staphylococcus phages

Summary

Summary: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.

Top Publications

  1. Liu J, Dehbi M, Moeck G, Arhin F, Bauda P, Bergeron D, et al. Antimicrobial drug discovery through bacteriophage genomics. Nat Biotechnol. 2004;22:185-91 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that mimicking the growth-inhibitory effect of phage polypeptides by a chemical compound, coupled with the plethora of phages on earth, will yield new antibiotics to combat infectious diseases...
  2. Donovan D, Lardeo M, Foster Frey J. Lysis of staphylococcal mastitis pathogens by bacteriophage phi11 endolysin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;265:133-9 pubmed
    ..7), and the "free" calcium concentration (3 mM) of milk. Truncated endolysin-derived proteins containing only the endopeptidase domain also lyse staphylococci in the absence of the SH3b-binding domain...
  3. Goerke C, Köller J, Wolz C. Ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim cause phage induction and virulence modulation in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:171-7 pubmed
    ..In summary, we could show the induction of hlb-converting phages and a subsequent virulence modulation of the host bacterium by ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim...
  4. O Flaherty S, Ross R, Flynn J, Meaney W, Fitzgerald G, Coffey A. Isolation and characterization of two anti-staphylococcal bacteriophages specific for pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus associated with bovine infections. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;41:482-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteriophages against bovine Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis...
  5. Wirtz C, Witte W, Wolz C, Goerke C. Transcription of the phage-encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus is dependent on the phage life-cycle and on the host background. Microbiology. 2009;155:3491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a fine tuning between certain phages and their host, with major impact on the expression of phage-encoded virulence genes...
  6. Ubeda C, Maiques E, Knecht E, Lasa I, Novick R, Penadés J. Antibiotic-induced SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of pathogenicity island-encoded virulence factors in staphylococci. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:836-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SOS induction by therapeutic agents can promote the spread of staphylococcal virulence genes...
  7. Dempsey R, Carroll D, Kong H, Higgins L, Keane C, Coleman D. Sau42I, a BcgI-like restriction-modification system encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus quadruple-converting phage Phi42. Microbiology. 2005;151:1301-11 pubmed
    ..The findings of this study confirm that Phi42 is a quadruple-converting phage, believed to be the first described for S. aureus, and show that it encodes a novel R-M system termed Sau42I...
  8. Goerke C, Wolz C. Regulatory and genomic plasticity of Staphylococcus aureus during persistent colonization and infection. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;294:195-202 pubmed
    ..Phage mobilization contributes significantly to genome alteration in S. aureus during infection...
  9. Gu J, Xu W, Lei L, Huang J, Feng X, Sun C, et al. LysGH15, a novel bacteriophage lysin, protects a murine bacteremia model efficiently against lethal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that LysGH15 can kill S. aureus in vitro and can protect mice efficiently from bacteremia in vivo. The phage lysin LysGH15 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by MRSA...

More Information

Publications66

  1. O Flaherty S, Ross R, Meaney W, Fitzgerald G, Elbreki M, Coffey A. Potential of the polyvalent anti-Staphylococcus bacteriophage K for control of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci from hospitals. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:1836-42 pubmed
    ..Infusion of the phage into a nonimmunogenic bismuth-based cream resulted in strong anti-Staphylococcus activity from the cream on plates and in broth...
  2. Garcia P, Martinez B, Rodriguez L, Rodriguez A. Synergy between the phage endolysin LysH5 and nisin to kill Staphylococcus aureus in pasteurized milk. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;141:151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As far as we know, this is the first study that exploits the possibilities of hurdle technology combining a phage-encoded endolysin and the bacteriocin nisin for efficient S. aureus inhibition in milk...
  3. O Flaherty S, Coffey A, Edwards R, Meaney W, Fitzgerald G, Ross R. Genome of staphylococcal phage K: a new lineage of Myoviridae infecting gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2862-71 pubmed
    ..The availability of the genome of this highly virulent phage, which is active against infective staphylococci, should provide new insights into the biology and evolution of large broad-spectrum polyvalent phages...
  4. Matsuzaki S, Yasuda M, Nishikawa H, Kuroda M, Ujihara T, Shuin T, et al. Experimental protection of mice against lethal Staphylococcus aureus infection by novel bacteriophage phi MR11. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:613-24 pubmed
    ..These results uphold the efficacy of phage therapy against pernicious S. aureus infections in humans and suggest that phi MR11 may be a potential prototype for gene-modified, advanced therapeutic S. aureus phages...
  5. Son J, Lee S, Jun S, Yoon S, Kang S, Paik H, et al. Antibacterial and biofilm removal activity of a podoviridae Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage SAP-2 and a derived recombinant cell-wall-degrading enzyme. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:1439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus biofilms. Thus, the cell-wall-degrading enzyme SAL-2 can be used to prevent and treat biofilm-associated S. aureus infections either on its own or in combination with other cell-wall-degrading enzymes with anti-S. aureus activity...
  6. Ruzin A, Lindsay J, Novick R. Molecular genetics of SaPI1--a mobile pathogenicity island in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:365-77 pubmed
    ..Among other staphylococcal phages tested, only phi13 interacts with SaPI1, inducing excision but not replication or transfer of the element...
  7. Tormo M, Ferrer M, Maiques E, Ubeda C, Selva L, Lasa I, et al. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island DNA is packaged in particles composed of phage proteins. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2434-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis demonstrated that the phage proteins identified were involved only in the formation and possibly the function of SaPI or phage particles, having no role in other SaPI or phage functions...
  8. Rashel M, Uchiyama J, Takemura I, Hoshiba H, Ujihara T, Takatsuji H, et al. Tail-associated structural protein gp61 of Staphylococcus aureus phage phi MR11 has bifunctional lytic activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;284:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the presence of a tail-associated virion protein that acts as a lysin, in an S. aureus phage...
  9. Kaneko J, Kimura T, Narita S, Tomita T, Kamio Y. Complete nucleotide sequence and molecular characterization of the temperate staphylococcal bacteriophage phiPVL carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Gene. 1998;215:57-67 pubmed
    ..aureus bacteriophages. The phiPVL genome was found to integrate into an ORF encoding an unknown protein comprising 725 amino acid residues with two leucine zipper-like motifs...
  10. Goerke C, Pantucek R, Holtfreter S, Schulte B, Zink M, Grumann D, et al. Diversity of prophages in dominant Staphylococcus aureus clonal lineages. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3462-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of colonizing and invasive S. aureus strain populations revealed that hlb-converting phages were significantly more frequent in colonizing strains...
  11. Becker S, Dong S, Baker J, Foster Frey J, Pritchard D, Donovan D. LysK CHAP endopeptidase domain is required for lysis of live staphylococcal cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;294:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus and the coagulase-negative strains. In the checkerboard assay, the CHAP-SH3b fusion achieves the same level of antimicrobial synergy with lysostaphin as the full-length LysK...
  12. Ye Z, Buranen S, Lee C. Sequence analysis and comparison of int and xis genes from staphylococcal bacteriophages L54a and phi 11. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:2568-75 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the deduced Xis is an acidic protein containing 66 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 7,621. The site-specific recombination system of phi 11 was compared with that of a closely related bacteriophage, L54a...
  13. Tallent S, Langston T, Moran R, Christie G. Transducing particles of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 are comprised of helper phage-encoded proteins. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7520-4 pubmed
    ..No SaPI1-encoded proteins were detected. This confirms the prediction that SaPI1 is encapsidated in a virion assembled from helper phage-encoded proteins...
  14. Ubeda C, Maiques E, Tormo M, Campoy S, Lasa I, Barbe J, et al. SaPI operon I is required for SaPI packaging and is controlled by LexA. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:41-50 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, mutations affecting the latter two genes were not defective in SaPI transfer, but rather encapsidated the island in full-sized phage heads, which would have to contain a multimeric SaPI genome...
  15. Van Wamel W, Rooijakkers S, Ruyken M, Van Kessel K, Van Strijp J. The innate immune modulators staphylococcal complement inhibitor and chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus are located on beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1310-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the four human-specific innate immune modulators SCIN, CHIPS, SAK, and SEA form an IEC that is easily transferred among S. aureus strains by a diverse group of beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages...
  16. Kim M, Myung H. Complete genome of Staphylococcus aureus phage SA11. J Virol. 2012;86:10232 pubmed publisher
    ..It belongs to the siphoviridae based on electron microscopic observation. It has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 136,326 bp. Genomic analysis showed that it is distantly related to Staphylococcus phages A5W, K, ISP, Sb-1, and G1.
  17. Kwiatek M, Parasion S, Mizak L, Gryko R, Bartoszcze M, Kocik J. Characterization of a bacteriophage, isolated from a cow with mastitis, that is lytic against Staphylococcus aureus strains. Arch Virol. 2012;157:225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this investigation indicate that MSA6 is similar to other bacteriophages belonging to the family Myoviridae (Twort, K, G1, 812) that have been successfully used in bacteriophage therapy...
  18. Sumby P, Waldor M. Transcription of the toxin genes present within the Staphylococcal phage phiSa3ms is intimately linked with the phage's life cycle. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6841-51 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the production of phage-encoded virulence factors in S. aureus may be regulated by processes that govern lysogeny...
  19. Paul V, Rajagopalan S, Sundarrajan S, George S, Asrani J, Pillai R, et al. A novel bacteriophage Tail-Associated Muralytic Enzyme (TAME) from Phage K and its development into a potent antistaphylococcal protein. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:226 pubmed publisher
    ..Phage K is a polyvalent virulent phage of the Myoviridae family that is active against many Staphylococcus species...
  20. Garcia P, Madera C, Martinez B, Rodriguez A, Evaristo Suárez J. Prevalence of bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus aureus in dairy samples and their potential as biocontrol agents. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:3019-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the phages were less active in semi-skimmed raw milk and little inhibition was achieved in whole, raw milk. Killing of Staph. aureus was observed at room temperature and at 37 degrees C, but not at refrigeration temperature...
  21. O Flaherty S, Coffey A, Meaney W, Fitzgerald G, Ross R. The recombinant phage lysin LysK has a broad spectrum of lytic activity against clinically relevant staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7161-4 pubmed
    ..LysK thus has potential as an antimicrobial for applications in the prevention and/or treatment of infections caused by staphylococci...
  22. Deghorain M, Bobay L, Smeesters P, Bousbata S, Vermeersch M, Perez Morga D, et al. Characterization of novel phages isolated in coagulase-negative staphylococci reveals evolutionary relationships with Staphylococcus aureus phages. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:5829-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the notion of a possible reciprocal exchange of genes between phages originating from S. aureus and CoNS, which may be of crucial importance for pathogenesis in staphylococci...
  23. Ma X, Ito T, Kondo Y, Cho M, Yoshizawa Y, Kaneko J, et al. Two different Panton-Valentine leukocidin phage lineages predominate in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3246-58 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus. That various SCCmec elements were carried by different strains of the same phage type suggests that S. aureus strains might independently acquire PVL phages before they acquire various SCCmec elements...
  24. Poliakov A, Chang J, Spilman M, Damle P, Christie G, Mobley J, et al. Capsid size determination by Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 involves specific incorporation of SaPI1 proteins into procapsids. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass spectrometry on full-length phage proteins showed that the major capsid protein and the scaffolding protein are N-terminally processed in both 80alpha and SaPI1 procapsids...
  25. Gutiérrez D, Martinez B, Rodriguez A, Garcia P. Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus epidermidis. Curr Microbiol. 2010;61:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..epidermidis population by 5.67 log units in 8 h of incubation; in the presence of the mixture of phi-IPLA6 and phi-IPLA7, however, a reduction of 2.27 log units was detected...
  26. Tormo Más M, Mir I, Shrestha A, Tallent S, Campoy S, Lasa I, et al. Moonlighting bacteriophage proteins derepress staphylococcal pathogenicity islands. Nature. 2010;465:779-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly specific interactions between different SaPI repressors and helper-phage-encoded antirepressors represent a remarkable evolutionary adaptation involved in pathogenicity island mobilization...
  27. Kwan T, Liu J, DuBow M, Gros P, Pelletier J. The complete genomes and proteomes of 27 Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5174-9 pubmed
    ..These phage genomes offer an exciting opportunity to discern molecular mechanisms of phage evolution and diversity...
  28. Kvachadze L, Balarjishvili N, Meskhi T, Tevdoradze E, Skhirtladze N, Pataridze T, et al. Evaluation of lytic activity of staphylococcal bacteriophage Sb-1 against freshly isolated clinical pathogens. Microb Biotechnol. 2011;4:643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A case report describes a promising clinical response after phage application in patient with cystic fibrosis and indicates the efficacy of usage of Sb-1 phage against various staphylococcal infections...
  29. Rodríguez Rubio L, Martinez B, Rodriguez A, Donovan D, Garcia P. Enhanced staphylolytic activity of the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 HydH5 virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase: fusions, deletions, and synergy with LysH5. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:2241-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Łobocka M, Hejnowicz M, Dąbrowski K, Gozdek A, Kosakowski J, Witkowska M, et al. Genomics of staphylococcal Twort-like phages--potential therapeutics of the post-antibiotic era. Adv Virus Res. 2012;83:143-216 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the number and location of introns may vary between particular phages, intron shuffling is unlikely to be a major factor responsible for specificity differences...
  31. Rodriguez L, Martinez B, Zhou Y, Rodriguez A, Donovan D, Garcia P. Lytic activity of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:138 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, bacteriophage lytic enzymes such as endolysins and structural peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases have received considerable attention as possible antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria...
  32. Garcia P, Martinez B, Obeso J, Lavigne R, Lurz R, Rodriguez A. Functional genomic analysis of two Staphylococcus aureus phages isolated from the dairy environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:7663-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative analysis of phiIPLA35 and phiIPLA88 genome structures shows that they resemble those of phi12 and phi11, respectively, both representatives of large genomic groupings within the S. aureus-infecting phages...
  33. Hsieh S, Lo H, Chen S, Lee M, Tseng Y. Wide host range and strong lytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus lytic phage Stau2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:756-61 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus S23. Considering these results, Stau2 could be considered at least as a candidate for topical phage therapy or an additive in the food industry...
  34. Ferrer M, Quiles Puchalt N, Harwich M, Tormo Más M, Campoy S, Barbe J, et al. RinA controls phage-mediated packaging and transfer of virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:5866-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterization of several of these proteins demonstrated that control by RinA of the phage-mediated packaging and transfer of virulence factor is a conserved mechanism regulating horizontal gene transfer...
  35. Rashel M, Uchiyama J, Ujihara T, Uehara Y, Kuramoto S, Sugihara S, et al. Efficient elimination of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by cloned lysin derived from bacteriophage phi MR11. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1237-47 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MV-L might be useful as a powerful therapeutic agent against multidrug-resistant S. aureus infections...
  36. Obeso J, Martinez B, Rodriguez A, Garcia P. Lytic activity of the recombinant staphylococcal bacteriophage PhiH5 endolysin active against Staphylococcus aureus in milk. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;128:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As far as we know, this is the first report to assess the antimicrobial activity of a phage endolysin which might be useful for novel biocontrol strategies in dairying...
  37. Takác M, Blasi U. Phage P68 virion-associated protein 17 displays activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2934-40 pubmed
    ..This broad activity spectrum of protein 17 could qualify virion-associated muralytic enzymes as attractive antimicrobials...
  38. Gill J, Pacan J, Carson M, Leslie K, Griffiths M, Sabour P. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of bacteriophage therapy in treatment of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in lactating dairy cattle. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:2912-8 pubmed
    ..The phage concentration in the milk suggested that there was significant degradation or inactivation of the infused phage within the gland...
  39. Goerke C, Wirtz C, Fluckiger U, Wolz C. Extensive phage dynamics in Staphylococcus aureus contributes to adaptation to the human host during infection. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:1673-85 pubmed
  40. Bae T, Baba T, Hiramatsu K, Schneewind O. Prophages of Staphylococcus aureus Newman and their contribution to virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1035-47 pubmed
    ..S. aureus Newman lacking all four prophages was unable to cause disease, thereby revealing essential contributions of prophages to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections...
  41. Daniel A, Bonnen P, Fischetti V. First complete genome sequence of two Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteriophages. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2086-100 pubmed
    ..Until now, no S. epidermidis phage genome sequences have been reported in the literature, and thus this study represents the first complete genomic and molecular description of two S. epidermidis phages...
  42. Iandolo J, Worrell V, Groicher K, Qian Y, Tian R, Kenton S, et al. Comparative analysis of the genomes of the temperate bacteriophages phi 11, phi 12 and phi 13 of Staphylococcus aureus 8325. Gene. 2002;289:109-18 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the other two phages, phi 13 also introduces the staphylokinase gene (sak) and a second gene related to expression of fib...
  43. Loessner M, Gaeng S, Wendlinger G, Maier S, Scherer S. The two-component lysis system of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage Twort: a large TTG-start holin and an associated amidase endolysin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;162:265-74 pubmed
    ..The proposed function is the formation of unspecific membrane lesions to promote access of the endolysin to the bacterial peptidoglycan...
  44. Lindsay J, Ruzin A, Ross H, Kurepina N, Novick R. The gene for toxic shock toxin is carried by a family of mobile pathogenicity islands in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:527-43 pubmed
    ..It is designated SaPI2. These PIs are the first in any gram-positive species and the first for which mobility has been demonstrated. Their mobility may be responsible for the spread of TSST-1 production among S. aureus strains...
  45. Narita S, Kaneko J, Chiba J, Piemont Y, Jarraud S, Etienne J, et al. Phage conversion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus: molecular analysis of a PVL-converting phage, phiSLT. Gene. 2001;268:195-206 pubmed
    ..Thus, it can be concluded that PVL genes are carried by different temperate phages, which have the same attachment site...
  46. Sass P, Bierbaum G. Lytic activity of recombinant bacteriophage phi11 and phi12 endolysins on whole cells and biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:347-52 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the phi12 endolysin was inactive and caused aggregation of the cells...
  47. Pantucek R, Doskar J, Ruzickova V, Kaspárek P, Oracova E, Kvardova V, et al. Identification of bacteriophage types and their carriage in Staphylococcus aureus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:1689-703 pubmed
    ..aureus clinical strains of different provenance. In addition, by using a comparative genomics approach, all the prophages in the S. aureus genomes sequenced to date could be revealed and classified...
  48. Zhang M, Ito T, Li S, Jin J, Takeuchi F, Lauderdale T, et al. Identification of the third type of PVL phage in ST59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;323:20-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Daniel A, Euler C, Collin M, Chahales P, Gorelick K, Fischetti V. Synergism between a novel chimeric lysin and oxacillin protects against infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1603-12 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus infections and would allow for the reinstatement of antibiotics shelved because of mounting resistance...
  50. Marraffini L, Sontheimer E. CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science. 2008;322:1843-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CRISPR loci counteract multiple routes of HGT and can limit the spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. ..
  51. Sahin F, Karasartova D, Ozsan T, Kiyan M, Karahan C, Tekeli A. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying an exfoliative toxin A gene encoding phage isolated from a hospitalized patient in Turkey. Can J Microbiol. 2013;59:260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report showing that a MRSA strain carries an ETA-encoding phage. ..
  52. Quiles Puchalt N, Carpena N, Alonso J, Novick R, Marina A, Penadés J. Staphylococcal pathogenicity island DNA packaging system involving cos-site packaging and phage-encoded HNH endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6016-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Cos-site packaging in Staphylococcus aureus is additionally unique in that it requires the HNH nuclease, carried only by cos phages, in addition to the large terminase subunit, for cos-site cleavage and melting. ..
  53. Zueva V, Nesterenko L, Dmitrenko O, Akatov A. Lysogeny of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the role of prophages in transfer of conjugative and non-conjugative plasmids. J Chemother. 1991;3:279-82 pubmed
  54. Oberoi A, Varghese S. A study of MRSA--a nosocomial pathogen in a tertiary care center in Punjab. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006;49:313-4 pubmed
  55. Berger Bachi B. Insertional inactivation of staphylococcal methicillin resistance by Tn551. J Bacteriol. 1983;154:479-87 pubmed
    ..The phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance, therefore, is also dependent upon a chromosomal genetic marker not physically linked to the mec determinant...
  56. Winstel V, Sanchez Carballo P, Holst O, Xia G, Peschel A. Biosynthesis of the unique wall teichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus lineage ST395. MBio. 2014;5:e00869 pubmed publisher
    ..The elucidation of ST395 WTA biosynthesis will help to understand how Gram-positive bacteria produce highly variable WTA types and elucidate functional consequences of WTA variation. ..
  57. Chang Y, Ryu S. Characterization of a novel cell wall binding domain-containing Staphylococcus aureus endolysin LysSA97. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:147-158 pubmed publisher