defective viruses


Summary: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.

Top Publications

  1. Aaskov J, Buzacott K, Thu H, Lowry K, Holmes E. Long-term transmission of defective RNA viruses in humans and Aedes mosquitoes. Science. 2006;311:236-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that such long-term transmission of defective RNA viruses in nature was achieved through complementation by coinfection of host cells with functional viruses...
  2. Sergueev K, Yu D, Austin S, Court D. Cell toxicity caused by products of the p(L) operon of bacteriophage lambda. Gene. 2001;272:227-35 pubmed
    ..The filamentation function of Kil and recombination activity of Gam are unaffected at Cro-repressed levels of expression...
  3. Koup R, Lamoreaux L, Zarkowsky D, Bailer R, King C, Gall J, et al. Replication-defective adenovirus vectors with multiple deletions do not induce measurable vector-specific T cells in human trials. J Virol. 2009;83:6318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that rAd5-based vaccines containing deletions in the E1, E3, and E4 regions do not induce appreciable expansion of vector-specific CD4(+) T cells...
  4. Ebner P, Kim S, O Callaghan D. Biological and genotypic properties of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus 1 that mediate persistent infection. Virology. 2008;381:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that residues 144 to 196 of the IR4 protein within the HYB proteins are important for DIP interference and that persistent infection results from recombination events that produce DIP genomes...
  5. Shiver J, Fu T, Chen L, Casimiro D, Davies M, Evans R, et al. Replication-incompetent adenoviral vaccine vector elicits effective anti-immunodeficiency-virus immunity. Nature. 2002;415:331-5 pubmed
    ..The replication-defective adenovirus is a promising vaccine vector for development of an HIV-1 vaccine...
  6. Marriott A, Dimmock N. Defective interfering viruses and their potential as antiviral agents. Rev Med Virol. 2010;20:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we review the properties of DI virus, potential mechanisms of interference and progress in using DI virus (in particular that derived from influenza A virus) as a novel type of antiviral agent...
  7. Poon B, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr enhances expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. J Virol. 2003;77:3962-72 pubmed
    ..These results attribute a new function to HIV-1 Vpr and implicate Vpr as a critical component in expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA...
  8. Scott P, Meng B, Marriott A, Easton A, Dimmock N. Defective interfering virus protects elderly mice from influenza. Virol J. 2011;8:212 pubmed publisher
    ..Homologous protection is mediated by replication competition between the deleted and full-length genomes, and heterologous protection occurs through stimulation of innate immunity, especially interferon type I...
  9. Li D, Lott W, Lowry K, Jones A, Thu H, Aaskov J. Defective interfering viral particles in acute dengue infections. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19447 pubmed publisher
    ..The internal genomic deletions described here are the most extensive defects observed in DENV and may be part of a much broader disease attenuating process that is mediated by defective viruses.

More Information


  1. Widman D, Frolov I, Mason P. Third-generation flavivirus vaccines based on single-cycle, encapsidation-defective viruses. Adv Virus Res. 2008;72:77-126 pubmed publisher
  2. Wen S, Graf S, Massey P, Dichek D. Improved vascular gene transfer with a helper-dependent adenoviral vector. Circulation. 2004;110:1484-91 pubmed
  3. Thompson K, Yin J. Population dynamics of an RNA virus and its defective interfering particles in passage cultures. Virol J. 2010;7:257 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of virus and DI particles in each population passage can be determined experimentally by plaque and yield-reduction assays, respectively...
  4. Chattopadhyay A, Rose J. Complementing defective viruses that express separate paramyxovirus glycoproteins provide a new vaccine vector approach. J Virol. 2011;85:2004-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Most interestingly, we found that these two defective viruses could be grown together and passaged in tissue culture cells in the absence of VSV G complementation...
  5. Easton A, Scott P, Edworthy N, Meng B, Marriott A, Dimmock N. A novel broad-spectrum treatment for respiratory virus infections: influenza-based defective interfering virus provides protection against pneumovirus infection in vivo. Vaccine. 2011;29:2777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed a novel approach which exploits defective viruses (defective interfering (DI) or protecting viruses)...
  6. Handke W, Kruger D, Rang A. Defective particles can lead to underestimated antibody titers in virus neutralization tests. Intervirology. 2009;52:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the surface of both particles share the same immunoreactivity, differing ratios of these particles in stocks used for virus neutralization tests might alter the results. Here the impact of such off-target effects were measured...
  7. Stauffer Thompson K, Rempala G, Yin J. Multiple-hit inhibition of infection by defective interfering particles. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:888-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our combined experiments and models provide a means to understand better how DIPs quantitatively impact the growth of viruses and the spread of their infections...
  8. Duhaut S, Dimmock N. Defective segment 1 RNAs that interfere with production of infectious influenza A virus require at least 150 nucleotides of 5' sequence: evidence from a plasmid-driven system. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:403-11 pubmed
    ..In summary, a critical length of 5'-end sequence is essential for the interfering properties of defective influenza virus RNAs, which indicates that this plays some vital role in the virus life cycle...
  9. García Arriaza J, Manrubia S, Toja M, Domingo E, Escarmis C. Evolutionary transition toward defective RNAs that are infectious by complementation. J Virol. 2004;78:11678-85 pubmed
  10. Pesko K, Fitzpatrick K, Ryan E, Shi P, Zhang B, Lennon N, et al. Internally deleted WNV genomes isolated from exotic birds in New Mexico: function in cells, mosquitoes, and mice. Virology. 2012;427:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, our findings suggest that highly similar mutants may frequently occur in particular vertebrate hosts...
  11. Rouzine I, Weinberger L. Design requirements for interfering particles to maintain coadaptive stability with HIV-1. J Virol. 2013;87:2081-93 pubmed publisher
  12. Marcus P, Ngunjiri J, Sekellick M. Dynamics of biologically active subpopulations of influenza virus: plaque-forming, noninfectious cell-killing, and defective interfering particles. J Virol. 2009;83:8122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..DIP have been implicated in the virulence of influenza virus, but the role of niCKP is yet unknown...
  13. Loudon P, Blakeley D, Boursnell M, Day D, Duncan I, Lowden R, et al. Preclinical safety testing of DISC-hGMCSF to support phase I clinical trials in cancer patients. J Gene Med. 2001;3:458-67 pubmed
    ..To support first clinical use, a range of preclinical safety studies were performed using DISC-hGMCSF in addition to DISC-murine-GMCSF and the backbone vector, TA-HSV...
  14. Dimmock N, Rainsford E, Scott P, Marriott A. Influenza virus protecting RNA: an effective prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral. J Virol. 2008;82:8570-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Protecting virus is a novel antiviral, having the potential to combat human influenza virus infections, particularly when the infecting strain is not known or is resistant to antiviral drugs...
  15. Killip M, Young D, Ross C, Chen S, Goodbourn S, Randall R. Failure to activate the IFN-? promoter by a paramyxovirus lacking an interferon antagonist. Virology. 2011;415:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..of activating the IFN induction cascade are not produced or exposed during the normal replication cycle of PIV5, and suggest instead that defective viruses are primarily responsible for inducing IFN during PIV5 infection in this system.
  16. Strahle L, Garcin D, Kolakofsky D. Sendai virus defective-interfering genomes and the activation of interferon-beta. Virology. 2006;351:101-11 pubmed
  17. García Arriaza J, Ojosnegros S, Dávila M, Domingo E, Escarmis C. Dynamics of mutation and recombination in a replicating population of complementing, defective viral genomes. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:558-72 pubmed
    ..The results extend the concept of a complex spectrum of mutant genomes to a complex spectrum of defective genomes in some evolutionary transitions of RNA viruses...
  18. Negri D, Michelini Z, Baroncelli S, Spada M, Vendetti S, Buffa V, et al. Successful immunization with a single injection of non-integrating lentiviral vector. Mol Ther. 2007;15:1716-23 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that a single administration of an IN-defective sinLV elicits a significant immune response in the absence of vector integration and may be a safe and useful strategy for vaccine development...
  19. Scott P, Meng B, Marriott A, Easton A, Dimmock N. Defective interfering influenza virus confers only short-lived protection against influenza virus disease: evidence for a role for adaptive immunity in DI virus-mediated protection in vivo. Vaccine. 2011;29:6584-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that the conventional view that DI virus-induced protection is mediated solely by competition for replication with the challenge virus is incorrect for influenza virus...
  20. Scott P, Meng B, Marriott A, Easton A, Dimmock N. Defective interfering influenza A virus protects in vivo against disease caused by a heterologous influenza B virus. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that 244/PR8 has the ability to protect in vivo against heterologous IFN-sensitive respiratory viruses, in addition to homologous influenza A viruses, and that it acts by fundamentally different mechanisms...
  21. Yount J, Gitlin L, Moran T, LOPEZ C. MDA5 participates in the detection of paramyxovirus infection and is essential for the early activation of dendritic cells in response to Sendai Virus defective interfering particles. J Immunol. 2008;180:4910-8 pubmed
    ..The unique mechanism by which DI particles trigger the maturation of DCs represents a novel strategy that could be further exploited for the development of potent adjuvant molecules...
  22. Sakai H, Kawamura M, Sakuragi J, Sakuragi S, Shibata R, Ishimoto A, et al. Integration is essential for efficient gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1993;67:1169-74 pubmed
    ..Together with an observation that the mutant lacked the ability to integrate, these results indicated that the integration was required for efficient viral gene expression and productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
  23. Conter A, Bouche J, Dassain M. Identification of a new inhibitor of essential division gene ftsZ as the kil gene of defective prophage Rac. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5100-4 pubmed
    ..These features distinguish kil-encoded protein from the inhibitory product of gene dicB, which occupies a similar genetic location in Kim (Qin), another defective prophage of Escherichia coli...
  24. Dropulic B, Hermankova M, Pitha P. A conditionally replicating HIV-1 vector interferes with wild-type HIV-1 replication and spread. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11103-8 pubmed
    ..The application of defective interfering crHIV vectors may result in competition with wt-HIVs and decrease pathogenic viral loads in vivo...
  25. Lancaster M, Hodgetts S, Mackenzie J, Urosevic N. Characterization of defective viral RNA produced during persistent infection of Vero cells with Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Virol. 1998;72:2474-82 pubmed
    ..This may have further implications for the interference with the parental virus at the level of viral RNA synthesis in addition to a major one at the level of virion assembly and release...
  26. Frank S. Within-host spatial dynamics of viruses and defective interfering particles. J Theor Biol. 2000;206:279-90 pubmed
    ..At higher replacement rates for host cells, nearly all cells become infected by DI particles and a low level of fluctuating, wild-type viremia persists...
  27. Nuesch J, de Chastonay J, Siegl G. Detection of defective genomes in hepatitis A virus particles present in clinical specimens. J Gen Virol. 1989;70 ( Pt 12):3475-80 pubmed
    ..They are compatible with two of the deletions detected in particles grown in vitro in cell cultures and shown to interfere with the replication of standard hepatitis A virions...
  28. Perkins T, Faha B, Ni M, Kiland J, Poulsen G, Antelman D, et al. Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy using human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 to prevent wound healing in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:941-9 pubmed
    ..Mitomycin treatment increased outflow facility in normal-pressure eyes. Gene therapy with rAd.p21 may provide an effective antiproliferative for glaucoma filtration surgery, without the complications associated with mitomycin. ..
  29. Casabianca A, Orlandi C, Fraternale A, Magnani M. A new one-step RT-PCR method for virus quantitation in murine AIDS. J Virol Methods. 2003;110:81-90 pubmed
  30. Clement N, Velu T, Brandenburger A. Construction and production of oncotropic vectors, derived from MVM(p), that share reduced sequence homology with helper plasmids. Cancer Gene Ther. 2002;9:762-70 pubmed
    ..In one of the vectors the inserted fragment of mouse genomic DNA had a synergistic effect with the modified origin of replication in increasing vector production. ..
  31. Ramezani A, Hawley R. Overview of the HIV-1 Lentiviral Vector System. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2002;Chapter 16:Unit 16.21 pubmed publisher
    ..This unit is intended to provide an overview of HIV-1 molecular biology and an introduction to successive generations of HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors. ..
  32. Ozuer A, Wechuck J, Russell B, Wolfe D, Goins W, Glorioso J, et al. Evaluation of infection parameters in the production of replication-defective HSV-1 viral vectors. Biotechnol Prog. 2002;18:476-82 pubmed
    ..8, and the use of 5% fetal bovine serum gave the highest yield of infectious virus. The data indicate that these are important parameters to consider for high-yield, large-scale virus production. ..
  33. Sasaki K, Chancellor M, Goins W, Phelan M, Glorioso J, de Groat W, et al. Gene therapy using replication-defective herpes simplex virus vectors expressing nerve growth factor in a rat model of diabetic cystopathy. Diabetes. 2004;53:2723-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, HSV vector-mediated NGF gene therapy may prove useful to restore decreased NGF expression in the bladder and bladder afferent pathways, thereby improving hypoactive bladder function in diabetes. ..
  34. Zhou X, Xie Y, Zhang Z, Qi Y, Wu J. Molecular characterization of a novel defective DNA isolated from tobacco tissues infected with tobacco leaf curl virus. Acta Virol. 2001;45:45-50 pubmed
    ..It was transmitted, along with full-length DNA-A, to tobacco plants by grafting and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). ..
  35. Malik P, Arumugam P, Yee J, Puthenveetil G. Successful correction of the human Cooley's anemia beta-thalassemia major phenotype using a lentiviral vector flanked by the chicken hypersensitive site 4 chromatin insulator. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1054:238-49 pubmed
    ..Results show genetic correction of primitive human progenitor cells and normalization of the human thalassemia major phenotype. ..
  36. Blankson J, Bailey J, Thayil S, Yang H, Lassen K, Lai J, et al. Isolation and characterization of replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a subset of elite suppressors. J Virol. 2007;81:2508-18 pubmed
    ..Several studies have demonstrated that some ES are infected with defective viruses, but it remains unclear whether others are infected with replication-competent HIV-1...
  37. Smith J, Torres J. A retroviral DNA vaccine vector. Viral Immunol. 2001;14:339-48 pubmed
    ..In addition, we intend to develop this construct as an immunotherapeutic approach to lower the viremia in AIDS patients. ..
  38. Morrissey R, Horvath C, Snyder E, Patrick J, Collins N, Evans E, et al. Porcine toxicology studies of SCH 58500, an adenoviral vector for the p53 gene. Toxicol Sci. 2002;65:256-65 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, careful evaluation of hemodynamic parameters in patients receiving systemic doses of SCH 58500 is warranted. ..
  39. Nokisalmi P, Rajecki M, Pesonen S, Escutenaire S, Soliymani R, Tenhunen M, et al. Radiation-induced upregulation of gene expression from adenoviral vectors mediated by DNA damage repair and regulation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:376-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with adenoviral gene delivery. ..
  40. Che X, Mawassi M, Bar Joseph M. A novel class of large and infectious defective RNAs of Citrus tristeza virus. Virology. 2002;298:133-45 pubmed
    ..The possibility that these dRNAs may be encapsidated and be capable of self-replication is discussed. ..
  41. Wong W, Billing J, Stranford S, Hyde K, Fry J, Morris P, et al. Retroviral transfer of donor MHC class I or MHC class II genes into recipient bone marrow cells can induce operational tolerance to alloantigens in vivo. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:577-90 pubmed
    ..These results have important implications for future strategies to enhance clinical allograft survival by delivery of donor alloantigens. ..
  42. Laske T, Heldt F, Hoffmann H, Frensing T, Reichl U. Modeling the intracellular replication of influenza A virus in the presence of defective interfering RNAs. Virus Res. 2016;213:90-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our model, thus, helps to elucidate the interference mechanism of DI RNAs and provides a novel hypothesis why DI RNAs derived from the polymerase-encoding segments are more abundant in DIP preparations. ..
  43. Casimiro D, Tang A, Chen L, Fu T, Evans R, Davies M, et al. Vaccine-induced immunity in baboons by using DNA and replication-incompetent adenovirus type 5 vectors expressing a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene. J Virol. 2003;77:7663-8 pubmed
    ..The implications of these results are discussed. ..
  44. Shibata R, Kai H, Seki Y, Kato S, Wada Y, Hanakawa Y, et al. Inhibition of STAT3 prevents neointima formation by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis of neointimal smooth muscle cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:601-10 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the STAT3-mediated pathway plays an important role in neointima formation through enhanced vascular SMC accumulation by promoting cell proliferation and survival. ..
  45. Lin K, Chang H, Chang R. Accumulation of a 3'-terminal genome fragment in Japanese encephalitis virus-infected mammalian and mosquito cells. J Virol. 2004;78:5133-8 pubmed
    ..Abundant accumulation of the small RNA during viral replication in both mammalian and mosquito cells suggests that it may play a biological role, perhaps as a regulator of RNA synthesis. ..
  46. Prakash A, Jayaram S, Bridge E. Differential activation of cellular DNA damage responses by replication-defective and replication-competent adenovirus mutants. J Virol. 2012;86:13324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that viral DNA replication is important for Nbs1 phosphorylation, suggesting that this step in the viral life cycle may provide an important trigger for activating at least some DNA repair proteins. ..
  47. Nakamura T, Russell S. Oncolytic measles viruses for cancer therapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004;4:1685-92 pubmed
    ..Further improvements in existing MV vectors may increase tumour selectivity and oncolytic activity. This review discusses the discovery and development of replication-competent oncolytic MV for cancer therapy. ..
  48. Wu H, Guy J, Yoo D, Vlasak R, Urbach E, Brian D. Common RNA replication signals exist among group 2 coronaviruses: evidence for in vivo recombination between animal and human coronavirus molecules. Virology. 2003;315:174-83 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that common replication signaling elements exist among group 2 coronaviruses despite a two-cluster pattern within the group and imply there could exist a high potential for recombination among group members. ..
  49. Cao H, Yang T, Li X, Wu J, Duan C, Coates A, et al. Readministration of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors to mouse airway mediated via transient immunosuppression. Gene Ther. 2011;18:173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that transient administration of immunosuppressive agent can be used to extend transgene expression as well as attenuating immunogenicity to HD-Ad vectors in airway readministration. ..
  50. Shanley J, Wu C. Intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector expressing glycoprotein H of murine cytomegalovirus induces mucosal and systemic immunity. Vaccine. 2005;23:996-1003 pubmed
    ..Such a strategy may be important in reducing horizontal transmission of CMV infections across mucosal surfaces and in altering host immunity to CMV. ..
  51. Zaupa C, Revol Guyot V, Epstein A. Improved packaging system for generation of high-level noncytotoxic HSV-1 amplicon vectors using Cre-loxP site-specific recombination to delete the packaging signals of defective helper genomes. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:1049-63 pubmed
    ..Residual helper particles generated still do not exceed 0.5% of the viral population and can grow only in cells expressing ICP4. Amplicon vectors produced with this method showed no cytotoxicty for infected cells. ..
  52. Zhou X, Cui Y, Huang X, Yu Z, Thomas A, Ye Z, et al. Lentivirus-mediated gene transfer and expression in established human tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and primary unstimulated T cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:1089-105 pubmed
    ..These results will have significant implications for the study of T-cell biology and for the improvement of clinical gene therapies of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer. ..
  53. Shen Y, Shephard E, Douglass N, Johnston N, Adams C, Williamson C, et al. A novel candidate HIV vaccine vector based on the replication deficient Capripoxvirus, Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Virol J. 2011;8:265 pubmed publisher
    ..The Capripoxvirus, Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has a restricted host-range and is being investigated as a novel HIV-1 vaccine vector. LSDV does not complete its replication cycle in non-ruminant hosts...
  54. Urosevic N, Shellam G. Host genetic resistance to Japanese encephalitis group viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:153-70 pubmed
  55. Cheng C, Pogany J, Nagy P. Mechanism of DI RNA formation in tombusviruses: dissecting the requirement for primer extension by the tombusvirus RNA dependent RNA polymerase in vitro. Virology. 2002;304:460-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, these findings support a model that predicts a higher frequency of replicase jumping, i.e., recombination/deletion events, during plus-strand synthesis than during minus-strand synthesis...
  56. Klebe S, Sykes P, Coster D, Bloom D, Williams K. Gene transfer to ovine corneal endothelium. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;29:316-22 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of various non-viral and viral agents to transfer a reporter gene to ovine corneal endothelium...
  57. Hubberstey A, Pavliv M, Parks R. Cancer therapy utilizing an adenoviral vector expressing only E1A. Cancer Gene Ther. 2002;9:321-9 pubmed
  58. Gruber A, Wheat J, Kuhen K, Looney D, Wong Staal F. Differential effects of HIV-1 protease inhibitors on dendritic cell immunophenotype and function. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:47840-3 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 protease inhibitors that have little or no effect on DC function may be preferable for combination with immunotherapy for HIV/AIDS...
  59. Young J, Green N, Mautner V, Searle P, Young L, James N. Combining gene and immunotherapy for prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11:187-93 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this improved response is however likely to be non-immune based as it lacks a memory effect...
  60. Sun B, Chen Y, Bird A, Xu F, Hou Y, Amalfitano A, et al. Packaging of an AAV vector encoding human acid alpha-glucosidase for gene therapy in glycogen storage disease type II with a modified hybrid adenovirus-AAV vector. Mol Ther. 2003;7:467-77 pubmed
    ..Further development of hybrid Ad-AAV vectors could offer distinct advantages for gene therapy in glycogen storage diseases...
  61. Houghton M. Prospects for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against the hepatitis C viruses. Immunol Rev. 2011;239:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Several vaccine monotherapy trials in chronically infected HCV patients are resulting in small declines in viral load, suggesting that in future, combining vaccination with antiviral drug treatment may be beneficial...
  62. Aubert M, Pomeranz L, Blaho J. Herpes simplex virus blocks apoptosis by precluding mitochondrial cytochrome c release independent of caspase activation in infected human epithelial cells. Apoptosis. 2007;12:19-35 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate that HSV-1 blocks apoptosis by precluding mitochondrial cytochrome c release in a caspase-independent manner and suggest Bax as a target in infected human epithelial cells...
  63. Avvakumov N, Mymryk J. New tools for the construction of replication-competent adenoviral vectors with altered E1A regulation. J Virol Methods. 2002;103:41-9 pubmed
    ..Efficient growth of this second virus also required the presence of dexamethasone...
  64. Love A, Makarov V, Yaminsky I, Kalinina N, Taliansky M. The use of tobacco mosaic virus and cowpea mosaic virus for the production of novel metal nanomaterials. Virology. 2014;449:133-9 pubmed publisher
  65. Yeh H, Tian T, Medina V, Falk B. Green fluorescent protein expression from recombinant lettuce infectious yellows virus-defective RNAs originating from RNA 2. Virology. 2001;289:54-62 pubmed
    ..8%. Time course analyses showed that fluorescence was not detected before 48 h pi, and this correlated with the timing of LIYV RNA 2 and RNA 2 D RNA accumulation, but not with that of LIYV RNA 1...
  66. Yusibov V, Hooper D, Spitsin S, Fleysh N, Kean R, Mikheeva T, et al. Expression in plants and immunogenicity of plant virus-based experimental rabies vaccine. Vaccine. 2002;20:3155-64 pubmed
    ..These findings provide clear indication of the potential of the plant virus-based expression systems as supplementary oral booster for rabies vaccinations...
  67. Martín R, Soberón N, Escobedo S, Suárez J. Bacteriophage induction versus vaginal homeostasis: role of H(2)O(2) in the selection of Lactobacillus defective prophages. Int Microbiol. 2009;12:131-6 pubmed
  68. Omarov R, Rezende J, Scholthof H. Host-specific generation and maintenance of Tomato bushy stunt virus defective interfering RNAs. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004;17:195-201 pubmed
    ..benthamiana did not yield DI in upper pepper leaves. Our cumulative results suggest that complex host-specific determinants play an important role in TBSV DI generation and their subsequent maintenance and accumulation...
  69. Su Y, Zhang X, Wang X, Fraser N, Block T. Evidence that the immediate-early gene product ICP4 is necessary for the genome of the herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP4 deletion mutant strain d120 to circularize in infected cells. J Virol. 2006;80:11589-97 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that ICP4 protein has an important role in mediating the endless formation of the HSV-1 genome upon infection and that this function can be provided in trans...
  70. Ferrer M, Zanetti F, Calamante G. [Design and construction of transfer vectors in order to obtain recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2007;39:138-42 pubmed
    ..The results herein constitute the basic tools for establishing the methodology to obtain recombinant MVA with the purpose of locally developing non-replicative viral vectors as candidate vaccines...
  71. Goldman B, Amin K, Kubo H, Singhal A, Wurzel J. Human myocardial cell lines generated with SV40 temperature-sensitive mutant tsA58. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2006;42:324-31 pubmed
    ..Our cell lines should provide a useful tool for study of the molecular mechanisms regulating growth and differentiation in human cardiac muscle cells...
  72. Muratori C, Schiavoni I, Melucci Vigo G, Olivetta E, Santarcangelo A, Pugliese K, et al. Inducible expression of the deltaNGFr/F12Nef fusion protein as a new tool for anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene therapy. Hum Gene Ther. 2002;13:1751-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, the HIV-1-targetable expression of the deltaNGFr/F12Nef fusion protein represents a novel and powerful tool for an effective anti-HIV-1 gene therapy strategy...
  73. Burton E, Bai Q, Goins W, Glorioso J. Replication-defective genomic herpes simplex vectors: design and production. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002;13:424-8 pubmed
    ..Recent work has established sound principles for the straightforward production of large-scale pure preparations of vector stocks for clinical applications...
  74. Giri L, FEISS M, Bonning B, Murhammer D. Production of baculovirus defective interfering particles during serial passage is delayed by removing transposon target sites in fp25k. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:389-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, PFGE was used to detect defective genomes, determine defective genome sizes and quantify the amount of defective genome within a heterogeneous genome population of passaged virus...
  75. Galan C, Enjuanes L, Almazán F. A point mutation within the replicase gene differentially affects coronavirus genome versus minigenome replication. J Virol. 2005;79:15016-26 pubmed
    ..A correlation was found between predicted cleaving and noncleaving mutations and efficient virus rescue from cDNA and minigenome amplification, respectively...
  76. Ngunjiri J, Lee C, Ali A, Marcus P. Influenza virus interferon-inducing particle efficiency is reversed in avian and mammalian cells, and enhanced in cells co-infected with defective-interfering particles. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:280-5 pubmed publisher
  77. Lopez C, Aramburu J, Galipienso L, Nuez F. Characterisation of several heterogeneous species of defective RNAs derived from RNA 3 of cucumber mosaic virus. Arch Virol. 2007;152:621-7 pubmed
    ..0.8 kb containing the 5'-terminus but lacking the 3'-terminus...