african swine fever virus

Summary

Summary: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.

Top Publications

  1. Pérez Filgueira D, Gonzalez Camacho F, Gallardo C, Resino Talaván P, Blanco E, Gomez Casado E, et al. Optimization and validation of recombinant serological tests for African Swine Fever diagnosis based on detection of the p30 protein produced in Trichoplusia ni larvae. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3114-21 pubmed
  2. Lubisi B, Bastos A, Dwarka R, Vosloo W. Intra-genotypic resolution of African swine fever viruses from an East African domestic pig cycle: a combined p72-CVR approach. Virus Genes. 2007;35:729-35 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibility of intra-genotypic recombination in ASF viruses for the first time. However, given the repetitive nature of the CVR region, convergent evolution cannot be excluded and may be the more likely explanation...
  3. Nogal M, Gonzalez De Buitrago G, Rodriguez C, Cubelos B, Carrascosa A, Salas M, et al. African swine fever virus IAP homologue inhibits caspase activation and promotes cell survival in mammalian cells. J Virol. 2001;75:2535-43 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) A224L is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. We have investigated the antiapoptotic function of the viral IAP both in stably transfected cells and in ASFV-infected cells...
  4. Borca M, Kutish G, Afonso C, Irusta P, Carrillo C, Brun A, et al. An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption. Virology. 1994;199:463-8 pubmed
    An open reading frame, LMW8-DR, in the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome possesses striking similarity to the lymphocyte membrane antigen CD2...
  5. Granja A, Sabina P, Salas M, Fresno M, Revilla Y. Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by viral A238L-mediated inhibition of p65/RelA acetylation and p300 transactivation. J Virol. 2006;80:10487-96 pubmed
    ..b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection regulates iNOS-induced gene expression through the synthesis of the A238L virus protein...
  6. Moore D, Zsak L, Neilan J, Lu Z, Rock D. The African swine fever virus thymidine kinase gene is required for efficient replication in swine macrophages and for virulence in swine. J Virol. 1998;72:10310-5 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and contains genes encoding a number of enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, including a thymidine kinase (TK) gene...
  7. Roger F, Ratovonjato J, Vola P, Uilenber G. Ornithodoros porcinus ticks, bushpigs, and African swine fever in Madagascar. Exp Appl Acarol. 2001;25:263-9 pubmed
    ..The authors also discuss another potentially complicating factor, the presence of a species of African bushpig, Potamochoerus larvatus...
  8. Owolodun O, Bastos A, Antiabong J, Ogedengbe M, Ekong P, Yakubu B. Molecular characterisation of African swine fever viruses from Nigeria (2003-2006) recovers multiple virus variants and reaffirms CVR epidemiological utility. Virus Genes. 2010;41:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has reaffirmed the epidemiological utility of the CVR genome region for distinguishing between geographically and temporally constrained genotype I viruses, and has revealed the presence of multiple ASFV variants in Nigeria...
  9. García Escudero R, Garcia Diaz M, Salas M, Blanco L, Salas J. DNA polymerase X of African swine fever virus: insertion fidelity on gapped DNA substrates and AP lyase activity support a role in base excision repair of viral DNA. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:1403-12 pubmed
    DNA polymerase X (pol X) from African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the smallest naturally ocurring DNA-directed DNA polymerase (174 amino acid residues) described so far...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Galindo I, Hernaez B, Muñoz Moreno R, Cuesta Geijo M, Dalmau Mena I, Alonso C. The ATF6 branch of unfolded protein response and apoptosis are activated to promote African swine fever virus infection. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e341 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection induces apoptosis in the infected cell; however, the consequences of this activation on virus replication have not been defined...
  2. Rahimi P, Sohrabi A, Ashrafihelan J, Edalat R, Alamdari M, Masoudi M, et al. Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1946-8 pubmed publisher
    ..That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.
  3. Rivera J, Abrams C, Hernaez B, Alcazar A, Escribano J, Dixon L, et al. The MyD116 African swine fever virus homologue interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 and activates its phosphatase activity. J Virol. 2007;81:2923-9 pubmed
    The DP71L protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) shares sequence similarity with the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein over a C-terminal domain...
  4. Granja A, Perkins N, Revilla Y. A238L inhibits NF-ATc2, NF-kappa B, and c-Jun activation through a novel mechanism involving protein kinase C-theta-mediated up-regulation of the amino-terminal transactivation domain of p300. J Immunol. 2008;180:2429-42 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new strategies to develop therapies potentially useful in the control of disorders related to p300 deregulation. ..
  5. Neilan J, Zsak L, Lu Z, Burrage T, Kutish G, Rock D. Neutralizing antibodies to African swine fever virus proteins p30, p54, and p72 are not sufficient for antibody-mediated protection. Virology. 2004;319:337-42 pubmed
    ..immunity, pigs were immunized with baculovirus-expressed p30, p54, p72, and p22 from the pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate Pr4. ASFV specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in test group animals...
  6. Costard S, Wieland B, de Glanville W, Jori F, Rowlands R, Vosloo W, et al. African swine fever: how can global spread be prevented?. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:2683-96 pubmed publisher
    ..ASF is caused by a large DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine against ASFV and this limits the options for disease control...
  7. Leblanc N, Cortey M, Fernandez Pinero J, Gallardo C, Masembe C, Okurut A, et al. Development of a suspension microarray for the genotyping of African swine fever virus targeting the SNPs in the C-terminal end of the p72 gene region of the genome. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:378-83 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes one of the most dreaded transboundary animal diseases (TADs) in Suidae. African swine fever (ASF) often causes high rates of morbidity and mortality, which can reach 100% in domestic swine...
  8. Netherton C, Parsley J, Wileman T. African swine fever virus inhibits induction of the stress-induced proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP/GADD153. J Virol. 2004;78:10825-8 pubmed
    ..b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is assembled on the cytoplasmic face of the ER and ultimately enveloped by ER membrane cisternae...
  9. Salguero F, Gil S, Revilla Y, Gallardo C, Arias M, Martins C. Cytokine mRNA expression and pathological findings in pigs inoculated with African swine fever virus (E-70) deleted on A238L. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;124:107-19 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) induces a variety of immune responses and clinical forms in domestic pigs. As it is the only member of the Asfarviridae family, ASFV encodes many novel genes not encoded by other virus families...
  10. Miskin J, Abrams C, Goatley L, Dixon L. A viral mechanism for inhibition of the cellular phosphatase calcineurin. Science. 1998;281:562-5 pubmed
    ..b>African swine fever virus inhibits proinflammatory cytokine expression in infected macrophages, and a viral protein A238L was ..
  11. Maciejewski M, Shin R, Pan B, Marintchev A, Denninger A, Mullen M, et al. Solution structure of a viral DNA repair polymerase. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:936-41 pubmed
    DNA polymerase X (Pol X) from the African swine fever virus (ASFV) specifically binds intermediates in the single-nucleotide base-excision repair process, an activity indicative of repair function...
  12. Abrams C, Dixon L. Sequential deletion of genes from the African swine fever virus genome using the cre/loxP recombination system. Virology. 2012;433:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These sequential deletions of ASFV genes were shown not to alter virus replication significantly. ..
  13. Hernaez B, Alonso C. Dynamin- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis in African swine fever virus entry. J Virol. 2010;84:2100-9 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that enters host cells after receptor-mediated endocytosis and depends on acidic cellular compartments for productive infection...
  14. Chapman D, Darby A, Da Silva M, Upton C, Radford A, Dixon L. Genomic analysis of highly virulent Georgia 2007/1 isolate of African swine fever virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus...
  15. Burrage T, Lu Z, Neilan J, Rock D, Zsak L. African swine fever virus multigene family 360 genes affect virus replication and generalization of infection in Ornithodoros porcinus ticks. J Virol. 2004;78:2445-53 pubmed
    Recently, we reported that African swine fever virus (ASFV) multigene family (MGF) 360 and 530 genes are significant swine macrophage host range determinants that function by promoting infected-cell survival...
  16. Heath C, Windsor M, Wileman T. Aggresomes resemble sites specialized for virus assembly. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:449-55 pubmed
    The large cytoplasmic DNA viruses such as poxviruses, iridoviruses, and African swine fever virus (ASFV) assemble in discrete perinuclear foci called viral factories...
  17. Suarez C, Gutierrez Berzal J, Andres G, Salas M, Rodriguez J. African swine fever virus protein p17 is essential for the progression of viral membrane precursors toward icosahedral intermediates. J Virol. 2010;84:7484-99 pubmed publisher
    The first morphological evidence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) assembly is the appearance of precursor viral membranes, thought to derive from the endoplasmic reticulum, within the assembly sites...
  18. Oura C, Edwards L, Batten C. Virological diagnosis of African swine fever--comparative study of available tests. Virus Res. 2013;173:150-8 pubmed publisher
    The rapid and reliable detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) is essential both for timely implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of disease, and to differentiate African swine fever (ASF) from other pig disease ..
  19. Gallardo C, Okoth E, Pelayo V, Anchuelo R, Martin E, Simón A, et al. African swine fever viruses with two different genotypes, both of which occur in domestic pigs, are associated with ticks and adult warthogs, respectively, at a single geographical site. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:432-44 pubmed publisher
    The role of the ancestral sylvatic cycle of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is not well understood in the endemic areas of eastern Africa...
  20. Misinzo G, Magambo J, Masambu J, Yongolo M, Van Doorsselaere J, Nauwynck H. Genetic characterization of African swine fever viruses from a 2008 outbreak in Tanzania. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:86-92 pubmed publisher
  21. Andres G, García Escudero R, Vinuela E, Salas M, Rodriguez J. African swine fever virus structural protein pE120R is essential for virus transport from assembly sites to plasma membrane but not for infectivity. J Virol. 2001;75:6758-68 pubmed
    This report examines the role of African swine fever virus (ASFV) structural protein pE120R in virus replication. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that protein pE120R localizes at the surface of the intracellular virions...
  22. Salguero F, Sánchez Cordón P, Sierra M, Jover A, Nunez A, Gomez Villamandos J. Apoptosis of thymocytes in experimental African Swine Fever virus infection. Histol Histopathol. 2004;19:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..With these results we suggest that ASFV infection of the thymus does not seem to play a critical role in the acute disease. Although severe apoptosis was observed, animals died because of the severe lesions found in the other organs...
  23. Hurtado C, Bustos M, Granja A, de Leon P, Sabina P, López Viñas E, et al. The African swine fever virus lectin EP153R modulates the surface membrane expression of MHC class I antigens. Arch Virol. 2011;156:219-34 pubmed publisher
    We have modeled a 3D structure for the C-type lectin domain of the African swine fever virus protein EP153R, based on the structure of CD69, CD94 and Ly49A cell receptors, and this model predicts that a dimer of EP153R may establish an ..
  24. Afonso C, Piccone M, Zaffuto K, Neilan J, Kutish G, Lu Z, et al. African swine fever virus multigene family 360 and 530 genes affect host interferon response. J Virol. 2004;78:1858-64 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) multigene family 360 and 530 (MGF360/530) genes affect viral growth in macrophage cell cultures and virulence in pigs (L. Zsak, Z. Lu, T. G. Burrage, J. G. Neilan, G. F. Kutish, D. M. Moore, and D. L...
  25. Hurtado C, Bustos M, Sabina P, Nogal M, Granja A, Gonzalez M, et al. Antiviral activity of lauryl gallate against animal viruses. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:909-17 pubmed
    ..We analysed the effect of the antitumoural drug lauryl gallate on the infectivity of the African swine fever virus among other DNA (herpes simplex and vaccinia) and RNA (influenza, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis ..
  26. Valdeira M, Bernardes C, Cruz B, Geraldes A. Entry of African swine fever virus into Vero cells and uncoating. Vet Microbiol. 1998;60:131-40 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) enters Vero cells by adsorptive endocytosis [Valdeira, M.L., Geraldes, A., 1985. Morphological study on the entry of African swine fever virus into cells, Biol Cell. 55, 35-40]...
  27. Jezewska M, Bujalowski P, Bujalowski W. Interactions of the DNA polymerase X from African swine fever virus with gapped DNA substrates. Quantitative analysis of functional structures of the formed complexes. Biochemistry. 2007;46:12909-24 pubmed
    Energetics and specificity of interactions between the African swine fever virus polymerase X and gapped DNA substrates have been studied, using the quantitative fluorescence titration technique...
  28. Basta S, Gerber H, Schaub A, Summerfield A, McCullough K. Cellular processes essential for African swine fever virus to infect and replicate in primary macrophages. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:9-17 pubmed publisher
    The macrophage (Mø) is an essential immune cell for innate immunity. Such cells are targeted by African swine fever virus (ASFV)...
  29. Rodriguez J, García Escudero R, Salas M, Andres G. African swine fever virus structural protein p54 is essential for the recruitment of envelope precursors to assembly sites. J Virol. 2004;78:4299-1313 pubmed
    The assembly of African swine fever virus (ASFV) at the cytoplasmic virus factories commences with the formation of precursor membranous structures, which are thought to be collapsed cisternal domains recruited from the surrounding ..
  30. Granja A, Sánchez E, Sabina P, Fresno M, Revilla Y. African swine fever virus blocks the host cell antiviral inflammatory response through a direct inhibition of PKC-theta-mediated p300 transactivation. J Virol. 2009;83:969-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the protein A238L encoded by African swine fever virus counteracts the host cell inflammatory response through the control of p300 transactivation during the ..
  31. Giammarioli M, Pellegrini C, Casciari C, De Mia G. Development of a novel hot-start multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of classical swine fever virus, African swine fever virus, porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine parvovirus. Vet Res Commun. 2008;32:255-62 pubmed
    ..Specific primers for each of five virus genomes, namely classical swine fever virus (CSFV), African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ..
  32. Rubio D, Alejo A, Rodríguez I, Salas M. Polyprotein processing protease of African swine fever virus: purification and biochemical characterization. J Virol. 2003;77:4444-8 pubmed
    The purified recombinant African swine fever virus polyprotein processing protease cleaves the two GG-X sites in polyprotein pp62 with the same efficiency...
  33. Gonzague M, Roger F, Bastos A, Burger C, Randriamparany T, Smondack S, et al. Isolation of a non-haemadsorbing, non-cytopathic strain of African swine fever virus in Madagascar. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;126:453-9 pubmed
    ..A serological survey performed on 449 sera, revealed that only 5.3% of the sera taken from pigs between 1998 and 1999 were positive...
  34. Loh J, Zhao G, Presti R, Holtz L, Finkbeiner S, Droit L, et al. Detection of novel sequences related to african Swine Fever virus in human serum and sewage. J Virol. 2009;83:13019-25 pubmed publisher
    The family Asfarviridae contains only a single virus species, African swine fever virus (ASFV)...
  35. Alfonso P, Quetglas J, Escribano J, Alonso C. Protein pE120R of African swine fever virus is post-translationally acetylated as revealed by post-source decay MALDI mass spectrometry. Virus Genes. 2007;35:81-5 pubmed
    Post-translational modification of proteins is a key regulatory event in many cellular processes. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that contains about 150 open reading frames (ORF) which encode for more than 150 ..
  36. Redrejo Rodríguez M, García Escudero R, Yáñez Muñoz R, Salas M, Salas J. African swine fever virus protein pE296R is a DNA repair apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease required for virus growth in swine macrophages. J Virol. 2006;80:4847-57 pubmed
    We show here that the African swine fever virus (ASFV) protein pE296R, predicted to be a class II apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, possesses endonucleolytic activity specific for AP sites...
  37. Oura C, Denyer M, Takamatsu H, Parkhouse R. In vivo depletion of CD8+ T lymphocytes abrogates protective immunity to African swine fever virus. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2445-50 pubmed
    To understand the mechanisms involved in protective immunity to African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, the observation that infection with the avirulent Portuguese ASFV isolate OUR/T88/3 protects outbred pigs from challenge with the ..
  38. Ballester M, Rodríguez Cariño C, Perez M, Gallardo C, Rodriguez J, Salas M, et al. Disruption of nuclear organization during the initial phase of African swine fever virus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:8263-9 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most devastating swine diseases, has been considered exclusively cytoplasmic, even though some authors have shown evidence of an early stage of nuclear replication...
  39. Gomez del Moral M, Ortuño E, Fernandez Zapatero P, Alonso F, Alonso C, Ezquerra A, et al. African swine fever virus infection induces tumor necrosis factor alpha production: implications in pathogenesis. J Virol. 1999;73:2173-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a relevant role for TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of ASF...
  40. Cartwright J, Safrany S, Dixon L, Darzynkiewicz E, Stepinski J, Burke R, et al. The g5R (D250) gene of African swine fever virus encodes a Nudix hydrolase that preferentially degrades diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. J Virol. 2002;76:1415-21 pubmed
    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) g5R gene encodes a protein containing a Nudix hydrolase motif which in terms of sequence appears most closely related to the mammalian diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases...
  41. Yáñez R, Rodriguez J, Nogal M, Yuste L, Enriquez C, Rodriguez J, et al. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of African swine fever virus. Virology. 1995;208:249-78 pubmed
    We present an analysis of the complete genome of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain BA71V, including 80 kbp of novel sequence and 90 kbp previously reported by several authors...
  42. Brookes S, Hyatt A, Wise T, Parkhouse R. Intracellular virus DNA distribution and the acquisition of the nucleoprotein core during African swine fever virus particle assembly: ultrastructural in situ hybridisation and DNase-gold labelling. Virology. 1998;249:175-88 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large complex icosahedral double-stranded DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm of susceptible cells...
  43. O Maille P, Bakhtina M, Tsai M. Structure-based combinatorial protein engineering (SCOPE). J Mol Biol. 2002;321:677-91 pubmed
    ..two distantly related members of the X-family of DNA polymerases: rat DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X (Pol X)...
  44. Reis A, Parkhouse R, Penedos A, Martins C, Leitão A. Systematic analysis of longitudinal serological responses of pigs infected experimentally with African swine fever virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2426-34 pubmed
    The protective immune response to African swine fever virus (ASFV) includes both cellular and serological components. In this study, the role of antibodies in the pathogenicity and diagnosis of African swine fever (ASF) was explored...
  45. Rennie L, Wilkinson P, Mellor P. Transovarial transmission of African swine fever virus in the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata. Med Vet Entomol. 2001;15:140-6 pubmed
    ..of experimentally infected colony Ornithodoros moubata Walton (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) ticks for African swine fever virus (ASFV)...
  46. Nix R, Gallardo C, Hutchings G, Blanco E, Dixon L. Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions. Arch Virol. 2006;151:2475-94 pubmed
    Variable regions of the African swine fever virus genome, which contain arrays of tandem repeats, were compared in the genomes of isolates obtained over a 40-year period...
  47. Andres G, Alejo A, Salas J, Salas M. African swine fever virus polyproteins pp220 and pp62 assemble into the core shell. J Virol. 2002;76:12473-82 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV), a complex enveloped DNA virus, expresses two polyprotein precursors, pp220 and pp62, which after proteolytic processing give rise to several major components of the virus particle...
  48. Sánchez E, Quintas A, Pérez Núñez D, Nogal M, Barroso S, Carrascosa A, et al. African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002754 pubmed publisher
    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats...
  49. Gallardo C, Soler A, Nieto R, Carrascosa A, De Mia G, Bishop R, et al. Comparative evaluation of novel African swine fever virus (ASF) antibody detection techniques derived from specific ASF viral genotypes with the OIE internationally prescribed serological tests. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:32-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that the lack of success is not attributable to antigenic polymorphism and may be related to the specific characteristics of the local breeds African pigs...
  50. Madureira A, Ascenso J, Valdeira L, Duarte A, Frade J, Freitas G, et al. Evaluation of the antiviral and antimicrobial activities of triterpenes isolated from Euphorbia segetalis. Nat Prod Res. 2003;17:375-80 pubmed
    ..previously, were evaluated for their antiviral activities against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV). Lupenone exhibited strong viral plaque inhibitory effect against HSV-1 and HSV-2...
  51. Zsak L, Lu Z, Burrage T, Neilan J, Kutish G, Moore D, et al. African swine fever virus multigene family 360 and 530 genes are novel macrophage host range determinants. J Virol. 2001;75:3066-76 pubmed
    Pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates primarily target cells of the mononuclear-phagocytic system in infected swine and replicate efficiently in primary macrophage cell cultures in vitro...
  52. Alfonso P, Rivera J, Hernaez B, Alonso C, Escribano J. Identification of cellular proteins modified in response to African swine fever virus infection by proteomics. Proteomics. 2004;4:2037-46 pubmed
    ..In the present work, we used proteomic technology to globally examine African swine fever virus (ASFV)-infected Vero cells searching for infection-associated proteins in order to determine target ..
  53. Carrascosa A, Bustos M, Nogal M, González de Buitrago G, Revilla Y. Apoptosis induced in an early step of African swine fever virus entry into vero cells does not require virus replication. Virology. 2002;294:372-82 pubmed
    ..release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and flow cytometric analysis of DNA content, upon infection with African swine fever virus (ASFV)...
  54. Rowlands R, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, et al. African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1870-4 pubmed publisher
    ..One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region...
  55. Rodriguez J, Salas M, Santaren J. African swine fever virus-induced polypeptides in porcine alveolar macrophages and in Vero cells: two-dimensional gel analysis. Proteomics. 2001;1:1447-56 pubmed
    ..patterns of protein synthesis produced in porcine alveolar macrophages and in Vero cells infected with African swine fever virus (ASFV). Initially, a protein database for each cell type was constructed...
  56. Salas M, Andres G. African swine fever virus morphogenesis. Virus Res. 2013;173:29-41 pubmed publisher
    This review summarizes recent structural and molecular biology studies related to the morphogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV)...
  57. de Villiers E, Gallardo C, Arias M, Da Silva M, Upton C, Martin R, et al. Phylogenomic analysis of 11 complete African swine fever virus genome sequences. Virology. 2010;400:128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel gene of the E75 virus evolved by the fusion of two genes within the 360 multicopy family. Comparative genomics reveals high diversity within a limited sample of the ASFV viral gene pool...
  58. Alonso C, Miskin J, Hernaez B, Fernandez Zapatero P, Soto L, Canto C, et al. African swine fever virus protein p54 interacts with the microtubular motor complex through direct binding to light-chain dynein. J Virol. 2001;75:9819-27 pubmed
    ..b>African swine fever virus (ASFV), a large DNA virus, hijacks the microtubule motor complex cellular transport machinery during ..
  59. Netherton C, Wileman T. African swine fever virus organelle rearrangements. Virus Res. 2013;173:76-86 pubmed publisher
    Like most viruses African swine fever virus (ASFV) subsumes the host cell apparatus in order to facilitate its replication...
  60. Penrith M. African swine fever. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2009;76:91-5 pubmed
  61. Powell P, Dixon L, Parkhouse R. An IkappaB homolog encoded by African swine fever virus provides a novel mechanism for downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses in host macrophages. J Virol. 1996;70:8527-33 pubmed
    ..In order to evade host defenses, viruses have developed strategies to counteract antiviral cytokines. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that infects macrophages...
  62. Showalter A, Byeon I, Su M, Tsai M. Solution structure of a viral DNA polymerase X and evidence for a mutagenic function. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:942-6 pubmed
    The African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X (ASFV Pol X or Pol X), the smallest known nucleotide polymerase, has recently been reported to be an extremely low fidelity polymerase that may be involved in strategic mutagenesis of the ..
  63. Bastos A, Penrith M, Cruciere C, Edrich J, Hutchings G, Roger F, et al. Genotyping field strains of African swine fever virus by partial p72 gene characterisation. Arch Virol. 2003;148:693-706 pubmed
    A PCR-based sequencing method was developed which permits detection and characterization of African swine fever virus (ASFV) variants within 5 and 48 h, respectively, of receipt of a clinical specimen...
  64. Penrith M, Lopes Pereira C, Lopes da Silva M, Quembo C, Nhamusso A, Banze J. African swine fever in Mozambique: review, risk factors and considerations for control. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2007;74:149-60 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological factors that contribute to ASF outbreaks and strategies for limiting the negative effects of the disease in the different pig farming sectors in Mozambique, including raising farmer and community awareness, are discussed...
  65. Zhang F, Hopwood P, Abrams C, Downing A, Murray F, Talbot R, et al. Macrophage transcriptional responses following in vitro infection with a highly virulent African swine fever virus isolate. J Virol. 2006;80:10514-21 pubmed
    ..microarray containing 2,880 cDNAs to investigate the response of macrophages to infection by a virulent African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate, Malawi LIL20/1...
  66. Jouvenet N, Wileman T. African swine fever virus infection disrupts centrosome assembly and function. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:589-94 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, enveloped DNA virus that assembles in perinuclear sites located close to the centrosome...
  67. Zhang F, Moon A, Childs K, Goodbourn S, Dixon L. The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate eIF2alpha and inhibits CHOP induction but is dispensable for these activities during virus infection. J Virol. 2010;84:10681-9 pubmed publisher
    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or a long form of about 184 amino acids, and both of these share sequence similarity to the C-terminal domain of ..
  68. Jezewska M, Bujalowski P, Bujalowski W. Interactions of the DNA polymerase X of African swine fever virus with double-stranded DNA. Functional structure of the complex. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:75-95 pubmed
    Interactions of the polymerase X of African swine fever virus with the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) have been studied with fluorescent dsDNA oligomers, using quantitative fluorescence titrations, analytical ultracentrifugation, and ..
  69. Eulalio A, Nunes Correia I, Carvalho A, Faro C, Citovsky V, Salas J, et al. Nuclear export of African swine fever virus p37 protein occurs through two distinct pathways and is mediated by three independent signals. J Virol. 2006;80:1393-404 pubmed
    Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity of the African swine fever virus p37 protein, a major structural protein of this highly complex virus, has been recently reported...
  70. de Carvalho Ferreira H, Weesendorp E, Quak S, Stegeman J, Loeffen W. Quantification of airborne African swine fever virus after experimental infection. Vet Microbiol. 2013;165:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study shows that pigs infected with ASFV will excrete virus in the air, particularly during acute disease. This study provides the first available parameters to model airborne transmission of ASFV. ..
  71. Galindo I, Hernaez B, Berna J, Fenoll J, Cenis J, Escribano J, et al. Comparative inhibitory activity of the stilbenes resveratrol and oxyresveratrol on African swine fever virus replication. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested the antiviral effect of these two compounds on African swine fever virus, the only member of the newly created family Asfarviridae and a serious limitation to porcine production ..
  72. Hurtado C, Granja A, Bustos M, Nogal M, González de Buitrago G, de Yebenes V, et al. The C-type lectin homologue gene (EP153R) of African swine fever virus inhibits apoptosis both in virus infection and in heterologous expression. Virology. 2004;326:160-70 pubmed
    The open reading frame EP153R of African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a nonessential protein that has been involved in the hemadsorption process induced in virus-infected cells...
  73. Karalyan Z, Zakaryan H, Arzumanyan H, Sargsyan K, Voskanyan H, Hakobyan L, et al. Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:18 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF) that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro...
  74. Zsak L, Borca M, Risatti G, Zsak A, French R, Lu Z, et al. Preclinical diagnosis of African swine fever in contact-exposed swine by a real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:112-9 pubmed
    A fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) PCR assay for African swine fever virus (ASFV) was developed and evaluated in experimentally infected swine...
  75. Vallee I, Tait S, Powell P. African swine fever virus infection of porcine aortic endothelial cells leads to inhibition of inflammatory responses, activation of the thrombotic state, and apoptosis. J Virol. 2001;75:10372-82 pubmed
    ..It is caused by a large icosohedral double-stranded DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), with infection of macrophages well characterized in vitro and in vivo...
  76. Granja A, Nogal M, Hurtado C, Salas J, Salas M, Carrascosa A, et al. Modulation of p53 cellular function and cell death by African swine fever virus. J Virol. 2004;78:7165-74 pubmed
    ..We have studied the function of p53 in African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection by determining the expression and activity of this transcription factor in infected ..
  77. Okoth E, Gallardo C, Macharia J, Omore A, Pelayo V, Bulimo D, et al. Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya. Prev Vet Med. 2013;110:198-205 pubmed publisher
    We describe a horizontal survey of African swine fever virus (ASFV) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection in domestic pigs in two contrasting production systems in Kenya...
  78. Sanchez Vizcaino J, Mur L, Martinez Lopez B. African swine fever (ASF): five years around Europe. Vet Microbiol. 2013;165:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews and discusses current ASF epidemiology in Eastern Europe, the factors that may contribute to disease endemicity in the area, the current challenges for disease control, and the risk of introduction into the EU...
  79. Basto A, Portugal R, Nix R, Cartaxeiro C, Boinas F, Dixon L, et al. Development of a nested PCR and its internal control for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Ornithodoros erraticus. Arch Virol. 2006;151:819-26 pubmed
    A nested PCR assay, with an internal control, was developed to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in Ornithodoros erraticus. The assay revealed a better analytical sensitivity than virus isolation and the OIE PCR protocol...
  80. Chapman D, Tcherepanov V, Upton C, Dixon L. Comparison of the genome sequences of non-pathogenic and pathogenic African swine fever virus isolates. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:397-408 pubmed publisher
    ..coding sequences, apart from the inverted terminal repeats and cross-links, have been determined for two African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates from the same virus genotype, a non-pathogenic isolate from Portugal, OURT88/3, and a ..
  81. Ogata H, Toyoda K, Tomaru Y, Nakayama N, Shirai Y, Claverie J, et al. Remarkable sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus. Virol J. 2009;6:178 pubmed publisher
    ..insects (Iridoviridae), and the last one (Asfarviridae) exclusively represented by the animal pathogen African swine fever virus (ASFV), the agent of a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine...
  82. Leitao A, Cartaxeiro C, Coelho R, Cruz B, Parkhouse R, Portugal F, et al. The non-haemadsorbing African swine fever virus isolate ASFV/NH/P68 provides a model for defining the protective anti-virus immune response. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:513-23 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus ASFV/NH/P68 is a naturally occurring, non-haemadsorbing and non-fatal isolate...
  83. Parrish S, Hurchalla M, Liu S, Moss B. The African swine fever virus g5R protein possesses mRNA decapping activity. Virology. 2009;393:177-82 pubmed publisher
    The African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) encodes a single Nudix enzyme in its genome, termed the g5R protein (g5Rp). Nudix phosphohydrolases cleave a variety of substrates, such as nucleotides and diphosphoinositol polyphosphates...
  84. Cubillos C, Gomez Sebastian S, Moreno N, Núñez M, Mulumba Mfumu L, Quembo C, et al. African swine fever virus serodiagnosis: a general review with a focus on the analyses of African serum samples. Virus Res. 2013;173:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed that the novel p30r-based ELISA allows the accurate detection of antibodies against ASFV, independently of the geographical origin of the sera...
  85. Jouvenet N, Monaghan P, Way M, Wileman T. Transport of African swine fever virus from assembly sites to the plasma membrane is dependent on microtubules and conventional kinesin. J Virol. 2004;78:7990-8001 pubmed
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that assembles in perinuclear viral factories located close to the microtubule organizing center...
  86. Karalyan Z, Zakaryan H, Sargsyan K, Voskanyan H, Arzumanyan H, Avagyan H, et al. Interferon status and white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus in vivo. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;145:551-5 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever that is the significant disease of domestic pigs, with high rates of mortality...
  87. Gallardo C, Anchuelo R, Pelayo V, Poudevigne F, Leon T, Nzoussi J, et al. African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX in domestic pigs, Congo, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1556-8 pubmed publisher
    b>African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I...
  88. Lamarche B, Showalter A, Tsai M. An error-prone viral DNA ligase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:8408-17 pubmed
    Our recent demonstration that DNA polymerase X (Pol X), the DNA repair polymerase encoded by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is extremely error prone during single-nucleotide gap filling led us to hypothesize that it might ..
  89. Atuhaire D, Afayoa M, Ochwo S, Mwesigwa S, Okuni J, Olaho Mukani W, et al. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of African swine fever virus isolates from recent outbreaks in Uganda (2010-2013). Virol J. 2013;10:247 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of variable genome regions have been extensively used for molecular epidemiological studies of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates...