6. Rickabaugh T, Brown H, Martinez Guzman D, Wu T, Tong L, Yu F, et al. Generation of a latency-deficient gammaherpesvirus that is protective against secondary infection. J Virol. 2004;78:9215-23 pubmed
    ..The present study, by using MHV-68 as an in vivo model system, demonstrated that RTA plays a critical role in the control of viral latency and suggests that latency is a determinant of viral pathogenesis in vivo. ..
  7. Krug L, Moser J, Dickerson S, Speck S. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in vivo impairs establishment of gammaherpesvirus latency. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e11 pubmed
  8. Milho R, Smith C, Marques S, Alenquer M, May J, Gillet L, et al. In vivo imaging of murid herpesvirus-4 infection. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Low dose intranasal infection without anaesthesia seems most likely to mimic natural transmission, and may therefore be particularly informative about normal viral gene functions. ..
  9. Cunha C, Traul D, Taus N, Oaks J, O Toole D, Davitt C, et al. Detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 major capsid gene transcripts as an indicator of virus replication in shedding sheep and clinically affected animals. Virus Res. 2008;132:69-75 pubmed
    ..These findings represent an important initial step in understanding viral pathogenesis, and in potentially establishing a system for OvHV-2 propagation in vitro. ..

More Information


  1. Habison A, Beauchemin C, Simas J, Usherwood E, Kaye K. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 LANA acts on terminal repeat DNA to mediate episome persistence. J Virol. 2012;86:11863-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to KSHV LANA, mLANA broadly associated with mitotic chromosomes but relocalized to concentrated dots in the presence of episomes. Therefore, mLANA acts on mTR elements to mediate MHV68 episome persistence. ..
  2. Gillet L, Colaco S, Stevenson P. Glycoprotein B switches conformation during murid herpesvirus 4 entry. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Their need to engage a less vulnerable, upstream form of gB, because its fusion form is revealed only in endosomes, helps to explain why gB-directed MuHV-4 neutralization is so difficult. ..
  3. Gill M, Wright D, Smith C, May J, Stevenson P. Murid herpesvirus-4 lacking thymidine kinase reveals route-dependent requirements for host colonization. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore TK, and by implication lytic replication, is required for MuHV-4 to establish a significant infection by a non-invasive route. ..
  4. Frederico B, Milho R, May J, Gillet L, Stevenson P. Myeloid infection links epithelial and B cell tropisms of Murid Herpesvirus-4. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002935 pubmed publisher
    ..Lymphocyte infection is therefore a key pathogenetic event. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is a rhadinovirus that like the related Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus persists in B cells in vivo yet infects them ..
  5. DeWire S, McVoy M, Damania B. Kinetics of expression of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and identification and characterization of a polycistronic transcript encoding the RRV Orf50/Rta, RRV R8, and R8.1 genes. J Virol. 2002;76:9819-31 pubmed
    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) is a close relative of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8)...
  6. Bruce A, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Barcy S, Bakke A, Lewis P, Tsai C, et al. Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002962 pubmed publisher
    ..Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Lymphocryptovirus genus) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (Rhadinovirus genus) have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas...
  7. Moser J, Farrell M, Krug L, Upton J, Speck S. A gammaherpesvirus 68 gene 50 null mutant establishes long-term latency in the lung but fails to vaccinate against a wild-type virus challenge. J Virol. 2006;80:1592-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate gammaherpesviruses that are unable to undergo lytic replication in vivo may not be viable vaccine candidates despite the detection of cells harboring viral genome at late times postinfection. ..
  8. Wu T, Park T, Kim H, Tran T, Tong L, Martinez Guzman D, et al. ORF30 and ORF34 are essential for expression of late genes in murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2009;83:2265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our discovery of the viral mutants that uncouple late gene transcription from DNA replication lays an important foundation to dissect the mechanism of this critical step of gene expression regulation. ..
  9. E X, Hwang S, Oh S, Lee J, Jeong J, Gwack Y, et al. Viral Bcl-2-mediated evasion of autophagy aids chronic infection of gammaherpesvirus 68. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000609 pubmed publisher
  10. Lopes F, Colaco S, May J, Stevenson P. Characterization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein B. J Virol. 2004;78:13370-5 pubmed
    ..The N-linked glycans on the cleaved, virion gB remained partially endoglycosidase H sensitive. The processing of MHV-68 gB therefore appears similar to that of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gB and human cytomegalovirus gB. ..
  11. White J, Todd P, Yee J, Kalman Bowlus A, Rodgers K, Yang X, et al. Prevalence of viremia and oral shedding of rhesus rhadinovirus and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus in large age-structured breeding groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Comp Med. 2009;59:383-90 pubmed
    We performed a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of 2 gamma-2-herpesviruses, rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), in breeding colonies of rhesus macaques...
  12. Liang X, Pickering M, Cho N, Chang H, Volkert M, Kowalik T, et al. Deregulation of DNA damage signal transduction by herpesvirus latency-associated M2. J Virol. 2006;80:5862-74 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that gammaHV68 M2 blocks apoptosis-mediated intracellular innate immunity, which might ultimately contribute to its role in latent infection. ..
  13. Rosa G, Gillet L, Smith C, de Lima B, Stevenson P. IgG fc receptors provide an alternative infection route for murine gamma-herpesvirus-68. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e560 pubmed
    ..Lytically infected macrophages down-regulated MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation, endocytosis and their response to LPS. IgG Fc receptors limit the neutralization of gamma-herpesviruses such as MHV-68. ..
  14. Shin Y, Jones L, Manrique J, Lauer W, Carville A, Mansfield K, et al. Glycoprotein gene sequence variation in rhesus monkey rhadinovirus. Virology. 2010;400:175-86 pubmed publisher
    Gene sequences for seven glycoproteins from 20 independent isolates of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and of the corresponding seven glycoprotein genes from nine strains of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) were ..
  15. Ku B, Woo J, Liang C, Lee K, Hong H, E X, et al. Structural and biochemical bases for the inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis by viral BCL-2 of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e25 pubmed publisher
  16. Bruce A, Bakke A, Gravett C, DeMaster L, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Burnside K, et al. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques. Virol J. 2009;6:205 pubmed publisher
    ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication...
  17. Bruce A, Bakke A, Thouless M, Rose T. Development of a real-time QPCR assay for the detection of RV2 lineage-specific rhadinoviruses in macaques and baboons. Virol J. 2005;2:2 pubmed
    ..quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay using a TaqMan probe to differentially detect and quantitate members of the rhadinovirus-2 (RV2) lineage...
  18. Li X, Feng J, Chen S, Peng L, He W, Qi J, et al. Tpl2/AP-1 enhances murine gammaherpesvirus 68 lytic replication. J Virol. 2010;84:1881-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, through tandem functional screens, we identified the Tpl2/AP-1 signaling transduction pathway as a positive regulator of MHV-68 lytic replication. ..
  19. Mount A, Masson F, Kupresanin F, Smith C, May J, Van Rooijen N, et al. Interference with dendritic cell populations limits early antigen presentation in chronic ?-herpesvirus-68 infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:3669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a pathogen with the capacity to interfere with early Ag presentation can establish suboptimal conditions for rapid induction of the adaptive immune response and thus favor establishment of viral persistence. ..
  20. Bortz E, Wang L, Jia Q, Wu T, Whitelegge J, Deng H, et al. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 ORF52 encodes a tegument protein required for virion morphogenesis in the cytoplasm. J Virol. 2007;81:10137-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, ORF52 is essential for the tegumentation and egress of infectious MHV-68 particles in the cytoplasm, suggesting an important conserved function in gammaherpesvirus virion morphogenesis. ..
  21. Gill M, Murphy J, Fingeroth J. Functional divergence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related gamma-2 herpesvirus thymidine kinases: novel cytoplasmic phosphoproteins that alter cellular morphology and disrupt adhesion. J Virol. 2005;79:14647-59 pubmed
    ..morphological changes and anchorage independence although cells survived, a property shared with the related rhadinovirus TKs of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus and herpesvirus saimiri...
  22. Macrae A, Usherwood E, Husain S, Flano E, Kim I, Woodland D, et al. Murid herpesvirus 4 strain 68 M2 protein is a B-cell-associated antigen important for latency but not lymphocytosis. J Virol. 2003;77:9700-9 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that expression of M2 is restricted to B cells in the spleen and that M2 encodes a 30-kDa protein localizing predominantly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of B cells. ..
  23. Marques S, Alenquer M, Stevenson P, Simas J. A single CD8+ T cell epitope sets the long-term latent load of a murid herpesvirus. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000177 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo competition experiments demonstrated directly that epitope presentation has a major impact on viral fitness. Thus, host MHC class I and viral epitope expression interact to set the long-term virus load. ..
  24. Gillet L, Gill M, Colaco S, Smith C, Stevenson P. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 glycoprotein B presents a difficult neutralization target to monoclonal antibodies derived from infected mice. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3515-27 pubmed
    ..Virions saturated with antibody also remained infectious to mice. Thus, the MHV-68 gB presents at best a very difficult target for antibody-mediated neutralization. ..
  25. Wright D, Colaco S, Colaco C, Stevenson P. Antibody limits in vivo murid herpesvirus-4 replication by IgG Fc receptor-dependent functions. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2592-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, passive antibody can blunt acute gamma-herpesvirus lytic infection, and does this principally by IgG Fc-dependent functions rather than by neutralization. ..
  26. Peacock J, Elsawa S, Petty C, Hickey W, Bost K. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents infected with murine gammaherpesvirus-68. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:1849-58 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate increased clinical symptoms of EAE in rodents infected by a gammaherpesvirus that has a limited ability to invade the central nervous system. ..
  27. Stevenson P, May J, Smith X, Marques S, Adler H, Koszinowski U, et al. K3-mediated evasion of CD8(+) T cells aids amplification of a latent gamma-herpesvirus. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:733-40 pubmed
    ..CTL depletion reversed the viral latency deficit. Thus, a major function of K3 appears to be CTL evasion during viral latency expansion. ..
  28. Smith C, Rosa G, May J, Bennett N, Mount A, Belz G, et al. CD4+ T cells specific for a model latency-associated antigen fail to control a gammaherpesvirus in vivo. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:3186-97 pubmed
    ..Latent antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells therefore either failed to recognize key virus-infected cell populations in vivo or lacked the effector functions required to control them...
  29. Zhang W, Greene W, Gao S. Microtubule- and dynein-dependent nuclear trafficking of rhesus rhadinovirus in rhesus fibroblasts. J Virol. 2012;86:599-604 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the role of microtubules in rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) nuclear trafficking in rhesus fibroblasts. Intact microtubules and microtubule dynamics are required for RRV trafficking to perinuclear regions...
  30. Yager E, Szaba F, Kummer L, Lanzer K, Burkum C, Smiley S, et al. gamma-Herpesvirus-induced protection against bacterial infection is transient. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we confirm that latent gammaHV68 infection confers protection against subsequent infection with Listeria monocytogenes. However, the effect is transient, lasting only a few months...
  31. Bruce A, Bakke A, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Ryan J, Thouless M, Tsai C, et al. High levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF)-associated herpesvirus in RF lesions in macaques are associated with ORF73 LANA expression in spindleoid tumour cells. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3529-38 pubmed
    ..fibromatosis (RF) herpesvirus (RFHV), the homologue of KSHV, whilst the RV2 lineage is represented by rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), a more distantly related virus...
  32. Collins C, Boss J, Speck S. Identification of infected B-cell populations by using a recombinant murine gammaherpesvirus 68 expressing a fluorescent protein. J Virol. 2009;83:6484-93 pubmed publisher
  33. Estep R, Powers M, Yen B, Li H, Wong S. Construction of an infectious rhesus rhadinovirus bacterial artificial chromosome for the analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-related disease development. J Virol. 2007;81:2957-69 pubmed
    Rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) is closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and causes KSHV-like diseases in immunocompromised rhesus macaques (RM) that resemble KSHV-associated diseases ..
  34. Hwang S, Kim K, Flano E, Wu T, Tong L, Park A, et al. Conserved herpesviral kinase promotes viral persistence by inhibiting the IRF-3-mediated type I interferon response. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that herpesviruses have evolved within their conserved kinase an anti-IFN activity critical for evasion of host immunity and for persistence...
  35. Gillet L, May J, Colaco S, Stevenson P. The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 gp150 acts as an immunogenic decoy to limit virion neutralization. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e705 pubmed
    ..This immune evasion mechanism may be common to many non-essential herpesvirus glycoproteins...
  36. Rosenwirth B, Kondova I, Niphuis H, Greenwood E, Schmidt F, Verschoor E, et al. Herpesvirus saimiri infection of rhesus macaques: a model for acute rhadinovirus-induced t-cell transformation and oncogenesis. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1938-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, HVS infection of macaques could eventually be useful as a surrogate model to address certain questions in rhadinovirus-induced human cancer such as effusion lymphoma or Kaposi's sarcoma.
  37. Simas J, Marques S, Bridgeman A, Efstathiou S, Adler H. The M2 gene product of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 is required for efficient colonization of splenic follicles but is not necessary for expansion of latently infected germinal centre B cells. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2789-97 pubmed
  38. Glauser D, Gillet L, Stevenson P. Virion endocytosis is a major target for murid herpesvirus-4 neutralization. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, driving virion uptake appears to be an important function of gH-gL that provides a major target for antibody-mediated neutralization...
  39. White D, Keppel C, Schneider S, Reese T, Coder J, Payton J, et al. Latent herpesvirus infection arms NK cells. Blood. 2010;115:4377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the immune environment created by latent herpesvirus infection provides a mechanism whereby host NK-cell function is enhanced in vivo...
  40. DeWire S, Damania B. The latency-associated nuclear antigen of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus inhibits viral replication through repression of Orf50/Rta transcriptional activation. J Virol. 2005;79:3127-38 pubmed
    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) is a gamma-2-herpesvirus that is closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8...
  41. Umbach J, Strelow L, Wong S, Cullen B. Analysis of rhesus rhadinovirus microRNAs expressed in virus-induced tumors from infected rhesus macaques. Virology. 2010;405:592-9 pubmed publisher
    Rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), a primate gamma-herpesvirus related to human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), causes a similar pattern of pathogenesis...
  42. Dittmer D, Gonzalez C, Vahrson W, DeWire S, Hines Boykin R, Damania B. Whole-genome transcription profiling of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus. J Virol. 2005;79:8637-50 pubmed
    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also called human herpesvirus 8) belong to the gamma-2 grouping of herpesviruses...
  43. O Connor C, Kedes D. Mass spectrometric analyses of purified rhesus monkey rhadinovirus reveal 33 virion-associated proteins. J Virol. 2006;80:1574-83 pubmed
    ..To develop a better understanding of these proteins, we analyzed the composition of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a close phylogenetic relative of KSHV...
  44. Boname J, May J, Stevenson P. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 open reading frame 11 encodes a nonessential virion component. J Virol. 2005;79:3163-8 pubmed
    ..Subsequent latency amplification was normal. Thus, MHV-68 ORF11 encoded a virion component that was important for in vivo lytic replication but dispensable for the establishment of latency...
  45. Gredmark Russ S, Cheung E, Isaacson M, Ploegh H, Grotenbreg G. The CD8 T-cell response against murine gammaherpesvirus 68 is directed toward a broad repertoire of epitopes from both early and late antigens. J Virol. 2008;82:12205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..MHV-68 infection in vivo elicits a response to multiple viral epitopes, derived from both early and late viral antigens, illustrating a far broader T-cell repertoire and more-rapid activation than those previously recorded...
  46. Shin Y, Desrosiers R. Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus ORF57 induces gH and gL glycoprotein expression through posttranscriptional accumulation of target mRNAs. J Virol. 2011;85:7810-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we have shown that the expression of gH and gL of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a close relative of the human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), could be dramatically ..
  47. Zimmermann W, Broll H, Ehlers B, Buhk H, Rosenthal A, Goltz M. Genome sequence of bovine herpesvirus 4, a bovine Rhadinovirus, and identification of an origin of DNA replication. J Virol. 2001;75:1186-94 pubmed
    ..Gene arrangement as well as phylogenetic analysis confirmed that BoHV-4 is a member of the genus Rhadinovirus. In addition, an origin of replication (ori) in the genome of BoHV-4 was identified by DpnI assays...
  48. Nguyen Y, McGuffie B, Anderson V, Weinberg J. Gammaherpesvirus modulation of mouse adenovirus type 1 pathogenesis. Virology. 2008;380:182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, previous gammaHV68 infection modulated lung inflammatory responses and decreased susceptibility to a heterologous virus in an organ- and time-dependent manner...
  49. Gillet L, May J, Stevenson P. In vivo importance of heparan sulfate-binding glycoproteins for murid herpesvirus-4 infection. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:602-13 pubmed publisher
    ..And gp150 disruption, which allows HS-independent cell binding, largely rescued the gL(-)gp70(-) cell binding and host entry deficits. Thus, it appeared that MuHV-4 HS binding is important in vivo, principally for efficient host entry...
  50. Liang X, Shin Y, Means R, Jung J. Inhibition of interferon-mediated antiviral activity by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency-associated M2 protein. J Virol. 2004;78:12416-27 pubmed
  51. Damania B, Jeong J, Bowser B, DeWire S, Staudt M, Dittmer D. Comparison of the Rta/Orf50 transactivator proteins of gamma-2-herpesviruses. J Virol. 2004;78:5491-9 pubmed
    ..known gamma-2-herpesviruses, we investigated whether the murine gamma-68-herpesvirus (MHV-68) and rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) homologs can functionally substitute for KSHV Rta/Orf50...
  52. Rodrigues L, Pires de Miranda M, Caloca M, Bustelo X, Simas J. Activation of Vav by the gammaherpesvirus M2 protein contributes to the establishment of viral latency in B lymphocytes. J Virol. 2006;80:6123-35 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel strategy used by the murine gammaherpesvirus family to subvert the lymphocyte signaling machinery to its own benefit...
  53. Covarrubias S, Richner J, Clyde K, Lee Y, Glaunsinger B. Host shutoff is a conserved phenotype of gammaherpesvirus infection and is orchestrated exclusively from the cytoplasm. J Virol. 2009;83:9554-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important mechanistic implications for how SOX and muSOX target nascent cellular transcripts in the nucleus. Furthermore, our findings establish MHV68 as a new, genetically tractable model to study host shutoff...
  54. Johnson L, Willert E, Virgin H. Redefining the genetics of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 via transcriptome-based annotation. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:516-26 pubmed publisher
  55. Hair J, Lyons P, Smith K, Efstathiou S. Control of Rta expression critically determines transcription of viral and cellular genes following gammaherpesvirus infection. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1689-97 pubmed publisher
  56. Staudt M, Dittmer D. The Rta/Orf50 transactivator proteins of the gamma-herpesviridae. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007;312:71-100 pubmed
    ..herpesvirus (KSHV) and other known gammaherpesviruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), and murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68)...
  57. Gillet L, May J, Colaco S, Stevenson P. Glycoprotein L disruption reveals two functional forms of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein H. J Virol. 2007;81:280-91 pubmed
    ..The major function of gL appeared to be allowing gH to participate in cell binding prior to membrane fusion. This function was most important for the entry of MHV-68 virions into fibroblasts and epithelial cells...
  58. de Lima B, May J, Marques S, Simas J, Stevenson P. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 bcl-2 homologue contributes to latency establishment in vivo. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:31-40 pubmed
    ..Stable, long-term levels of splenic latency were normal. M11 function therefore contributed specifically to viral latency amplification in infected lymphoid tissue...
  59. Yu X, O Connor C, Atanasov I, Damania B, Kedes D, Zhou Z. Three-dimensional structures of the A, B, and C capsids of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus: insights into gammaherpesvirus capsid assembly, maturation, and DNA packaging. J Virol. 2003;77:13182-93 pubmed
    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) exhibits high levels of sequence homology to human gammaherpesviruses, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and grows to high titers in cell cultures, making it a good model system for studying ..
  60. Martinez Guzman D, Rickabaugh T, Wu T, Brown H, Cole S, Song M, et al. Transcription program of murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2003;77:10488-503 pubmed
    ..Examination of the gene expression patterns of C-RTA/MHV-68 over a time course led to the finding that the M3 promoter is RTA responsive in the absence of other viral factors...
  61. Stevenson P, Simas J, Efstathiou S. Immune control of mammalian gamma-herpesviruses: lessons from murid herpesvirus-4. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2317-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing the infectivity of herpesvirus carriers in this way could be a useful adjunct to vaccinating naive individuals with attenuated mutants...
  62. Gaspar M, May J, Sukla S, Frederico B, Gill M, Smith C, et al. Murid herpesvirus-4 exploits dendritic cells to infect B cells. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro MuHV-4 dramatically altered the DC cytoskeleton, suggesting that it manipulates DC migration and shape in order to spread. MuHV-4 therefore uses DCs to colonize B cells...
  63. Robinson B, Estep R, Messaoudi I, Rogers K, Wong S. Viral interferon regulatory factors decrease the induction of type I and type II interferon during rhesus macaque rhadinovirus infection. J Virol. 2012;86:2197-211 pubmed publisher
    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV), two closely related gammaherpesviruses, are unique in their expression of viral homologs of cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), termed viral IRFs (..
  64. Weslow Schmidt J, Jewell N, Mertz S, Simas J, Durbin J, Flano E. Type I interferon inhibition and dendritic cell activation during gammaherpesvirus respiratory infection. J Virol. 2007;81:9778-89 pubmed
    ..gammaHV68 infection inhibits type I IFN production by dendritic cells and is a poor inducer of IFN-alpha/beta in vivo, which may serve as an immune evasion strategy...
  65. Feeney K, Parish J. Targeting mitotic chromosomes: a conserved mechanism to ensure viral genome persistence. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the similarities and differences in how specific viruses tether episomal genomes to host cell chromosomes during mitosis to ensure long-term persistence...
  66. Fowler P, Marques S, Simas J, Efstathiou S. ORF73 of murine herpesvirus-68 is critical for the establishment and maintenance of latency. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3405-16 pubmed
    ..These data indicate a crucial role for ORF73 in the establishment of latency and for virus persistence in the host...
  67. Brinkmann M, Schulz T. Regulation of intracellular signalling by the terminal membrane proteins of members of the Gammaherpesvirinae. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1047-74 pubmed
    ..Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the gamma(2)-herpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) and herpesvirus ateles (HVA) all contain genes located adjacent to the ..
  68. Burnside K, Ryan J, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Gregory Bruce A, Thouless M, Tsai C, et al. RFHVMn ORF73 is structurally related to the KSHV ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and is expressed in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor cells. Virology. 2006;354:103-15 pubmed
    Retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), the macaque homolog of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), was first identified in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor lesions of macaques with ..
  69. Sinha S, Colbert C, Becker N, Wei Y, Levine B. Molecular basis of the regulation of Beclin 1-dependent autophagy by the gamma-herpesvirus 68 Bcl-2 homolog M11. Autophagy. 2008;4:989-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that M11 inhibits autophagy through a mechanism that involves the binding of the Beclin 1 BH3 domain in the M11 hydrophobic surface groove...
  70. Gill M, May J, Colaco S, Stevenson P. Important role for the murid herpesvirus 4 ribonucleotide reductase large subunit in host colonization via the respiratory tract. J Virol. 2010;84:10937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..RNR could therefore provide a good target for gammaherpesvirus chemotherapy...
  71. Schäfer A, Cai X, Bilello J, Desrosiers R, Cullen B. Cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by the primate gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus. Virology. 2007;364:21-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus (RRV), an animal virus model for the pathogenic human gamma-herpesvirus Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ..
  72. Hochreiter R, Ptaschinski C, Kunkel S, Rochford R. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 productively infects immature dendritic cells and blocks maturation. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1896-905 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that gamma HV-68 infection of DCs differs depending on the maturation state of the DC. Moreover, the block in DC maturation suggests a possible immunoevasion strategy by gamma HV-68...
  73. Neipel F, Albrecht J, Fleckenstein B. Human herpesvirus 8--the first human Rhadinovirus. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1998;:73-7 pubmed
    ..herpesvirus, also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the first known human member of the genus Rhadinovirus. It is regularly found by polymerase chain reaction in all forms of KS, in certain types of Castleman's disease,..
  74. May J, Smith C, Gill M, Stevenson P. An essential role for the proximal but not the distal cytoplasmic tail of glycoprotein M in murid herpesvirus 4 infection. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2131 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that some elements of the gM cytoplasmic tail are dispensible for MuHV-4 replication, but the tail as a whole is not...
  75. Zhou F, Li Q, Wong S, Gao S. Autoexcision of bacterial artificial chromosome facilitated by terminal repeat-mediated homologous recombination: a novel approach for generating traceless genetic mutants of herpesviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:2871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a newly developed in vitro transposon-based cloning approach, we obtained an infectious BAC of rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) strain RRV26-95 with the BAC vector cassette inserted in the terminal repeat (TR) region...
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  77. Hart J, Ackermann M, Jayawardane G, Russell G, Haig D, Reid H, et al. Complete sequence and analysis of the ovine herpesvirus 2 genome. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:28-39 pubmed
    ..The sequence of OvHV-2 is a critical first step in the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of MCF...
  78. TAMGUNEY G, Van Snick J, Fickenscher H. Autocrine stimulation of rhadinovirus-transformed T cells by the chemokine CCL1/I-309. Oncogene. 2004;23:8475-85 pubmed
    The rhadinovirus herpesvirus saimiri transforms human T lymphocytes to stable growth in culture. Besides the viral oncogenes stpC and tip, little is understood about the transformation process at the cellular level...
  79. Gillet L, Colaco S, Stevenson P. The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gL regulates an entry-associated conformation change in gH. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2811 pubmed publisher
    ..These data argue that gL plays a key role in regulating a gH and gB functional switch from cell binding to membrane fusion...
  80. Milho R, Frederico B, Efstathiou S, Stevenson P. A heparan-dependent herpesvirus targets the olfactory neuroepithelium for host entry. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002986 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish general principles we tracked host entry by Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), a lymphotropic rhadinovirus related to the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus...
  81. Gillet L, Stevenson P. Antibody evasion by the N terminus of murid herpesvirus-4 glycoprotein B. EMBO J. 2007;26:5131-42 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the gB-NT glycans that blocked antibody binding could be targeted for neutralization instead by a lectin, suggesting a means of therapeutic counterattack...
  82. Mark L, Spiller O, Okroj M, Chanas S, Aitken J, Wong S, et al. Molecular characterization of the rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) ORF4 gene and the RRV complement control protein it encodes. J Virol. 2007;81:4166-76 pubmed
    ..Rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), like KSHV, is a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae and currently provides the only in vivo model ..
  83. Gargano L, Moser J, Speck S. Role for MyD88 signaling in murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency. J Virol. 2008;82:3853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence for a unique role for MyD88 in the establishment of MHV68 latency...
  84. Liang X, Paden C, Morales F, Powers R, Jacob J, Speck S. Murine gamma-herpesvirus immortalization of fetal liver-derived B cells requires both the viral cyclin D homolog and latency-associated nuclear antigen. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002220 pubmed publisher
  85. Flano E, Kayhan B, Woodland D, Blackman M. Infection of dendritic cells by a gamma2-herpesvirus induces functional modulation. J Immunol. 2005;175:3225-34 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that gamma2-herpesvirus infection of DCs is a mechanism of viral immune evasion, partially mediated by IL-10...
  86. Rickabaugh T, Brown H, Wu T, Song M, Hwang S, Deng H, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 RTA reactivates murine gammaherpesvirus 68 from latency. J Virol. 2005;79:3217-22 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the species specificity of MHV-68 RTA resides in the N-terminal DNA binding domain...
  87. Lacoste V, Mauclere P, Dubreuil G, Lewis J, Georges Courbot M, Gessain A. A novel gamma 2-herpesvirus of the Rhadinovirus 2 lineage in chimpanzees. Genome Res. 2001;11:1511-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate the putative existence of a new RV2 Rhadinovirus in chimpanzees and gorillas we have used the degenerate consensus primer PCR strategy for the Herpesviral DNA ..
  88. Herskowitz J, Siegel A, Jacoby M, Speck S. Systematic mutagenesis of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 M2 protein identifies domains important for chronic infection. J Virol. 2008;82:3295-310 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these analyses will aide future studies for identifying M2 interacting partners and B-cell signaling pathways that are manipulated by the M2 protein...
  89. Yarilin D, Valiando J, Posnett D. A mouse herpesvirus induces relapse of experimental autoimmune arthritis by infection of the inflammatory target tissue. J Immunol. 2004;173:5238-46 pubmed
    ..We conclude that herpesviruses may play an ancillary pathogenic role in autoimmune arthritis by infection of the inflammatory target tissue...