chicken anemia virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.

Top Publications

  1. Ducatez M, Owoade A, Abiola J, Muller C. Molecular epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Nigeria. Arch Virol. 2006;151:97-111 pubmed
    Between February 2002 and May 2004, chicken anemia virus (CAV) was detected by PCR in organ samples from 14 flocks of poultry farms in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States in Southwestern Nigeria...
  2. van Santen V, Li L, Hoerr F, Lauerman L. Genetic characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler chickens in Alabama. Avian Dis. 2001;45:373-88 pubmed
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) isolates show extremely limited genetic variability worldwide. We determined the nucleotide sequence of an 823-nucleotide portion of the 2...
  3. Natesan S, Kataria J, Dhama K, Rahul S, Bhardwaj N, Baradhwaj N. Biological and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus isolates of Indian origin. Virus Res. 2006;118:78-86 pubmed
    ..The study showed valuable information on molecular epidemiological status of CAV isolates prevalent in India for the first time...
  4. van Santen V, Joiner K, Murray C, Petrenko N, Hoerr F, Toro H. Pathogenesis of chicken anemia virus: comparison of the oral and the intramuscular routes of infection. Avian Dis. 2004;48:494-504 pubmed
    The events during the pathogenesis of chicken anemia virus (CAV) infection following intramuscular (IM) and oral inoculation were further elucidated and compared by sequential clinical, pathologic, and morphometric histopathologic ..
  5. Emikpe B, Oluwayelu D, Ohore O, Oladele O, Oladokun A. Serological evidence of chicken anaemia virus infection in Nigerian indigenous chickens. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2005;72:101-3 pubmed
    ..8%) had titres between 5000-11000. The overall mean titre value was 5845 +/- 2402. This appears to be evidence of a natural outbreak of the infection since the chickens had no history of vaccination against any poultry disease...
  6. Lee M, Sun F, Huang C, Lien Y, Feng S, Lai G, et al. Efficient production of an engineered apoptin from chicken anemia virus in a recombinant E. coli for tumor therapeutic applications. BMC Biotechnol. 2012;12:27 pubmed publisher
    Apoptin, a nonstructural protein encoded by the VP3 gene of chicken anemia virus (CAV), has been shown to not only induce apoptosis when introduced into the precursors of chicken thymocytes, but has been found to specifically kill human ..
  7. Toro H, Ewald S, Hoerr F. Serological evidence of chicken infectious anemia virus in the United States at least since 1959. Avian Dis. 2006;50:124-6 pubmed
    ..survey was performed to determine an approximate time frame for when chickens were first exposed to chicken anemia virus (CAV) in the southeastern United States...
  8. Oluwayelu D, Todd D, Ball N, Scott A, Oladele O, Emikpe B, et al. Isolation and preliminary characterization of chicken anemia virus from chickens in Nigeria. Avian Dis. 2005;49:446-50 pubmed
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) was isolated for the first time from the Nigerian chicken population...
  9. Davidson I, Kedem M, Borochovitz H, Kass N, Ayali G, Hamzani E, et al. Chicken infectious anemia virus infection in Israeli commercial flocks: virus amplification, clinical signs, performance, and antibody status. Avian Dis. 2004;48:108-18 pubmed
    ..These data indicate a link between the presence of virus sequences and typical CIAV signs and strengthen the concept that CIAV infection has a negative economic impact on the chicken industry. ..

More Information

Publications67

  1. Miller M, Ealey K, Oswald W, Schat K. Detection of chicken anemia virus DNA in embryonal tissues and eggshell membranes. Avian Dis. 2003;47:662-71 pubmed
    ..A combination of testing eggshell membrane residues at hatch and periodic testing of blood DNA by nested PCR can be used to identify chickens carrying CIAV DNA and may be used to eradicate carrier birds. ..
  2. Peters M, Crabb B, Washington E, Browning G. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of Chicken anemia virus affects virus replication, cytopathology and host-cell MHC class I expression. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:823-31 pubmed
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an immunosuppressive pathogen of chickens...
  3. Kim H, Kwon Y, Bae Y, Oem J, Lee O. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea. Poult Sci. 2010;89:2426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms...
  4. Prasetyo A, Kamahora T, Kuroishi A, Murakami K, Hino S. Replication of chicken anemia virus (CAV) requires apoptin and is complemented by VP3 of human torque teno virus (TTV). Virology. 2009;385:85-92 pubmed publisher
    To test requirement for apoptin in the replication of chicken anemia virus (CAV), an apoptin-knockout clone, pCAV/Ap(-), was constructed. DNA replication was completely abolished in cells transfected with replicative form of CAV/Ap(-)...
  5. Davidson I, Artzi N, Shkoda I, Lublin A, Loeb E, Schat K. The contribution of feathers in the spread of chicken anemia virus. Virus Res. 2008;132:152-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) spreads vertically and horizontally, however, the process is mostly still obscure. To further clarify the horizontal CAV spread, we examined the contribution of feathers...
  6. Markowski Grimsrud C, Schat K. Infection with chicken anaemia virus impairs the generation of pathogen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunology. 2003;109:283-94 pubmed
    ..These results show a strong link between CAV antibody status, CAV replication, and the ability to generate REV-specific CTL. It is likely that the immunosuppressive effects of subclinical infection have previously been underestimated...
  7. He C, Ding N, Fan W, Wu Y, Li J, Li Y. Identification of chicken anemia virus putative intergenotype recombinants. Virology. 2007;366:1-7 pubmed
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus in the family Circoviridae is the pathogen of chicken infectious anemia. It is unknown whether homologous recombination happens between CAV strains...
  8. Simionatto S, Lima Rosa C, Binneck E, Ravazzolo A, Canal C. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian chicken anaemia virus. Virus Genes. 2006;33:5-10 pubmed
    ..Amino acid substitutions were detected at 9 positions of the Brazilian sequences and two of them had not been observed before, (65)R replacing the Q residue and (98)F replacing Y residue...
  9. Toro H, van Santen V, Hoerr F, Breedlove C. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens. Avian Dis. 2009;53:94-102 pubmed
    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated...
  10. Oluwayelu D, Todd D, Olaleye O. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2008;75:353-7 pubmed
  11. Hailemariam Z, Omar A, Hair Bejo M, Giap T. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens. Virol J. 2008;5:128 pubmed publisher
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA)...
  12. Lacorte C, Lohuis H, Goldbach R, Prins M. Assessing the expression of chicken anemia virus proteins in plants. Virus Res. 2007;129:80-6 pubmed
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen of chicken worldwide, causing severe anemia and immunodeficiency. Its small single-stranded DNA genome (2...
  13. Moeini H, Omar A, Rahim R, Yusoff K. Development of a DNA vaccine against chicken anemia virus by using a bicistronic vector expressing VP1 and VP2 proteins of CAV. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:227-36 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we describe the development of a DNA vaccine against chicken anemia virus. The VP1 and VP2 genes of CAV were amplified and cloned into pBudCE4.1 to construct two DNA vaccines, namely, pBudVP1 and pBudVP2-VP1...
  14. Moeini H, Rahim R, Omar A, Shafee N, Yusoff K. Lactobacillus acidophilus as a live vehicle for oral immunization against chicken anemia virus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:77-88 pubmed publisher
    The AcmA binding domains of Lactococcus lactis were used to display the VP1 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV) on Lactobacillus acidophilus. One and two repeats of the cell wall binding domain of acmA gene were amplified from L...
  15. Noteborn M, Verschueren C, Koch G, van der Eb A. Simultaneous expression of recombinant baculovirus-encoded chicken anaemia virus (CAV) proteins VP1 and VP2 is required for formation of the CAV-specific neutralizing epitope. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 12):3073-7 pubmed
    ..Recombinant baculovirus expressing VP1 and VP2 is, therefore, a potential production system for a subunit vaccine against CAV infection...
  16. Chowdhury S, Omar A, Aini I, Hair Bejo M, Jamaluddin A, Md Zain B, et al. Pathogenicity, sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Malaysian Chicken anaemia virus obtained after low and high passages in MSB-1 cells. Arch Virol. 2003;148:2437-48 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SMSC-1 and 3-1 were highly divergent, but their P60 passage derivatives shared significant homology to a Japanese isolate A2...
  17. Kucharski T, Gamache I, Gjoerup O, Teodoro J. DNA damage response signaling triggers nuclear localization of the chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin. J Virol. 2011;85:12638-49 pubmed publisher
    The chicken anemia virus (CAV) protein Apoptin is a small, 13.6-kDa protein that has the intriguing activity of inducing G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis specifically in cancer cells by a mechanism that is independent of p53...
  18. Rijsewijk F, Dos Santos H, Teixeira T, Cibulski S, Varela A, Dezen D, et al. Discovery of a genome of a distant relative of chicken anemia virus reveals a new member of the genus Gyrovirus. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1097-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2383-nucleotide sequence showed about 40% identity to a representative genome of chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus, family Circoviridae...
  19. Crowther R, Berriman J, Curran W, Allan G, Todd D. Comparison of the structures of three circoviruses: chicken anemia virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and beak and feather disease virus. J Virol. 2003;77:13036-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, Chicken anemia virus is in the genus Gyrovirus, while porcine circoviruses and Beak and feather disease virus belong to the ..
  20. Yamaguchi S, Imada T, Kaji N, Mase M, Tsukamoto K, Tanimura N, et al. Identification of a genetic determinant of pathogenicity in chicken anaemia virus. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1233-8 pubmed
    ..Low-pathogenic CAV, based on an infectious DNA clone, is a candidate for a genetically homogeneous and stable CAV live vaccine...
  21. Los M, Panigrahi S, Rashedi I, Mandal S, Stetefeld J, Essmann F, et al. Apoptin, a tumor-selective killer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:1335-42 pubmed publisher
    Apoptin, a small protein from chicken anemia virus, has attracted great attention, because it specifically kills tumor cells while leaving normal cells unharmed...
  22. De Herdt P, Van Den Bosch G, Ducatelle R, Uyttebroek E, Schrier C. Epidemiology and significance of chicken infectious anemia virus infections in broilers and broiler parents under nonvaccinated European circumstances. Avian Dis. 2001;45:706-8 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that CIAV infections are highly prevalent in both broiler parent and broiler flocks and that CIAV infections in broilers are associated with increased slaughterhouse condemnation...
  23. Noteborn M. Chicken anemia virus induced apoptosis: underlying molecular mechanisms. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:89-94 pubmed
    In 1990, the chicken anemia virus (CAV) genome was cloned by us and proven to be representative for CAV isolates worldwide. This genome contains unique promoter/enhancer replication elements and genes...
  24. Cheng J, Sheu S, Lien Y, Lee M, Chen H, Su W, et al. Identification of the NLS and NES motifs of VP2 from chicken anemia virus and the interaction of VP2 with mini-chromosome maintenance protein 3. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:15 pubmed publisher
    VP2 of chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a dual-specificity phosphatase required for virus infection, assembly and replication...
  25. Wang X, Gao H, Gao Y, Fu C, Wang Z, Lu G, et al. Mapping of epitopes of VP2 protein of chicken anemia virus using monoclonal antibodies. J Virol Methods. 2007;143:194-9 pubmed
    To map the epitopes of VP2 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV), VP2 was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
  26. Huang C, Lai G, Lin W, Lien Y, Hsueh S, Kao J, et al. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of chicken anaemia virus. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:917-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The main aim of this study was to establish a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detecting CAV infection...
  27. Davidson I, Shulman L. Unraveling the puzzle of human anellovirus infections by comparison with avian infections with the chicken anemia virus. Virus Res. 2008;137:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Each additional parallelism between chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Torque teno virus (TTV) further strengthens this premise...
  28. Sommer F, Cardona C. Chicken anemia virus in broilers: dynamics of the infection in two commercial broiler flocks. Avian Dis. 2003;47:1466-73 pubmed
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) can cause a disease syndrome characterized by severe anemia, bone marrow atrophy, and severe immunosuppression in young chicks...
  29. Ducatez M, Chen H, Guan Y, Muller C. Molecular epidemiology of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in southeastern Chinese live birds markets. Avian Dis. 2008;52:68-73 pubmed
    ..chickens from live birds markets in Guangdong and Hunan provinces in southeastern China were screened for chicken anemia virus (CAV) by polymerase chain reaction...
  30. Kamada K, Kuroishi A, Kamahora T, Kabat P, Yamaguchi S, Hino S. Spliced mRNAs detected during the life cycle of Chicken anemia virus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2227-33 pubmed
    The existence of spliced mRNA in Chicken anemia virus (CAV) was investigated, as three proteins appeared to be derived from a single 2.0 kb mRNA species...
  31. Schat K. Chicken anemia virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;331:151-83 pubmed
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution...
  32. Crowley T, Haring V, Moore R. Chicken anemia virus: an understanding of the in-vitro host response over time. Viral Immunol. 2011;24:3-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an economically important virus affecting the chicken meat and egg industry. CAV is characterized by anemia, lymphoid depletion, and immunosuppression...
  33. Bhatt P, Shukla S, Mahendran M, Dhama K, Chawak M, Kataria J. Prevalence of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) in commercial poultry flocks of northern India: a serological survey. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:458-60 pubmed publisher
  34. Rohn J, Zhang Y, Aalbers R, Otto N, den Hertog J, Henriquez N, et al. A tumor-specific kinase activity regulates the viral death protein Apoptin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50820-7 pubmed
    Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, is thought to be activated by a general tumor-specific pathway, because it induces apoptosis in a large number of human tumor or transformed cells but not in their normal, healthy ..
  35. Todd D, Scott A, Ball N, Borghmans B, Adair B. Molecular basis of the attenuation exhibited by molecularly cloned highly passaged chicken anemia virus isolates. J Virol. 2002;76:8472-4 pubmed
    ..and monoclonal antibody reactivity differences between two molecularly cloned, highly passaged chicken anemia virus isolates could be attributed to the VP1 amino acid change at residue 89...
  36. Zhang X, Xie Q, Ji J, Chang S, Liu J, Chen F, et al. Complete genome sequence analysis of a recent chicken anemia virus isolate and comparison with a chicken anemia virus isolate from human fecal samples in China. J Virol. 2012;86:10896-7 pubmed publisher
    A new isolate of chicken anemia virus (CAV) was designated GD-1-12. GD-1-12 was isolated from a 12-day-old commercial broiler in Guangdong province, China, in 2012...
  37. van Santen V, Kaltenboeck B, Joiner K, Macklin K, Norton R. Real-time quantitative PCR-based serum neutralization test for detection and titration of neutralizing antibodies to chicken anemia virus. J Virol Methods. 2004;115:123-35 pubmed
    Detection and titration of chicken anemia virus (CAV)-neutralizing antibodies has relied on tedious, time-consuming passaging of infected cells, or subjective recognition of cytopathic effect in individual cells, because CAV replicates in ..
  38. Hasmah M, Omar A, Wan K, Hair Bejo M, Aini I. Genetic diversity of chicken anemia virus following cell culture passaging in MSB-1 cells. Acta Virol. 2004;48:85-9 pubmed
    It has been shown that a chicken anemia virus (CAV) isolates which had undergone 60 passages in MSB-1 cells (SMSC-1/P60, 3-1/P60) acquired 33-66 nucleotide substitutions at the coding region resulting in 13-16 amino acid changes as ..
  39. Peters M, Jackson D, Crabb B, Browning G. Mutation of chicken anemia virus VP2 differentially affects serine/threonine and tyrosine protein phosphatase activities. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:623-30 pubmed
    ..Viral protein 2 (VP2) of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and ORF2 of TT virus have been shown to possess DSP activity in vitro...
  40. Spackman E, Cloud S, Pope C, Rosenberger J. Comparison of a putative second serotype of chicken infectious anemia virus with a prototypical isolate I. Pathogenesis. Avian Dis. 2002;46:945-55 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the number of birds protected against CIAV-7 or Del-Ros challenge varied within flocks, demonstrating that the agents are serologically distinct...
  41. Noteborn M, Verschueren C, van Ormondt H, van der Eb A. Chicken anemia virus strains with a mutated enhancer/promoter region share reduced virus spread and cytopathogenicity. Gene. 1998;223:165-72 pubmed
    Plasmid pCAV/E contains an infectious cloned double-stranded CAV (chicken anemia virus) DNA genome (Noteborn et al., J. Virol. 65 (1991) 3131-3139)...
  42. Sauvage V, Cheval J, Foulongne V, Gouilh M, Pariente K, Manuguerra J, et al. Identification of the first human gyrovirus, a virus related to chicken anemia virus. J Virol. 2011;85:7948-50 pubmed publisher
    ..from a healthy donor a new virus that we have named human gyrovirus (HGyV) because of its similarity to the chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only previously known member of the Gyrovirus genus...
  43. Chou Y, Lien Y, Lin M, Chang W, Lee H, Lee M, et al. Production and diagnostic application of a purified, E. coli-expressed, serological-specific chicken anaemia virus antigen VP3. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A VP3-based ELISA demonstrated 100% (6/6 x 100%) specificity and sensitivities of 91.3% (21/23 x 100%) and 82.6% (19/23 x 100%) using cut-off values of the mean plus 2 SD and the mean plus 3 SD, respectively...
  44. Islam M, Johne R, Raue R, Todd D, Muller H. Sequence analysis of the full-length cloned DNA of a chicken anaemia virus (CAV) strain from Bangladesh: evidence for genetic grouping of CAV strains based on the deduced VP1 amino acid sequences. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:332-7 pubmed
    ..These strains have four signatory amino acids in VP1, such as 75I/T, 97L, 139Q and 144Q, out of which the latter two are located in a small hydrophilic peak...
  45. Yilmaz H, Turan N, Ozgur N, Helps C, Akay -. Detection of chicken anemia virus DNA in the thymus of naturally infected chicks in turkey. Avian Dis. 2001;45:529-33 pubmed
    ..the Marmara region were investigated clinically for changes in hematocrit values and for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) DNA. CAV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the thymus of 8.5% of the chicks...
  46. Brentano L, Lazzarin S, Bassi S, Klein T, Schat K. Detection of chicken anemia virus in the gonads and in the progeny of broiler breeder hens with high neutralizing antibody titers. Vet Microbiol. 2005;105:65-72 pubmed
    Previous evidence for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in the gonads of immune specific-pathogen-free chickens raised the question whether this occurs also in commercial breeders...
  47. Tan J, Tannock G. Role of viral load in the pathogenesis of chicken anemia virus. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1327-33 pubmed
    The pathogenesis of strain 3711 of the chicken anemia virus (CAV), propagated in chickens, and two preparations of strain 3711 that had been adapted to grow to high titre in cells of the MDCC-MSB1 line were studied in chicken embryos and/..
  48. Welch J, Bienek C, Gomperts E, Simmonds P. Resistance of porcine circovirus and chicken anemia virus to virus inactivation procedures used for blood products. Transfusion. 2006;46:1951-8 pubmed
    ..Pasteurization or prolonged dry heat has proven effective against several enveloped and nonenveloped viruses and provides an additional layer of safety for plasma products...
  49. Craig M, Rimondi A, Delamer M, Sansalone P, Konig G, Vagnozzi A, et al. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia virus circulating in Argentina during 2007. Avian Dis. 2009;53:331-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, this analysis could be considered in future control strategies focused not only on breeders but on broilers and layer flocks...
  50. Caterina K, Frasca S, Girshick T, Khan M. Development of a multiplex PCR for detection of avian adenovirus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, and chicken anemia virus. Mol Cell Probes. 2004;18:293-8 pubmed
    ..of avian reovirus (ARV), avian adenovirus group I (AAV-I), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and chicken anemia virus (CAV). Four sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were used in this test for ARV, AAV-I, IBDV, and CAV...
  51. Miller M, Schat K. Chicken infectious anemia virus: an example of the ultimate host-parasite relationship. Avian Dis. 2004;48:734-45 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, CIAV has a well-adapted relationship with its host, avoiding immune detection, ensuring passage of virus to the next generation, and eliciting limited pathology to the host...
  52. Miller M, Jarosinski K, Schat K. Negative modulation of the chicken infectious anemia virus promoter by COUP-TF1 and an E box-like element at the transcription start site binding deltaEF1. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2998-3003 pubmed publisher
    ..Electromobility shift assays showed that the transcription regulator delta-EF1 (deltaEF1) binds to this E box region. These findings indicate that the CAV promoter activity can be affected directly or indirectly by COUP-TF1 and deltaEF1...
  53. Eltahir Y, Qian K, Jin W, Qin A. Analysis of chicken anemia virus genome: evidence of intersubtype recombination. Virol J. 2011;8:512 pubmed publisher
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia. CAV putative intergenotypic recombinants have been reported previously...
  54. Takahashi K, Iwasa Y, Hijikata M, Mishiro S. Identification of a new human DNA virus (TTV-like mini virus, TLMV) intermediately related to TT virus and chicken anemia virus. Arch Virol. 2000;145:979-93 pubmed
    ..only known human virus with single-stranded circular DNA, with a possible but yet unclear relationship to chicken anemia virus (CAV) of the family Circoviridae...
  55. Zhang Y, Kooistra K, Pietersen A, Rohn J, Noteborn M. Activation of the tumor-specific death effector apoptin and its kinase by an N-terminal determinant of simian virus 40 large T antigen. J Virol. 2004;78:9965-76 pubmed
    Apoptin, a viral death protein derived from chicken anemia virus, displays a number of tumor-specific behaviors...
  56. Owoade A, Oluwayelu D, Fagbohun O, Ammerlaan W, Mulders M, Muller C. Serologic evidence of chicken infectious anemia in commercial chicken flocks in southwest Nigeria. Avian Dis. 2004;48:202-5 pubmed
    ..Further studies are necessary to assess economic losses due to CIAV and the cost benefit of countermeasures...
  57. Eltahir Y, Qian K, Jin W, Wang P, Qin A. Molecular epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in commercial farms in China. Virol J. 2011;8:145 pubmed publisher
    b>Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). A high prevalence of CAV has been reported in China...
  58. Leliveld S, Dame R, Rohn J, Noteborn M, Abrahams J. Apoptin's functional N- and C-termini independently bind DNA. FEBS Lett. 2004;557:155-8 pubmed
    ..As Apoptin's N- and C-terminal fragments not only share apoptotic activity, but also affinity for DNA, we propose that both properties are functionally linked...