Summary: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Sarawar S, Lee B, Anderson M, Teng Y, Zuberi R, Von Gesjen S. Chemokine induction and leukocyte trafficking to the lungs during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection. Virology. 2002;293:54-62 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the chemokines detected play an important role in regulating leukocyte trafficking to the lungs during MHV-68 infection. ..
  2. Jacoby M, Virgin H, Speck S. Disruption of the M2 gene of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 alters splenic latency following intranasal, but not intraperitoneal, inoculation. J Virol. 2002;76:1790-801 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the requirements for the establishment of latency are affected by the route of infection. ..
  3. Sparks Thissen R, Braaten D, Hildner K, Murphy T, Murphy K, Virgin H. CD4 T cell control of acute and latent murine gammaherpesvirus infection requires IFNgamma. Virology. 2005;338:201-8 pubmed
    ..Together, data presented here demonstrate that both CD4 T cell-mediated helper-independent control of gammaHV68 replication and inhibition of the establishment of gammaHV68 latency require IFNgamma. ..
  4. Yu Y, Harris M, Lybarger L, Kimpler L, Myers N, Virgin H, et al. Physical association of the K3 protein of gamma-2 herpesvirus 68 with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules with impaired peptide and beta(2)-microglobulin assembly. J Virol. 2002;76:2796-803 pubmed
    ..The detection of K3 with class I assembly intermediates raises the possibility that molecular chaperones involved in class I assembly are involved in K3-mediated class I regulation. ..
  5. Lee B, Reiter S, Anderson M, Sarawar S. CD28(-/-) mice show defects in cellular and humoral immunity but are able to control infection with murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2002;76:3049-53 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates that costimulatory interactions involving CD28 are not an absolute requirement for the control of infection with MHV-68. ..
  6. Coleman H, Brierley I, Stevenson P. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 MK3 open reading frame. J Virol. 2003;77:13093-105 pubmed
  7. Upton J, Speck S. Evidence for CDK-dependent and CDK-independent functions of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 v-cyclin. J Virol. 2006;80:11946-59 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that lytic replication and reactivation in vivo are differentially regulated by CDK-dependent and CDK-independent functions of v-cyclin, respectively. ..
  8. Schock A, Collins R, Reid H. Phenotype, growth regulation and cytokine transcription in Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2)-infected bovine T-cell lines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1998;66:67-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the OHV-2-immortalised cell lines resemble anergic T-cells which may be activated giving rise to the characteristic lesions of MCF...
  9. Stevenson P, Belz G, Altman J, Doherty P. Virus-specific CD8(+) T cell numbers are maintained during gamma-herpesvirus reactivation in CD4-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15565-70 pubmed
    ..It seems that CD8(+) T cells alone are insufficient to maintain long-term control of this persistent gamma-herpesvirus. ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Coleman H, Efstathiou S, Stevenson P. Transcription of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 ORF73 from promoters in the viral terminal repeats. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:561-74 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that ORF73 transcription is highly complex, and support the idea that the terminal repeats of gamma-2-herpesviruses constitute a vital component of episomal persistence. ..
  2. Adler H, Messerle M, Koszinowski U. Virus reconstituted from infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-cloned murine gammaherpesvirus 68 acquires wild-type properties in vivo only after excision of BAC vector sequences. J Virol. 2001;75:5692-6 pubmed
  3. van Berkel V, Preiter K, Virgin H, Speck S. Identification and initial characterization of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 gene M3, encoding an abundantly secreted protein. J Virol. 1999;73:4524-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the predicted M3 ORF is a functional gene that encodes an abundant secreted protein which is a candidate for interacting with host cellular receptors or cytokines. ..
  4. van Dyk L, Virgin H, Speck S. Maintenance of gammaherpesvirus latency requires viral cyclin in the absence of B lymphocytes. J Virol. 2003;77:5118-26 pubmed
  5. Thonur L, Russell G, Stewart J, Haig D. Differential transcription of ovine herpesvirus 2 genes in lymphocytes from reservoir and susceptible species. Virus Genes. 2006;32:27-35 pubmed
  6. Nash A, Dutia B, Stewart J, Davison A. Natural history of murine gamma-herpesvirus infection. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:569-79 pubmed
    ..Clearly, devising strategies to interrupt the establishment of latent virus infections may well prove impossible with existing methods. ..
  7. Tibbetts S, van Dyk L, Speck S, Virgin H. Immune control of the number and reactivation phenotype of cells latently infected with a gammaherpesvirus. J Virol. 2002;76:7125-32 pubmed
    ..The immune system therefore controls chronic gammaherpesvirus infection by site-specific mechanisms that regulate both the number and reactivation phenotype of latently infected cells. ..
  8. Ackermann M. Pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:211-22 pubmed
  9. Lyon A, Sarawar S. Differential requirement for CD28 and CD80/86 pathways of costimulation in the long-term control of murine gammaherpesvirus-68. Virology. 2006;356:50-6 pubmed
    ..The unexpected disparity in the requirement for CD28 and CD80/86 in the response to MHV-68 suggests that CD28 is not the only positive regulatory receptor for CD80/86. ..
  10. Gangappa S, Kapadia S, Speck S, Virgin H. Antibody to a lytic cycle viral protein decreases gammaherpesvirus latency in B-cell-deficient mice. J Virol. 2002;76:11460-8 pubmed
    ..We confirmed this model by the treatment of latently infected B-cell(-/-) mice with the antiviral drug cidofovir. ..
  11. Lok S, Haider Y, Howell D, Stewart J, Hasleton P, Egan J. Murine gammaherpes virus as a cofactor in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin resistant mice. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:1228-32 pubmed
    ..52 mg). These results suggest that virus alone does not result in pulmonary fibrosis but that replicating virus in the presence of an exogenous injury may promote the development of pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  12. Wang X, Connors R, Harris M, Hansen T, Lybarger L. Requirements for the selective degradation of endoplasmic reticulum-resident major histocompatibility complex class I proteins by the viral immune evasion molecule mK3. J Virol. 2005;79:4099-108 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with a "partial dislocation" model for turnover of ER proteins and define some common features of ER degradation pathways initiated by structurally distinct herpesvirus proteins. ..
  13. Lee K, Groshong S, Cool C, Kleinschmidt Demasters B, van Dyk L. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection of IFNgamma unresponsive mice: a small animal model for gammaherpesvirus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, this mouse model of virus-associated pulmonary B-cell lymphoma closely mimics the full spectrum of human lymphomatoid granulomatosis, an EBV-associated malignancy with no effective treatment. ..
  14. Stewart J, Micali N, Usherwood E, Bonina L, Nash A. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 glycoprotein 150 protects against virus-induced mononucleosis: a model system for gamma-herpesvirus vaccination. Vaccine. 1999;17:152-7 pubmed
    ..However, mice did establish MHV-68 latency. The results suggest that gp350 may be effective as an immunogen to prevent EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis in humans that are EBV-seronegative. ..
  15. Obar J, Crist S, Gondek D, Usherwood E. Different functional capacities of latent and lytic antigen-specific CD8 T cells in murine gammaherpesvirus infection. J Immunol. 2004;172:1213-9 pubmed
    ..These data have important implications for our understanding of immunological control during chronic gammaherpesvirus infections. ..
  16. Braaten D, Sparks Thissen R, Kreher S, Speck S, Virgin H. An optimized CD8+ T-cell response controls productive and latent gammaherpesvirus infection. J Virol. 2005;79:2573-83 pubmed
    ..The data also demonstrate for the first time that a strong CD8(+) T-cell response can limit long-term latent infection. ..
  17. Cesarman E. Gammaherpesvirus and lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. Cancer Lett. 2011;305:163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the specific viral associations in selected lymphoproliferative disorders, and the insights into the molecular mechanisms of viral oncogenesis, will lead to better treatments for these frequently devastating diseases. ..
  18. Macrae A, Dutia B, Milligan S, Brownstein D, Allen D, Mistrikova J, et al. Analysis of a novel strain of murine gammaherpesvirus reveals a genomic locus important for acute pathogenesis. J Virol. 2001;75:5315-27 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that genetic elements at the left end of the unique region of the MHV-68 genome play vital roles in host evasion and are critical to the development of splenic pathology. ..
  19. Flano E, Kim I, Moore J, Woodland D, Blackman M. Differential gamma-herpesvirus distribution in distinct anatomical locations and cell subsets during persistent infection in mice. J Immunol. 2003;170:3828-34 pubmed
    ..These data have important implications for understanding the establishment and maintenance of latency by gamma(2)-herpesviruses. ..
  20. May J, Coleman H, Smillie B, Efstathiou S, Stevenson P. Forced lytic replication impairs host colonization by a latency-deficient mutant of murine gammaherpesvirus-68. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:137-46 pubmed
    ..The M50 virus was also attenuated in immunocompromised mice. Thus a gammaherpesvirus unable to shut off lytic cycle gene expression showed severely restricted host colonization. ..
  21. Wang X, Ye Y, Lencer W, Hansen T. The viral E3 ubiquitin ligase mK3 uses the Derlin/p97 endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway to mediate down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8636-44 pubmed
    ..The mechanistic implications of these findings are discussed. ..
  22. Usherwood E, Meadows S, Crist S, Bellfy S, Sentman C. Control of murine gammaherpesvirus infection is independent of NK cells. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:2956-61 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NK cells contribute little to the control of MHV-68 infection, and therefore, NK cells are not essential for controlling all herpesvirus infections. ..
  23. Dutia B, Stewart J, Clayton R, Dyson H, Nash A. Kinetic and phenotypic changes in murine lymphocytes infected with murine gammaherpesvirus-68 in vitro. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 10):2729-36 pubmed
    ..This DNA was nuclease sensitive, indicating that, while MHV-68 was efficiently uncoated, its circularization in vitro was extremely inefficient. These results are discussed in terms of the host-virus interaction. ..
  24. Townsley A, Dutia B, Nash A. The m4 gene of murine gammaherpesvirus modulates productive and latent infection in vivo. J Virol. 2004;78:758-67 pubmed
    ..M4 expression in vivo was detectable during productive infection in the lung and during the establishment of latency in the spleen, but in general M4 was not detectable during long-term latency (day 100 postinfection). ..
  25. Moser J, Upton J, Gray K, Speck S. Ex vivo stimulation of B cells latently infected with gammaherpesvirus 68 triggers reactivation from latency. J Virol. 2005;79:5227-31 pubmed
  26. Suárez A, Kong R, George T, He L, Yue Z, van Dyk L. Gammaherpesvirus 68 infection of endothelial cells requires both host autophagy genes and viral oncogenes for optimal survival and persistence. J Virol. 2011;85:6293-308 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a viral mechanism which usurps the autophagic machinery to promote viral persistence within nonadherent ECs, with the potential for recovery of infected ECs at a distant site upon disruption of virus replication...
  27. Simas J, Bowden R, Paige V, Efstathiou S. Four tRNA-like sequences and a serpin homologue encoded by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 are dispensable for lytic replication in vitro and latency in vivo. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 1):149-53 pubmed
    ..In this study it is demonstrated that deletion of four of the tRNA-like sequences and ORF1 from the virus genome does not affect the ability of MHV-68 to replicate in vitro or to establish, and reactivate from, latency in vivo. ..
  28. Willer D, Speck S. Long-term latent murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 infection is preferentially found within the surface immunoglobulin D-negative subset of splenic B cells in vivo. J Virol. 2003;77:8310-21 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, at late times postinfection latent gammaHV68 is largely confined to the surface immunoglobulin D-negative subset of B cells. ..
  29. Cheng B, Zhi J, Santana A, Khan S, Salinas E, Forrest J, et al. Tiled microarray identification of novel viral transcript structures and distinct transcriptional profiles during two modes of productive murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection. J Virol. 2012;86:4340-57 pubmed publisher
  30. Nordengrahn A, Merza M, Ros C, Lindholmc A, Palfl V, Hannant D, et al. Prevalence of equine herpesvirus types 2 and 5 in horse populations by using type-specific PCR assays. Vet Res. 2002;33:251-9 pubmed
    ..The findings indicated that infection with EHV-5 occurred later than EHV-2 in foals. This study may contribute to a better understanding of the etiological role of these gammaherpesviruses in equine diseases. ..
  31. de Lima B, May J, Stevenson P. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 lacking gp150 shows defective virion release but establishes normal latency in vivo. J Virol. 2004;78:5103-12 pubmed
    ..Cell-to-cell virus spread and the proliferation of latently infected cells, for which gp150 was dispensable, therefore appeared to be the major route of virus propagation in an infected host. ..
  32. Li H, Cunha C, Gailbreath K, O Toole D, White S, Vanderplasschen A, et al. Characterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:270-7 pubmed publisher
  33. Dutia B, Clarke C, Allen D, Nash A. Pathological changes in the spleens of gamma interferon receptor-deficient mice infected with murine gammaherpesvirus: a role for CD8 T cells. J Virol. 1997;71:4278-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, the lack of IFN-gamma receptor had profound consequences in spleens of MHV68-infected mice. The possible mechanisms involved in these changes are discussed...
  34. Neyts J, De Clercq E. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of murine gamma herpesvirus 68 replication by selected antiviral agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:170-2 pubmed
  35. Rovnak J, Quackenbush S, Reyes R, Baines J, Parrish C, Casey J. Detection of a novel bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus. J Virol. 1998;72:4237-42 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis placed this putative virus within the tumorigenic Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, and it is tentatively identified as bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus...
  36. Ehlers B, Küchler J, Yasmum N, Dural G, Voigt S, Schmidt Chanasit J, et al. Identification of novel rodent herpesviruses, including the first gammaherpesvirus of Mus musculus. J Virol. 2007;81:8091-100 pubmed
  37. Bridgeman A, Stevenson P, Simas J, Efstathiou S. A secreted chemokine binding protein encoded by murine gammaherpesvirus-68 is necessary for the establishment of a normal latent load. J Exp Med. 2001;194:301-12 pubmed
    ..In the absence of M3, MHV-68 was unable to establish a normal latent load...
  38. Boname J, Stevenson P. MHC class I ubiquitination by a viral PHD/LAP finger protein. Immunity. 2001;15:627-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, gamma-herpesviruses have adapted the cellular PHD/LAP motif to immune evasion, apparently for the catalysis of MHC class I ubiquitination...
  39. Kleiboeker S, Schommer S, Johnson P, Ehlers B, Turnquist S, Boucher M, et al. Association of two newly recognized herpesviruses with interstitial pneumonia in donkeys (Equus asinus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2002;14:273-80 pubmed
    ..Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis places these new viruses within the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily and indicates that they are most closely related to the recently identified zebra herpesvirus and ..
  40. McClellan J, Tibbetts S, Gangappa S, Brett K, Virgin H. Critical role of CD4 T cells in an antibody-independent mechanism of vaccination against gammaherpesvirus latency. J Virol. 2004;78:6836-45 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CD4 T cells play a critical role in immune surveillance of gammaherpesvirus latency and can mediate vaccination against latency in the absence of antibody responses...
  41. Li H, Keller J, Knowles D, Crawford T. Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:227-32 pubmed
    ..Combined serological and PCR-survey data demonstrated that this virus is endemic in goats and its transmission pattern may be similar to that of ovine herpesvirus-2 in sheep...
  42. Flano E, Hardy C, Kim I, Frankling C, Coppola M, Nguyen P, et al. T cell reactivity during infectious mononucleosis and persistent gammaherpesvirus infection in mice. J Immunol. 2004;172:3078-85 pubmed
    ..This murine model of infection may provide insight into the role of unusual populations of activated T cells associated with persistent viral infections...
  43. Forrest J, Paden C, Allen R, Collins J, Speck S. ORF73-null murine gammaherpesvirus 68 reveals roles for mLANA and p53 in virus replication. J Virol. 2007;81:11957-71 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data demonstrate the importance of mLANA in MHV68 replication and suggest that LANA proteins limit the induction of cellular stress responses to regulate the viral gene expression cascade and limit host cell injury...
  44. Doherty P, Christensen J, Belz G, Stevenson P, Sangster M. Dissecting the host response to a gamma-herpesvirus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:581-93 pubmed
    ..Perhaps the main lesson learned to date is that all the components of immunity are likely to be important for the control of these complex viruses...
  45. Gangappa S, van Dyk L, Jewett T, Speck S, Virgin H. Identification of the in vivo role of a viral bcl-2. J Exp Med. 2002;195:931-40 pubmed
    ..As gamma-herpesviruses primarily cause human disease during chronic infection, these chronic disease genes may be important targets for therapeutic intervention...
  46. Steed A, Barton E, Tibbetts S, Popkin D, Lutzke M, Rochford R, et al. Gamma interferon blocks gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latency. J Virol. 2006;80:192-200 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates that IFN-gamma is important for immune surveillance that limits reactivation of gammaHV68 from latency...
  47. Boudry C, Markine Goriaynoff N, Delforge C, Springael J, de Leval L, Drion P, et al. The A5 gene of alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 encodes a constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor that is non-essential for the induction of malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3224-33 pubmed
    ..The present study is the first to investigate the role of an individual gene of AlHV-1 in MCF pathogenesis...
  48. Hwang S, Wu T, Tong L, Kim K, Martinez Guzman D, Colantonio A, et al. Persistent gammaherpesvirus replication and dynamic interaction with the host in vivo. J Virol. 2008;82:12498-509 pubmed publisher
  49. Collins C, Speck S. Tracking murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection of germinal center B cells in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33230 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we have shown that marking of infected cells with MHV68-H2bYFP is extended long after the onset of latency - which should facilitate studies to track MHV68 latently infected cells at late times post-infection...
  50. Ensser A, Pflanz R, Fleckenstein B. Primary structure of the alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 genome. J Virol. 1997;71:6517-25 pubmed
  51. Virgin H, Speck S. Unraveling immunity to gamma-herpesviruses: a new model for understanding the role of immunity in chronic virus infection. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999;11:371-9 pubmed
    ..Studies of the response of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells during acute and chronic gammaHV68 were performed. These new studies provide key building blocks for further development of this novel and interesting model system...
  52. Peacock J, Bost K. Infection of intestinal epithelial cells and development of systemic disease following gastric instillation of murine gammaherpesvirus-68. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:421-9 pubmed
    ..Following infection of gut epithelial cells, gammaHV-68 can disseminate from mucosal sites to induce a systemic lymphocytosis which is similar to the disease induced following intranasal inoculation...
  53. Parry C, Simas J, Smith V, Stewart C, Minson A, Efstathiou S, et al. A broad spectrum secreted chemokine binding protein encoded by a herpesvirus. J Exp Med. 2000;191:573-8 pubmed
    ..hvCKBP is the first soluble chemokine receptor identified in herpesviruses; it represents a novel protein structure with the ability to bind all subfamilies of chemokines in solution and has potential therapeutic applications...
  54. Fruh K, Bartee E, Gouveia K, Mansouri M. Immune evasion by a novel family of viral PHD/LAP-finger proteins of gamma-2 herpesviruses and poxviruses. Virus Res. 2002;88:55-69 pubmed
    ..However, several lines of evidence suggest that they might function as ubiquitin ligases that regulate the intracellular transport of transmembrane proteins through ubiquitination...
  55. Tibbetts S, McClellan J, Gangappa S, Speck S, Virgin H. Effective vaccination against long-term gammaherpesvirus latency. J Virol. 2003;77:2522-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the potential of a memory immune response against gammaherpesviruses to alter long-term latency and suggest that limiting long-term latent infection in a clinically relevant situation is an attainable goal...
  56. Obar J, Fuse S, Leung E, Bellfy S, Usherwood E. Gammaherpesvirus persistence alters key CD8 T-cell memory characteristics and enhances antiviral protection. J Virol. 2006;80:8303-15 pubmed
  57. McMillan T, Moore B, Weinberg J, Vannella K, Fields W, Christensen P, et al. Exacerbation of established pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model by gammaherpesvirus. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In some cases, acute deterioration is associated with infection. Herpesviruses have been associated with this disease. Fibrocytes have also been shown to be important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis...
  58. Mages J, Freimüller K, Lang R, Hatzopoulos A, Guggemoos S, Koszinowski U, et al. Proteins of the secretory pathway govern virus productivity during lytic gammaherpesvirus infection. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:1974-89 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the emergence of drug-resistant mutations ma limit the effectiveness of these drugs. Since viruses require a host cell to propagate, the search for host cell targets is an interesting alternative...
  59. Stiglincová V, Chalupková A, Hrabovska Z, Cipková J, Wagnerova M, Mistrikova J. Vertical transmission of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 in mice. Acta Virol. 2011;55:55-9 pubmed
    ..Out of 10 infected pregnant mice just one died and another developed a tumor. All these results confirm the vertical transmission of MHV-68 in mice, teratogenicity of the virus and the virus shedding by breast milk...
  60. Dutia B, Allen D, Dyson H, Nash A. Type I interferons and IRF-1 play a critical role in the control of a gammaherpesvirus infection. Virology. 1999;261:173-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that innate immune mechanisms are critical for the early control of MHV-68 and may play a role in the establishment of latency...
  61. Rochford R, Lutzke M, Alfinito R, Clavo A, Cardin R. Kinetics of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 gene expression following infection of murine cells in culture and in mice. J Virol. 2001;75:4955-63 pubmed
  62. Sarawar S, Lee B, Reiter S, Schoenberger S. Stimulation via CD40 can substitute for CD4 T cell function in preventing reactivation of a latent herpesvirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6325-9 pubmed
  63. Kleiboeker S, Miller M, Schommer S, Ramos Vara J, Boucher M, Turnquist S. Detection and multigenic characterization of a herpesvirus associated with malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1311-8 pubmed
    ..gene followed by phylogenetic analysis solidified this newly recognized herpesvirus as a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae and suggests that this virus, along with ovine herpesvirus 2, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, alcelaphine ..
  64. Kim I, Flano E, Woodland D, Lund F, Randall T, Blackman M. Maintenance of long term gamma-herpesvirus B cell latency is dependent on CD40-mediated development of memory B cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:886-92 pubmed
    ..These data directly demonstrate viral exploitation of the normal B cell differentiation pathway to maintain latency...
  65. Sarawar S, Lee B, Giannoni F. Cytokines and costimulatory molecules in the immune response to murine gammaherpesvirus-68. Viral Immunol. 2004;17:3-11 pubmed
    ..Studying the role of cytokines and costimulatory molecules in immunity to MHV-68 may provide useful insights for the development of agents to control gammaherpesviruses that cause human disease...
  66. Guggemoos S, Hangel D, Hamm S, Heit A, Bauer S, Adler H. TLR9 contributes to antiviral immunity during gammaherpesvirus infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:438-43 pubmed
    ..p., TLR9-/- mice showed markedly higher viral loads both during lytic and latent infection. Thus, we show for the first time that TLR9 is involved in gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis and contributes to organ-specific immunity...
  67. Evans A, Moser J, Krug L, Pozharskaya V, Mora A, Speck S. A gammaherpesvirus-secreted activator of Vbeta4+ CD8+ T cells regulates chronic infection and immunopathology. J Exp Med. 2008;205:669-84 pubmed publisher
  68. Dry I, Haig D, Inglis N, Imrie L, Stewart J, Russell G. Proteomic analysis of pathogenic and attenuated alcelaphine herpesvirus 1. J Virol. 2008;82:5390-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that attenuation of AlHV-1 is not the result of gross changes in the composition of the virus particle but probably due to altered viral gene expression in the infected cell...
  69. Hughes D, Kipar A, Milligan S, Cunningham C, Sanders M, Quail M, et al. Characterization of a novel wood mouse virus related to murid herpesvirus 4. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:867-79 pubmed publisher
  70. Nelson D, Davis W, Brown W, Li H, O Toole D, Oaks J. CD8(+)/perforin(+)/WC1(-) gammadelta T cells, not CD8(+) alphabeta T cells, infiltrate vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;136:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of the present study support the previous suggestions that MCF is fundamentally a disease of immune dysregulation...
  71. Malkowska M, Kokoszynska K, Dymecka M, Rychlewski L, Wyrwicz L. Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae glycoprotein L and CMV UL130 originate from chemokines. Virol J. 2013;10:1 pubmed publisher
    Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses divided into three subfamilies: Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaherpesvirinae. The process of herpesvirus transmission is mediated by a range of proteins, one of which is glycoprotein L (gL)...
  72. Crawford T, Li H, Rosenburg S, Norhausen R, Garner M. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;221:843-7, 801 pubmed
    ..Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species...
  73. Jensen K, Chen S, Hipkin R, Wiekowski M, Schwarz M, Chou C, et al. Disruption of CCL21-induced chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo by M3, a chemokine-binding protein encoded by murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2003;77:624-30 pubmed
    ..The ability of M3 to block the biological activity of chemokines may represent an important strategy used by MHV-68 to evade immune detection and favor viral replication in the infected host...
  74. Wang X, Lybarger L, Connors R, Harris M, Hansen T. Model for the interaction of gammaherpesvirus 68 RING-CH finger protein mK3 with major histocompatibility complex class I and the peptide-loading complex. J Virol. 2004;78:8673-86 pubmed
  75. McGeoch D, Gatherer D, Dolan A. On phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of the Gammaherpesvirinae. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:307-16 pubmed
    Phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae of the family Herpesviridae were investigated for three species in the genus Lymphocryptovirus (or gamma1 group) and nine in the genus Rhadinovirus (or gamma2 group)...
  76. Martin A, Canasto Chibuque C, Shang L, Rollins B, Lira S. The chemokine decoy receptor M3 blocks CC chemokine ligand 2 and CXC chemokine ligand 13 function in vivo. J Immunol. 2006;177:7296-302 pubmed
    ..Coexpression of M3 in the pancreas blocked cellular recruitment induced by both CCL2 and CXCL13. These results define M3 as multichemokine blocker and demonstrate its use as a powerful tool to analyze chemokine biology...
  77. Liang C, E X, Jung J. Downregulation of autophagy by herpesvirus Bcl-2 homologs. Autophagy. 2008;4:268-72 pubmed
  78. Pires de Miranda M, Alenquer M, Marques S, Rodrigues L, Lopes F, Bustelo X, et al. The Gammaherpesvirus m2 protein manipulates the Fyn/Vav pathway through a multidocking mechanism of assembly. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1654 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that the M2 phosphotyrosine motif and the previously described M2 proline rich region work in a concerted manner to manipulate the signaling machinery of the host B-cell...
  79. Steer B, Adler B, Jonjic S, Stewart J, Adler H. A gammaherpesvirus complement regulatory protein promotes initiation of infection by activation of protein kinase Akt/PKB. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11672 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides complement regulation, these proteins are involved in heparan sulfate and glycosaminoglycan binding, and in case of MHV-68, also in viral DNA synthesis in macrophages...
  80. Usherwood E, Roy D, Ward K, Surman S, Dutia B, Blackman M, et al. Control of gammaherpesvirus latency by latent antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. J Exp Med. 2000;192:943-52 pubmed
    ..These data represent the first description of a latent antigen-specific immune response in this model, and suggest that vaccination with latent antigens such as M2 may be capable of modulating latent gammaherpesvirus infection...
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    ..Thus, exploring the biochemical and biological functions of the viral BCL-2 family proteins will increase our understanding of their role in virus infections and will undoubtedly teach us something about their cellular kin...
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    ..At late times after infection, virus DNA could only be detected in newly formed and germinal center B cells, which suggests that B cells play a critical role in facilitating life-long latency...
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    ..The availability of the AlHV-1 BAC is an important advance for the study of MCF that will allow the identification of viral genes involved in MCF pathogenesis, as well as the production of attenuated recombinant candidate vaccines...
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    ..Three codon changes are mapped out of two gp150 transmembrane domains and out of proline rich repeat region, respectively. Possible changes in the predicted secondary structure are discussed...
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    ..Investigations into a murine gamma-herpesvirus have now provided evidence that vaccination with apathogenic, latency-deficient mutants can largely protect against subsequent wild-type gamma-herpesvirus latency establishment...
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    ..We speculate that similar unconventional CD8 T cells may be able to control of other chronic viral infections, especially when viruses evade immunity by inhibiting generation of Class Ia-restricted T cells...
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    ..Exploitation of this property of B cells may allow enhanced vaccine responses to chronic virus infection...
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    ..These data indicate that the regulation of gammaherpesvirus latency by IFN-gamma is cell type specific and raise the possibility that cell type-specific immune deficiency may alter latency in distinct and important ways...
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    The Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family is divided into two genera: Lymphocryptovirus and Rhadinovirus...