circovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).

Top Publications

  1. He J, Cao J, Zhou N, Jin Y, Wu J, Zhou J. Identification and functional analysis of the novel ORF4 protein encoded by porcine circovirus type 2. J Virol. 2013;87:1420-9 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases in pigs. To date, viral proteins Cap, Rep, Rep', and ORF3, encoded by the PCV2 genome, have been described...
  2. Brunborg I, Fossum C, Lium B, Blomqvist G, Merlot E, Jørgensen A, et al. Dynamics of serum antibodies to and load of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs in three finishing herds, affected or not by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study focused on PCV2 load and antibody dynamics in finishing herds with different PMWS status...
  3. Blomström A, Belak S, Fossum C, Fuxler L, Wallgren P, Berg M. Studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs. Virus Res. 2010;152:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus Bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in Swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)...
  4. Fort M, Sibila M, Nofrarias M, Perez Martín E, Olvera A, Mateu E, et al. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap and Rep proteins are involved in the development of cell-mediated immunity upon PCV2 infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;137:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of the present study was to investigate the role of the capside (Cap) and replicase (Rep) proteins of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) as well as the whole PCV2 (both PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes) in the induction of cell-mediated ..
  5. Huang L, Lu Y, Wei Y, Guo L, Liu C. Identification of one critical amino acid that determines a conformational neutralizing epitope in the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:188 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs...
  6. Liu X, Zhang Y, Fang Y, Wang Y. Patterns and influencing factor of synonymous codon usage in porcine circovirus. Virol J. 2012;9:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, little information about synonymous codon usage pattern of porcine circovirus (PCV) genome in the process of its evolution is available...
  7. Oh Y, Seo H, Han K, Park C, Chae C. Protective effect of the maternally derived porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific cellular immune response in piglets by dam vaccination against PCV2 challenge. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1556-62 pubmed publisher
    ..objective of the present study was to evaluate (i) the passive transfer of maternally derived functional porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific lymphocytes of seronegative sows immunized with the PCV2 vaccine to newborn piglets and (..
  8. Reiner G, Bronnert B, Hohloch C, Reinacher M, Willems H. Distribution of ORF2 and ORF3 genotypes of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in wild boars and domestic pigs in Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2011;148:372-6 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), the essential infectious agent in PCVD (porcine circovirus diseases) circulates at high rates among domestic pig and wild boar populations...
  9. Chae C. Porcine circovirus type 2 and its associated diseases in Korea. Virus Res. 2012;164:107-13 pubmed publisher
    This review describes the characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the field situation of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) and the PCV2 vaccine in Korea...

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Rammohan L, Xue L, Wang C, Chittick W, Ganesan S, Ramamoorthy S. Increased prevalence of torque teno viruses in porcine respiratory disease complex affected pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:61-8 pubmed publisher
    The role of swine torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) as co-factors in disease syndromes involving porcine circovirus strain 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been a debatable subject...
  2. Patterson A, Johnson J, Ramamoorthy S, Hesse R, Murtaugh M, Puvanendiran S, et al. Interlaboratory comparison of Porcine circovirus-2 indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results on experimentally infected pigs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:206-12 pubmed
    ..of the diagnostic agreement and accuracy of serologic tests for routine detection of antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2), including indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) ..
  3. Wang C, Pang V, Lee F, Huang T, Lee S, Lin Y, et al. Prevalence and genetic variation of porcine circovirus type 2 in Taiwan from 2001 to 2011. Res Vet Sci. 2013;94:789-95 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the major causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Taiwanese pig farms...
  4. Ren W, Yin Y, Liu G, Yu X, Li Y, Yang G, et al. Effect of dietary arginine supplementation on reproductive performance of mice with porcine circovirus type 2 infection. Amino Acids. 2012;42:2089-94 pubmed publisher
    ..whether supplemental dietary arginine increases reproductive performance in mice infected with porcine circovirus type2 (PCV2). A total of 50KM female mice were allotted randomly to the arginine group (0...
  5. Trible B, Rowland R. Genetic variation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and its relevance to vaccination, pathogenesis and diagnosis. Virus Res. 2012;164:68-77 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) encompasses a group of complex, multi-factorial syndromes, which are dependent on infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)...
  6. Rodríguez Cariño C, Duffy C, Sánchez Chardi A, McNeilly F, Allan G, Segales J. Porcine circovirus type 2 morphogenesis in a clone derived from the l35 lymphoblastoid cell line. J Comp Pathol. 2011;144:91-102 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the essential infectious agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), one of the most important diseases of swine...
  7. Huang L, Lu Y, Wei Y, Guo L, Wu H, Zhang F, et al. Construction and biological characterisation of recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 expressing the V5 epitope tag. Virus Res. 2011;161:115-23 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a major causal agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in piglets...
  8. Polo J, Opriessnig T, O Neill K, Rodriguez C, Russell L, Campbell J, et al. Neutralizing antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 in liquid pooled plasma contribute to the biosafety of commercially manufactured spray-dried porcine plasma. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:2192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..present in pooled plasma collected at commercial abattoirs may provide some protection against potential porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infectivity of plasma...
  9. Wei C, Zhang M, Chen Y, Xie J, Huang Z, Zhu W, et al. Genetic evolution and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 infections in southern China from 2011 to 2012. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;17:87-92 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVADs), is a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide...
  10. Lou Z, Li X, Li Z, Yin X, Li B, Lan X, et al. Expression and antigenicity characterization for truncated capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2. Can J Vet Res. 2011;75:61-4 pubmed
    ..of specific primers were designed to amplify F2-1, F2-2, and XF2-2 truncated capsid protein genes of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2)...
  11. Gauger P, Lager K, Vincent A, Opriessnig T, Kehrli M, Cheung A. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome produced in gnotobiotic pigs following exposure to various amounts of porcine circovirus type 2a or type 2b. Vet Microbiol. 2011;153:229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnostic investigations consistently detected porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from diseased tissues...
  12. Ge M, Luo W, Jiang D, Li R, Zhao W, Chen G, et al. Development and application of a double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to porcine circovirus 2. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1480-6 pubmed publisher
    A double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) antibodies using the well-characterized recombinant PCV2 capsid protein...
  13. Fort M, Sibila M, Nofrarias M, Perez Martín E, Olvera A, Mateu E, et al. Evaluation of cell-mediated immune responses against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap and Rep proteins after vaccination with a commercial PCV2 sub-unit vaccine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;150:128-32 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the development of cellular immunity to Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap and Rep proteins in pigs vaccinated with a commercial PCV2 genotype a (PCV2a) based sub-unit vaccine, before and after a heterologous ..
  14. Opriessnig T, Shen H, Pal N, Ramamoorthy S, Huang Y, Lager K, et al. A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is eff. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1261-8 pubmed publisher
    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2...
  15. Wen L, He K, Yang H, Yu Z, Mao A, Zhong S, et al. Prevalence of porcine circovirus-like agent P1 in Jiangsu, China. Virol J. 2011;8:543 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we identified a novel porcine circovirus type 2-like agent P1 isolate from swine...
  16. Jiang Y, Shang H, Xu H, Ding X, Zhao L, Fang L, et al. Detection and genotyping of porcine circovirus in naturally infected pigs by oligo-microarray. Res Vet Sci. 2010;89:133-9 pubmed publisher
    A rapid and reliable method for the identification of porcine circovirus (PCV) genotypes based on oligonucleotide microarray hybridization has been developed...
  17. Kristensen C, Baadsgaard N, Toft N. A meta-analysis comparing the effect of PCV2 vaccines on average daily weight gain and mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter. Prev Vet Med. 2011;98:250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4%) and nursery-finishing pigs (5.4%), but not for nursery pigs (0.25%). Herds negative for PRRS had a significantly larger increase in ADG compared to herds positive for PRRS. The PRRS status had no effect on mortality rate. ..
  18. Zhou S, Han S, Shi J, Wu J, Yuan X, Cong X, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of porcine circovirus type 2. Virol J. 2011;8:497 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of the emerging swine disease known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)...
  19. Madson D, Opriessnig T. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection on reproduction: disease, vertical transmission, diagnostics and vaccination. Anim Health Res Rev. 2011;12:47-65 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes great economic losses in growing pigs and there are several reviews on disease manifestations and lesions associated with PCV2 in growing pigs...
  20. Guo L, Fu Y, Wang Y, Lu Y, Wei Y, Tang Q, et al. A porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) mutant with 234 amino acids in capsid protein showed more virulence in vivo, compared with classical PCV2a/b strain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41463 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has become a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide...
  21. Li K, Wang L, Wu Y, Chao A, Lu Q, Wei Z, et al. Molecular detection and genomic characterization of Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 from domestic pigs in central China. Virus Genes. 2013;46:479-86 pubmed publisher
    ..TTV2Hn93 strain was classified into subtype TTSuV2d and shared the highest identity (97 %) with the Spain strain (GU570207). ..
  22. Opriessnig T, Gomes Neto J, Hemann M, Shen H, Beach N, Huang Y, et al. An experimental live chimeric porcine circovirus 1-2a vaccine decreases porcine circovirus 2b viremia when administered intramuscularly or orally in a porcine circovirus 2b and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus dual-challenge model. Microbiol Immunol. 2011;55:863-73 pubmed publisher
    Commercially available inactivated vaccines against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) have been shown to be effective in reducing PCV2 viremia...
  23. Opriessnig T, Halbur P. Concurrent infections are important for expression of porcine circovirus associated disease. Virus Res. 2012;164:20-32 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the essential component of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD) as the disease syndrome is referred to in Europe and porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) as it is referred to in North America...
  24. Opriessnig T, Madson D, Roof M, Layton S, Ramamoorthy S, Meng X, et al. Experimental reproduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in pigs infected with PCV2 alone or concurrently with Lawsonia intracellularis or Salmonella typhimurium. J Comp Pathol. 2011;145:261-70 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus (PCV)-associated disease (PCVAD) has emerged to become one of the most economically important pig diseases globally...
  25. Chae C. Commercial porcine circovirus type 2 vaccines: efficacy and clinical application. Vet J. 2012;194:151-7 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the one of the most economically important pathogens of pigs...
  26. Baylis S, Finsterbusch T, Bannert N, Blümel J, Mankertz A. Analysis of porcine circovirus type 1 detected in Rotarix vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29:690-7 pubmed publisher
    A metagenomic analysis of live human vaccines has recently demonstrated the presence of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) DNA in the paediatric vaccine Rotarix used in the prevention of acute gastroenteritis...
  27. Xu X, Zhao H, Zhang Q, Ding L, Li Z, Li W, et al. Oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing Cap protein of PCV2 and its immunogenicity in mouse and swine models. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium) was selected as a transgenic vehicle for the development of oral vaccines against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The Cap-encoding gene of PCV2 was amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector pYA3341...
  28. Borghetti P, Morganti M, Saleri R, Ferrari L, De Angelis E, Cavalli V, et al. Innate pro-inflammatory and adaptive immune cytokines in PBMC of vaccinated and unvaccinated pigs naturally exposed to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection vary with the occurrence of the disease and the viral burden. Vet Microbiol. 2013;163:42-53 pubmed publisher
  29. Hansen M, Pors S, Jensen H, Bille Hansen V, Bisgaard M, Flachs E, et al. An investigation of the pathology and pathogens associated with porcine respiratory disease complex in Denmark. J Comp Pathol. 2010;143:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (type A), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma ..
  30. Zhai S, Chen S, Wei Z, Zhang J, Huang L, Lin T, et al. Co-existence of multiple strains of porcine circovirus type 2 in the same pig from China. Virol J. 2011;8:517 pubmed publisher
    ..Up to now, there are few reports about co-existence of different porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate it in Chinese swine herds...
  31. Gamage L, McIntosh K, Parker S, Harding J, Krakowka S, Ellis J. Efficacy of parenteral vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in seropositive piglets. Can J Vet Res. 2012;76:301-7 pubmed
    This study investigated if parenteral administration of a prototype adjuvanted vaccine against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) could override maternally derived antibodies and induce acquired immunity in young piglets...
  32. Ticó G, Segales J, Martinez J. The blurred border between porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease and porcine respiratory disease complex. Vet Microbiol. 2013;163:242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is one of the pathogens potentially involved in the presentation of this complex, although, it has ..
  33. Guo J, Tian J, Tan X, Yu H, Ding S, Sun H, et al. Pathological observations of an experimental infection of geese with goose circovirus. Avian Pathol. 2011;40:55-61 pubmed publisher
    There is so far no report describing the pathogenicity of goose circovirus (GoCV) following experimental infection...
  34. Kumar D, Beach N, Meng X, Hegde N. Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production. J Virol Methods. 2012;179:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent detection or porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in human vaccines has further highlighted the importance of quality control in vaccine production...
  35. Seo H, Oh Y, Han K, Park C, Chae C. Reduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) viremia by a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immunity after experimental PCV2 challenge. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:194 pubmed publisher
    ..0 ml dose at 21 days of age. At 35 days of age (0 days post-challenge), the pigs in groups T01 and T03 were inoculated intranasally with 2 ml each of PCV2b...
  36. Grau Roma L, Fraile L, Segales J. Recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of diseases caused by porcine circovirus type 2. Vet J. 2011;187:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..PMWS) emerged as a significant disease affecting pig production in the 1990s although the causal agent, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and the disease itself, had existed in swine for many years prior to this...
  37. Ramamoorthy S, Opriessnig T, Pal N, Huang F, Meng X. Effect of an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) mutant of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) on PCV2-induced pathological lesions in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) co-infection model. Vet Microbiol. 2011;147:49-58 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) in swine. Coinfections of PCV2 with other swine pathogens increase the severity of PCVAD...
  38. Savic B, Milicevic V, Bojkovski J, Kureljusic B, Ivetic V, Pavlovic I. Detection rates of the swine torque teno viruses (TTVs), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the livers of pigs with hepatitis. Vet Res Commun. 2010;34:641-8 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the most recently recognized causes of infectious hepatitis of pigs and may or may not act independently in the development of the disease...
  39. Chaiyakul M, Hsu K, Dardari R, Marshall F, Czub M. Cytotoxicity of ORF3 proteins from a nonpathogenic and a pathogenic porcine circovirus. J Virol. 2010;84:11440-7 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection is associated with significant and serious swine diseases worldwide, while PCV1 appears to be a nonpathogenic virus...
  40. Guo L, Lu Y, Wei Y, Huang L, Liu C. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2): genetic variation and newly emerging genotypes in China. Virol J. 2010;7:273 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), is a serious economic problem for the swine industry in China...
  41. Patterson A, Madson D, Halbur P, Opriessnig T. Shedding and infection dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) after natural exposure. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:225-9 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to determine the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in nasal, oral and fecal secretions over time following natural PCV2 infection...
  42. Wang C, Pang V, Jeng C, Lee F, Huang Y, Lin Y, et al. Detection of porcine circovirus type 1 in commercial porcine vaccines by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2011;56:483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..amplification (LAMP) method with a real-time monitoring system was developed for the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in commercial swine vaccines. This method was highly specific for PCV1...
  43. Darwich L, Mateu E. Immunology of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Virus Res. 2012;164:61-7 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated diseases and particularly postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was a shock for the swine industry and formulated a considerable challenge for researchers in the ..
  44. Hammer R, Ritzmann M, Palzer A, Lang C, Hammer B, Pesch S, et al. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:87-94 pubmed
    ..A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph ..
  45. Cai L, Han X, Hu D, Li X, Wang B, Ni J, et al. A novel porcine circovirus type 2a strain, 10JS-2, with eleven-nucleotide insertions in the origin of genome replication. J Virol. 2012;86:7017 pubmed publisher
    Here, we report a novel porcine circovirus type 2a (PCV2a) strain with 11 nucleotides (nt) inserted in the origin of genome replication (Ori). This is the first report of a PCV2a strain with nucleotide insertion in Ori...
  46. Li W, Liu S, Wang Y, Deng F, Yan W, Yang K, et al. Transcription analysis of the porcine alveolar macrophage response to porcine circovirus type 2. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:353 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has severely impacted the swine industry worldwide...
  47. Risco D, Fernández Llario P, García Jiménez W, Goncalves P, Cuesta J, Martinez R, et al. Influence of porcine circovirus type 2 infections on bovine tuberculosis in wild boar populations. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60 Suppl 1:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This work aims to assess the influence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) infection on bTB prevalence and bTB lesional patterns observed in wild boar...
  48. Shen H, Wang C, Madson D, Opriessnig T. High prevalence of porcine circovirus viremia in newborn piglets in five clinically normal swine breeding herds in North America. Prev Vet Med. 2010;97:228-36 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can be vertically transmitted resulting in fetal infection with or without clinical signs and lesions...
  49. Zhao K, Han F, Zou Y, Zhu L, Li C, Xu Y, et al. Rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 using a TaqMan-based real-time PCR. Virol J. 2010;7:374 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and the associated disease postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) have caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades...
  50. Cino Ozuna A, Henry S, Hesse R, Nietfeld J, Bai J, Scott H, et al. Characterization of a new disease syndrome associated with porcine circovirus type 2 in previously vaccinated herds. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2012-6 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) encompasses a group of wasting syndromes linked to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)...
  51. Zhao K, Shi W, Han F, Xu Y, Zhu L, Zou Y, et al. Specific, simple and rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. Virol J. 2011;8:126 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). It has caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades...
  52. Genmei L, Manlin L, Ruiai C, Hongliang H, Dangshuai P. Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus expressing ORF2 of PCV2 and porcine IFN gamma. Vaccine. 2011;29:8677-82 pubmed publisher
    The capsid structural protein encoded by the gene ORF2 of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 is critical for eliciting the broad protective immunity...
  53. Kapoor A, Dubovi E, Henriquez Rivera J, Lipkin W. Complete genome sequence of the first canine circovirus. J Virol. 2012;86:7018 pubmed publisher
    We found a highly divergent circovirus in serum samples from several dogs...
  54. Huang Z, Su S, Wei C, Xie J, Zhu W, Chen J, et al. Complete genome sequence of a novel field strain of rearranged porcine circovirus type 2 in southern China. J Virol. 2012;86:10895 pubmed publisher
    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain, which is supposed to be the result of natural genetic recombination between the ORF1 gene of genotype PCV2b-1B and the ORF2 gene of PCV2b-1C...
  55. Chae J, Choi K. Proinflammatory cytokine expression in the lung of pigs with porcine circovirus type 2-associated respiratory disease. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:321-3 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes a significant health problem for the swine industry worldwide...
  56. Karuppannan A, Kwang J. ORF3 of porcine circovirus 2 enhances the in vitro and in vivo spread of the of the virus. Virology. 2011;410:248-56 pubmed publisher
    The ORF3 protein of the pathogenic porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) causes apoptosis of the virus-infected cells...
  57. Shuai J, Fu L, Zhang X, Zhu B, Li X, He Y, et al. Functional exchangeability of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of capsid protein between PCV1 and PCV2 in vitro: Implications for the role of NLS in viral replication. Virol J. 2011;8:341 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is believed to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)...
  58. Beach N, Córdoba L, Kenney S, Meng X. Productive infection of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by porcine circovirus type 1. Vaccine. 2011;29:7303-6 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), a small DNA virus in pigs, recently gained its notoriety when commercial human rotavirus vaccines were discovered to be contaminated by infectious PCV1...
  59. Segales J. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis. Virus Res. 2012;164:10-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, these conditions have been grouped under the name of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD) or porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD)...
  60. Shen H, Halbur P, Opriessnig T. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of the current porcine circovirus 2 genotypes after implementation of widespread vaccination programmes in the USA. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1345-55 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) genotypes in the USA during 2010-2011, 5 years after widespread PCV2 vaccination, serum samples from clinically normal pigs that were PCV2 vaccinated (n?=?1177), non-vaccinated (n?..
  61. Wang D, Xie X, Zhang D, Ma G, Wang X, Zhang D. Detection of duck circovirus in China: A proposal on genotype classification. Vet Microbiol. 2011;147:410-5 pubmed publisher
    Since the first description of duck circovirus (DuCV)-associated disease, there are several reports about the distribution of the disease. However, the information regarding the genetic variation of DuCV in recent years is unclear...
  62. Patterson A, Ramamoorthy S, Madson D, Meng X, Halbur P, Opriessnig T. Shedding and infection dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) after experimental infection. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:91-8 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to determine the amount and infectivity of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in nasal, oral and fecal secretions following experimental infection...
  63. Cheng S, Zhang M, Li W, Wang Y, Liu Y, He Q. Proteomic analysis of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine circovirus type 2. J Proteomics. 2012;75:3258-69 pubmed publisher
    Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging swine immunosuppressive disease...
  64. Sibila M, Fort M, Nofrarias M, Perez de Rozas A, Galindo Cardiel I, Mateu E, et al. Simultaneous porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae co-inoculation does not potentiate disease in conventional pigs. J Comp Pathol. 2012;147:285-95 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of simultaneous experimental inoculation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2; intranasal delivery) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo; transtracheal delivery) into conventional, seropositive 6-..
  65. Chen X, Ren F, Hesketh J, Shi X, Li J, Gan F, et al. Selenium blocks porcine circovirus type 2 replication promotion induced by oxidative stress by improving GPx1 expression. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:395-405 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as a key infectious agent in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), but not all pigs infected with PCV2 will develop PMWS...
  66. Martelli P, Ardigò P, Ferrari L, Morganti M, De Angelis E, Bonilauri P, et al. Concurrent vaccinations against PCV2 and PRRSV: study on the specific immunity and clinical protection in naturally infected pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:558-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that concurrent PRRSV+PCV2 vaccination has no interference with the development of the specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity and it is associated with clinical protection upon natural challenge...
  67. Dvorak C, Puvanendiran S, Murtaugh M. Cellular pathogenesis of porcine circovirus type 2 infection. Virus Res. 2013;174:60-8 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) and the associated histological lesions are thought to appear due to an increase in the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) present in an infected animal...
  68. Ha Y, Shin J, Chae C. Colostral transmission of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2): reproduction of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs fed milk from PCV-2-infected sows with post-natal porcine parvovirus infection or immunostimulation. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1601-8 pubmed publisher
    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was reproduced in pigs fed colostrum and milk from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2)-infected sows and infected post-natally with porcine parvovirus (PPV) or immunostimulated...
  69. Puvanendiran S, Stone S, Yu W, Johnson C, Abrahante J, Jimenez L, et al. Absence of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) and high prevalence of PCV 2 exposure and infection in swine finisher herds. Virus Res. 2011;157:92-8 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus (PCV) appeared in 1974 as an unidentified, innocuous viral inhabitant of cell cultures and pigs. Today PCV1 is a contaminant of some human vaccines, and PCV2 is a major pathogen of swine...
  70. Guo L, Lu Y, Huang L, Wei Y, Wu H, Liu C. First construction of infectious clone for newly emerging mutation porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) followed by comparison with PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes in biological characteristics in vitro. Virol J. 2011;8:291 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), is a serious economic problem in the swine industry...
  71. Alarcon P, Velasova M, Mastin A, Nevel A, Stark K, Wieland B. Farm level risk factors associated with severity of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome. Prev Vet Med. 2011;101:182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..the use of an algorithm that combined data on post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity and proportion of porcine circovirus type 2 PCR positive pigs. Farms were classified as non/slightly, moderately or highly affected by PMWS...
  72. Wan C, Huang Y, Cheng L, Fu G, Shi S, Chen H, et al. The development of a rapid SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR for detection of Duck circovirus. Virol J. 2011;8:465 pubmed publisher
    ..one-step real-time polymerase chain reaction assay based on SYBR Green I for detection of a broad range of duck circovirus (DuCV)...
  73. Yang K, Li W, Niu H, Yan W, Liu X, Wang Y, et al. Efficacy of single dose of an inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) whole-virus vaccine with oil adjuvant in piglets. Acta Vet Scand. 2012;54:67 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of effective vaccines against PCV2 infection has been accepted as an important strategy in the prophylaxis of PMWS...
  74. Harding J, Ellis J, McIntosh K, Krakowka S. Dual heterologous porcine circovirus genogroup 2a/2b infection induces severe disease in germ-free pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2010;145:209-19 pubmed publisher
    Our primary objectives were to determine: the relative virulence of porcine circovirus (PCV) 2a and PCV2b, if heterologous infection induces severe illness, and the relative concentration of PCV2a and PCV2b in tissues of heterologously ..
  75. Balmelli C, Steiner E, Moulin H, Peduto N, Herrmann B, Summerfield A, et al. Porcine circovirus type 2 DNA influences cytoskeleton rearrangements in plasmacytoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Immunology. 2011;132:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a single-stranded DNA virus, impairs plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and conventional DC activation by ..
  76. Guo L, Lu Y, Huang L, Wei Y, Liu C. Identification of a new antigen epitope in the nuclear localization signal region of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein. Intervirology. 2011;54:156-63 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic syndrome in pigs. The capsid (Cap) protein encoded by ORF2 is the main structural protein involved in the host immune protective response to PCV2...
  77. Ma H, Shaheduzzaman S, Willliams D, Gao Y, Khan A. Investigations of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccine-related and other cell lines. Vaccine. 2011;29:8429-37 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) is highly prevalent in swine and was recently reported in some rotavirus vaccines...
  78. Cai L, Ni J, Xia Y, Zi Z, Ning K, Qiu P, et al. Identification of an emerging recombinant cluster in porcine circovirus type 2. Virus Res. 2012;165:95-102 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is continuously evolving through point mutation and genome recombination...
  79. Li S, Wei Y, Liu J, Tang Q, Liu C. Prevalence of porcine hokovirus and its co-infection with porcine circovirus 2 in China. Arch Virol. 2013;158:1987-91 pubmed publisher
    Here, we report the frequency of porcine hokovirus (PHoV) infection and its co-infection with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in China...
  80. Lv Y, Zhang X, Sun Y, Zhang S. Activation of NF-?B contributes to production of pig-major acute protein and serum amyloid A in pigs experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:1235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies indicate that APPs in serum change after pigs are infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but the mechanisms underlying APP production have remained unclear...
  81. Poljak Z, Dewey C, Rosendal T, Friendship R, Young B, Berke O. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario (Canada) swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:58 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide...
  82. Khayat R, Brunn N, Speir J, Hardham J, Ankenbauer R, Schneemann A, et al. The 2.3-angstrom structure of porcine circovirus 2. J Virol. 2011;85:7856-62 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T=1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2...
  83. Allan G, Krakowka S, Ellis J, Charreyre C. Discovery and evolving history of two genetically related but phenotypically different viruses, porcine circoviruses 1 and 2. Virus Res. 2012;164:4-9 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) belong to the genus Circovirus, family Circoviridae, and are the smallest non-enveloped, single stranded, negative sense, circular DNA viruses that replicate autonomously in mammalian cells...
  84. Saha D, Lefebvre D, Ducatelle R, Doorsselaere J, Nauwynck H. Outcome of experimental porcine circovirus type 1 infections in mid-gestational porcine foetuses. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:64 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) has been described as a non-cytopathic contaminant of the PK-15 cell line. Several experimental infections with PCV1 failed to reproduce disease in pigs...
  85. Rose N, Opriessnig T, Grasland B, Jestin A. Epidemiology and transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Virus Res. 2012;164:78-89 pubmed publisher
  86. Huang L, Lu Y, Wei Y, Guo L, Liu C. Identification of three new type-specific antigen epitopes in the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 1. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1339-44 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) has been identified as a contaminant of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15). Serological evidence and genetic studies have suggested that PCV1 is widespread in domestic pigs...
  87. Wen L, He K, Ni Y, Zhang X, Li B, Wang X, et al. Complete genome sequence of the rearranged porcine circovirus type 2. J Virol. 2012;86:5963 pubmed publisher
    We first report here the genome sequences of 4 rearranged porcine circovirus type 2 strains, JSTZ, ZJQDH1, ZJQDH2, and JSHM, isolated from porcine sera in China...
  88. Liu Y, Guo Q, Chen L, Zhao J, Chang H, Wang X, et al. Induction of mucosal immunity by intranasal immunization with recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of Porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;154:48-53 pubmed publisher
    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is primarily transmitted through mucosa, thus the mucosal immunity may constitute an essential feature of vaccination strategies against PCV-2 infection...
  89. Poljak Z, Dewey C, Rosendal T, Friendship R, Young B, Berke O. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario (Canada) swine herds: Part I. Exploratory spatial analysis. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:59 pubmed publisher
    The systemic form of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), also known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was initially detected in the early 1990s...
  90. Martelli P, Ferrari L, Morganti M, De Angelis E, Bonilauri P, Guazzetti S, et al. One dose of a porcine circovirus 2 subunit vaccine induces humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects against porcine circovirus-associated disease under field conditions. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:339-51 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the efficacy of a one-dose porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine based on the PCV2 Cap protein expressed in a baculovirus system on two different farms at which a history of porcine circovirus-associated ..
  91. Szeredi L, Dan A, Solymosi N, Cságola A, Tuboly T. Association of porcine circovirus type 2 with vascular lesions in porcine pneumonia. Vet Pathol. 2012;49:264-70 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the vasculature in porcine circovirus type 2-infected (PCV2-infected) lungs and to identify the PCV2 subtypes involved in porcine pneumonia...
  92. Wieland B, Werling D, Nevel A, Rycroft A, Demmers T, Grierson S, et al. Porcine circovirus type 2 infection before and during an outbreak of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome on a pig farm in the UK. Vet Rec. 2012;170:596 pubmed publisher
    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and other pathogens before and during an outbreak of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) in pigs is evaluated in this study...