salmonella phages

Summary

Summary: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.

Top Publications

  1. Rabsch W. Salmonella typhimurium phage typing for pathogens. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;394:177-211 pubmed publisher
  2. Alvarez J, Sota M, Vivanco A, Perales I, Cisterna R, Rementeria A, et al. Development of a multiplex PCR technique for detection and epidemiological typing of salmonella in human clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1734-8 pubmed
    ..Also, a low PCR inhibition rate (8%) was obtained. The overall agreement of the multiplex PCR with conventional culture-based techniques was 95% for Salmonella typing using Cohen's kappa index...
  3. Kropinski A, Sulakvelidze A, Konczy P, Poppe C. Salmonella phages and prophages--genomics and practical aspects. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;394:133-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The P27 group is only represented by ST64B; the P2 group contains Fels-2, SopEphi, and PSP3; the lambdoid Salmonella phages include Gifsy-1, Gifsy-2, and Fels-1. The P22-like viruses include epsilon34, ES18, P22, ST104, and ST64T...
  4. Flanigan A, Gardner J. Interaction of the Gifsy-1 Xis protein with the Gifsy-1 attP sequence. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6303-11 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that, while the Gifsy-1 Xis does not require additional factors for specific and high-affinity binding, it may form a microfilament on DNA similar to that described for the phage lambda Xis protein...
  5. Casjens S, Gilcrease E, Winn Stapley D, Schicklmaier P, Schmieger H, Pedulla M, et al. The generalized transducing Salmonella bacteriophage ES18: complete genome sequence and DNA packaging strategy. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1091-104 pubmed
    ..Bioinformatic analysis of large terminase subunits shows that the different functional classes of phage-encoded terminases can usually be predicted from their amino acid sequence...
  6. Figueroa Bossi N, Coissac E, Netter P, Bossi L. Unsuspected prophage-like elements in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 1997;25:161-73 pubmed
    ..They are distinct from previously described Fels prophages. Unlike Fels, they are not specific to S. typhimurium strain LT2 since they are both also found in a virulent S. typhimurium isolate (ATCC 14028s)...
  7. Thomson N, Baker S, Pickard D, Fookes M, Anjum M, Hamlin N, et al. The role of prophage-like elements in the diversity of Salmonella enterica serovars. J Mol Biol. 2004;339:279-300 pubmed
    ..Lysogenic bacteriophages therefore play a crucial role in the generation of genetic diversity within S.enterica...
  8. Frye J, Porwollik S, Blackmer F, Cheng P, McClelland M. Host gene expression changes and DNA amplification during temperate phage induction. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1485-92 pubmed
    ..Escape replication is probably widespread; large regions of host genome amplification were also observed after phage induction in serovar Typhimurium strains SL1344 and 14028s at the suspected integration site of prophage genomes...
  9. Coombes B, Wickham M, Brown N, Lemire S, Bossi L, Hsiao W, et al. Genetic and molecular analysis of GogB, a phage-encoded type III-secreted substrate in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium with autonomous expression from its associated phage. J Mol Biol. 2005;348:817-30 pubmed
    ..These data define the first autonomously expressed lysogenic conversion gene within Gifsy-1 that acts as a modular and promiscuous type III-secreted substrate of the infection process...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Villafane R, Black J. Identification of four genes involved in the lysogenic pathway of the Salmonella newington bacterial virus epsilon 34. Arch Virol. 1994;135:179-83 pubmed
    ..A relative mapping order has been established. In addition, a virulent mutant, epsilon 34vir82, which defines a repressor binding site has been isolated...
  2. Figueroa Bossi N, Uzzau S, Maloriol D, Bossi L. Variable assortment of prophages provides a transferable repertoire of pathogenic determinants in Salmonella. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:260-71 pubmed
    ..Most phage-associated loci transferred efficiently between Salmonella strains of the same or different serovars. Overall, these results suggest that lysogenic conversion is a major mechanism driving the evolution of Salmonella bacteria...
  3. Hermans A, Beuling A, van Hoek A, Aarts H, Abee T, Zwietering M. Distribution of prophages and SGI-1 antibiotic-resistance genes among different Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates. Microbiology. 2006;152:2137-47 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the presence of the genes for penta-resistance type ACSSuT, the HldD homologue containing ST104 prophage remnant and phage type DT104L are most likely common features of the emerging subtype of S. Typhimurium DT104...
  4. Kuhn J, Suissa M, Chiswell D, Azriel A, Berman B, Shahar D, et al. A bacteriophage reagent for Salmonella: molecular studies on Felix 01. Int J Food Microbiol. 2002;74:217-27 pubmed
    ..On the basis of restriction sites, codon usage and the distribution of nonsense codons in the unused reading frames, a strong case can be made for natural selection that reacts to mRNA structure and function...
  5. Lindstedt B, Torpdahl M, Nielsen E, Vardund T, Aas L, Kapperud G. Harmonization of the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis method between Denmark and Norway for typing Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and closer examination of the VNTR loci. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102:728-35 pubmed
    ..enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salm. Typhimurium) in Denmark and Norway, and analysis of the typing data...
  6. Pelludat C, Mirold S, Hardt W. The SopEPhi phage integrates into the ssrA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium A36 and is closely related to the Fels-2 prophage. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5182-91 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that there is considerable variation among the P2-like phages present in closely related Salmonella spp...
  7. Linnane E, Roberts R, Mannion P. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 34a infection in primary school children: the use of visual aids and food preferences to overcome recall bias in a case control study. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:35-9 pubmed
    ..006). The results of the case control study agreed with the findings of the environmental investigation. We believe our approach could be used in other circumstances, where subjects are young children or recall bias is a concern...
  8. Zayas M, Villafane R. Identification of the Salmonella phage epsilon 34 tailspike gene. Gene. 2007;386:211-7 pubmed
    ..This study reports the identification of the gene for the epsilon(34) TSP as well as its initial characterization. In addition, some aspects of the structure of the epsilon(34) TSP have been deduced...
  9. Pang J, Chiu T, Helmuth R, Schroeter A, Guerra B, Tsen H. A pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study that suggests a major world-wide clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;116:305-12 pubmed
    ..Since strains used in this study were unrelated, i.e., they were isolated from different origins in areas geographically far apart from each other, the PFGE study suggests a major world-wide clone of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis...
  10. Salgado C, Zayas M, Villafane R. Homology between two different Salmonella phages: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage P22 and Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum var. 15 + phageepsilon34. Virus Genes. 2004;29:87-98 pubmed
    ..Salmonella is a prominent member of this group of bacteria. Many Salmonella phages use the LPS as the initial receptor in the infection process and they can distinguish subtle changes in the ..
  11. Fisher I. Dramatic shift in the epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types in western Europe, 1998-2003--results from the Enter-net international salmonella database. Euro Surveill. 2004;9:43-5 pubmed
    ..1% (8794 cases) with other strains increasing, both in proportion and numbers. This paper identifies the emerging strains that are becoming more relevant in public health terms...
  12. Ho T, Slauch J. Characterization of grvA, an antivirulence gene on the gifsy-2 phage in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:611-20 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the contribution of Gifsy-2 is a complicated sum of both positive virulence factors such as sodCI and antivirulence factors such as grvA...
  13. Ackermann H. Salmonella phages examined in the electron microscope. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;394:213-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Many tailed phages belong to established phage genera (P22, T1, T5, and T7), which are widespread in enterobacteria and other Gram-negatives of the Proteobacteria phylum...
  14. Hardt W, Urlaub H, Gal n J. A substrate of the centisome 63 type III protein secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium is encoded by a cryptic bacteriophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2574-9 pubmed
  15. Hendrix R, Smith M, Burns R, Ford M, Hatfull G. Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2192-7 pubmed
  16. Andres D, Roske Y, Doering C, Heinemann U, Seckler R, Barbirz S. Tail morphology controls DNA release in two Salmonella phages with one lipopolysaccharide receptor recognition system. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:1244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that tail morphology influences the efficiencies of particle opening given an identical initial receptor interaction event...
  17. Figueroa Bossi N, Bossi L. Resuscitation of a defective prophage in Salmonella cocultures. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4038-41 pubmed
    ..Active phage originates from reversion of a +1 frameshift mutation at a monotonous G:C run in a presumptive tail assembly pseudogene...
  18. Bobay L, Rocha E, Touchon M. The adaptation of temperate bacteriophages to their host genomes. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:737-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding prophage genetic adaptation sheds new lights on the coexistence of horizontal transfer and organized bacterial genomes. ..
  19. Krul M, Tijhaar E, Kleijne J, van Loon A, Nievers M, Schipper H, et al. Induction of an antibody response in mice against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 after immunization with HPV recombinant Salmonella strains. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1996;43:44-8 pubmed
    ..This report describes the construction of recombinant Salmonella strains expressing the HPV 16 E6 and E7 proteins, and the induction of an HPV-16-specific immune response in mice after immunization with these live vectors. ..
  20. Karpiskova R, Kolackova I, Dedicova D, Srámová H. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in the Czech Republic: phage types, antimicrobial and plasmid profiles. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2003;11:160-2 pubmed
    ..Plasmid profiling of DT104 isolates showed 10 different profiles. Pattern A found in 30.5% of tested strains was predominant and carried serovar specific plasmid and one additional small plasmid of approx. 2.5 kb. ..
  21. Ko Y. The receptor of an oyster juice-borne coliphage OJ367 in the outer membrane of Salmonella derby. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2005;38:399-408 pubmed
    ..This implied that the 45-kDa Omp is involved as a receptor in coliphage binding; however, this role is affected by the expression of other Omps. ..
  22. Lim T, Lee D, Lee Y, Park J, Youn H, Kim M, et al. Efficacy of bacteriophage therapy on horizontal transmission of Salmonella gallinarum on commercial layer chickens. Avian Dis. 2011;55:435-8 pubmed
  23. Gebru E, Lee J, Son J, Yang S, Shin S, Kim B, et al. Effect of probiotic-, bacteriophage-, or organic acid-supplemented feeds or fermented soybean meal on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of grower pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:3880-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further work needs to be done to better understand their mode of action in this class of pigs. ..
  24. Toro H, Price S, McKee A, Hoerr F, Krehling J, Perdue M, et al. Use of bacteriophages in combination with competitive exclusion to reduce Salmonella from infected chickens. Avian Dis. 2005;49:118-24 pubmed
    ..These results are encouraging for further work on the use of BP as an effective alternative to antibiotics to reduce Salmonella infections in poultry. ..
  25. Inns T, Lane C, Peters T, Dallman T, Chatt C, McFarland N, et al. A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak associated with eggs from a German producer: 'near real-time' application of whole genome sequencing and food chain investigations, United Kingdom, May to September 2014. Euro Surveill. 2015;20: pubmed
    ..Combined with food traceback information, this confirmed that the UK outbreak was also linked to a German producer. ..
  26. Campoy S, Hervas A, Busquets N, Erill I, Teixidó L, Barbe J. Induction of the SOS response by bacteriophage lytic development in Salmonella enterica. Virology. 2006;351:360-7 pubmed
    ..The observed data reveal a hitherto unknown SOS system-mediated fail-safe mechanism of resident prophages against infection with heteroimmune lytic bacteriophages and suggest a novel role for the kil family of proteins. ..
  27. Crain J, Maloy S. Mud-P22. Methods Enzymol. 2007;421:249-59 pubmed
    ..Although Mud-P22 has not yet been used in other species, this approach should be applicable in a variety of other bacteria as well. ..
  28. Guenther S, Herzig O, Fieseler L, Klumpp J, Loessner M. Biocontrol of Salmonella Typhimurium in RTE foods with the virulent bacteriophage FO1-E2. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;154:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data show that virulent phages such as FO1-E2 offer an effective biocontrol measure for Salmonella in foods. ..
  29. Hooton S, Timms A, Rowsell J, Wilson R, Connerton I. Salmonella Typhimurium-specific bacteriophage ?SH19 and the origins of species specificity in the Vi01-like phage family. Virol J. 2011;8:498 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition or exchange of tail spike protein modules is a major contributor to host range determination in the Vi01-like phage family. ..
  30. Bullas L, Mostaghimi A, Arensdorf J, Rajadas P, Zuccarelli A. Salmonella phage PSP3, another member of the P2-like phage group. Virology. 1991;185:918-21 pubmed
    ..A number of restriction sites were at similar locations on the two phage DNAs. The parasitic phage P4 propagated on PSP3 lysogens. PSP3 integrates into the Escherichia coli chromosome at 27 min. ..
  31. Farrell D, Mikesell P, Actis L, Crosa J. A regulatory gene, angR, of the iron uptake system of Vibrio anguillarum: similarity with phage P22 cro and regulation by iron. Gene. 1990;86:45-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that AngR may be a DNA-binding protein which modulates Fe2(+)-regulated transcription and is itself Fe2(+)-regulated at the transcriptional level. ..
  32. Kumar R, Aneja K, Punia A, Roy P, Sharma M, Gupta R, et al. Changing pattern of biotypes, phage types & drug resistance of Salmonella typhi in Ludhiana during 1980-1999. Indian J Med Res. 2001;113:175-80 pubmed
    ..typhi phage types E1 and O exhibited ACCoT multidrug resistant pattern. Reemergence of chloramphenicol susceptibility in the last decade emphasizes the need for regular antimicrobial surveillance to minimize the misuse of these drugs. ..
  33. Lee J, Shin H, Ryu S. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage SPN3UB. J Virol. 2012;86:3404-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To further understand its infection mechanism, we completely sequenced and analyzed the genome. Here, we announce its complete genome sequence and report major findings from the genomic analysis results. ..
  34. Asai T, Harada K, Kojima A, Sameshima T, Takahashi T, Akiba M, et al. Phage type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from food-producing animals in Japan between 1976 and 2004. New Microbiol. 2008;31:555-9 pubmed
    ..Resistance was found for 8 of 11 antimicrobials tested, at the following rates: 46.4% for dihydrostreptomycin followed by ampicillin and oxytetracycline (both 8.9%). ..
  35. Lee J, Shin H, Kim H, Ryu S. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella bacteriophage SPN3US. J Virol. 2011;85:13470-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we announce the completely sequenced first genome of a Salmonella phage using flagella as receptors. It is the largest genome among Salmonella phages sequenced to date, and major findings from its annotation are described.
  36. Cooke F, Brown D, Fookes M, Pickard D, Ivens A, Wain J, et al. Characterization of the genomes of a diverse collection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:8155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, here the nature of variation in different Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates is further defined at the gene and whole-genome levels, illustrating how this phage type evolves over time. ..
  37. Botteldoorn N, Herman L, Rijpens N, Heyndrickx M. Phenotypic and molecular typing of Salmonella strains reveals different contamination sources in two commercial pig slaughterhouses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:5305-14 pubmed
  38. Lehman S, Kropinski A, Castle A, Svircev A. Complete genome of the broad-host-range Erwinia amylovora phage phiEa21-4 and its relationship to Salmonella phage felix O1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis resulted in the identification of five PhiEa21-4 genes coding for virion structural proteins, including the major capsid protein...
  39. Luckey M, Neilands J. Iron transport in Salmonella typhimurium LT-2: prevention, by ferrichrome, of adsorption of bacteriophages ES18 and ES18.h1 to a common cell envelope receptor. J Bacteriol. 1976;127:1036-7 pubmed
    ..h1 to cells of Salmonella typhimurium. Studies of albomycin-resistant mutants defective in both ferrichrome utilization and ES18.h1 adsorption suggest a sid gene may specify a receptor for both. ..
  40. Quinn H, Stafford R, Bell R, Blumke G, Young M. A cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U307 associated with a restaurant. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2005;29:83-4 pubmed
  41. dos Santos L, do Nascimento V, de Oliveira S, Rodrigues D, dos Reis E, Seki L, et al. Phage types of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from clinical and food samples, and from broiler carcasses in southern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:1-4 pubmed
    ..40% samples were not phage typeable. The predominance of phage type 4 is in agreement with the results published worldwide, and reinforces the need for studies related to the epidemiological meaning of these findings. ..
  42. Långmark J, Storey M, Ashbolt N, Stenström T. Accumulation and fate of microorganisms and microspheres in biofilms formed in a pilot-scale water distribution system. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:706-12 pubmed
    ..In general, two primary disinfection regimens (chlorination and UV treatment) were not shown to have a measurable impact on the accumulation and fate of model microbial pathogens within a water distribution system. ..
  43. Isaacs S, Aramini J, Ciebin B, Farrar J, Ahmed R, Middleton D, et al. An international outbreak of salmonellosis associated with raw almonds contaminated with a rare phage type of Salmonella enteritidis. J Food Prot. 2005;68:191-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of almonds as the source of a foodborne outbreak is a previously undocumented finding, leading to a North American recall of this product and a review of current industry practices...
  44. Liébana S, Spricigo D, Cortés M, Barbe J, Llagostera M, Alegret S, et al. Phagomagnetic separation and electrochemical magneto-genosensing of pathogenic bacteria. Anal Chem. 2013;85:3079-86 pubmed publisher
  45. Lopez C, Winter S, Rivera Chávez F, Xavier M, Poon V, Nuccio S, et al. Phage-mediated acquisition of a type III secreted effector protein boosts growth of salmonella by nitrate respiration. MBio. 2012;3: pubmed publisher
  46. Balbontin R, Rowley G, Pucciarelli M, López Garrido J, Wormstone Y, Lucchini S, et al. DNA adenine methylation regulates virulence gene expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:8160-8 pubmed
    ..The requirement for DNA adenine methylation in the regulation of specific virulence genes suggests that certain defects of Salmonella Dam(-) mutants in the mouse model may be caused by altered patterns of gene expression. ..
  47. Brown N, Coombes B, Bishop J, Wickham M, Lowden M, Gal Mor O, et al. Salmonella phage ST64B encodes a member of the SseK/NleB effector family. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17824 pubmed publisher
    ..These phage-encoded effectors may be principle subjects of contemporary selective processes shaping Salmonella-host interactions. ..
  48. Dobbins A, George M, Basham D, Ford M, Houtz J, Pedulla M, et al. Complete genomic sequence of the virulent Salmonella bacteriophage SP6. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1933-44 pubmed
    ..Bioinformatic analysis of the SP6 sequence strongly suggested that DNA replication occurs in large part through a bidirectional mechanism, possibly with circular intermediates. ..
  49. Hu H, Lan R, Reeves P. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium reveals phage-type- specific markers and potential for microarray typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3406-15 pubmed
  50. Muldoon M, Teaney G, Li J, Onisk D, Stave J. Bacteriophage-based enrichment coupled to immunochromatographic strip-based detection for the determination of Salmonella in meat and poultry. J Food Prot. 2007;70:2235-42 pubmed
  51. Liebana E, Garcia Migura L, Guard Petter J, McDowell S, Rankin S, Opitz H, et al. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types 4, 7, 6, 8, 13a, 29 and 34: a comparative analysis of genomic fingerprints from geographically distant isolates. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92:196-209 pubmed
    ..To evaluate genetic heterogeneity in the most common phage types of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis...
  52. Lewis H, Lawrence J. Recent increase in S. Paratyphi A phage type 1 and S. Typhi Vi-phage type E1 in England and Wales, associated with travel to the Indian subcontinent. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:E060309.4 pubmed
  53. Tiwari B, Kim S, Kim J. Complete genomic sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage SE2. J Virol. 2012;86:7712 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong and stable lytic activity of this phage might enable its use as a therapeutic or biocontrol agent against S. enterica serovar Enteritidis...
  54. Liu W, Yang Y, Chung N, Kwang J. Induction of humoral immune response and protective immunity in chickens against Salmonella enteritidis after a single dose of killed bacterium-loaded microspheres. Avian Dis. 2001;45:797-806 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence that chickens vaccinated with killed SE-loaded PLGA microspheres, intramuscularly and orally in a single dose, developed systematic and local immune responses, thereby conferring protective immunity...
  55. Fernandez A, Lara C, Loste A, Calvo S, Marca M. Control of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 experimental infection by fosfomycin in newly hatched chicks. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;24:207-16 pubmed
    ..Fosfomycin caused no adverse effects on chickens from group CF, assessed by performance and biochemical variables. The results indicate that fosfomycin could be used in the treatment of S. enteritidis PT4 experimental infection...
  56. Berget P, Poteete A, Sauer R. Control of phage P22 tail protein expression by transcription termination. J Mol Biol. 1983;164:561-72 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of this transcriptional terminator sequence in gene 9 expression and the early to late transcriptional switch in the P22 infection cycle...
  57. Pickard D, Toribio A, Petty N, van Tonder A, Yu L, Goulding D, et al. A conserved acetyl esterase domain targets diverse bacteriophages to the Vi capsular receptor of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5746-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide a simple explanation and paradigm of how a diverse group of phages target a single key virulence antigen associated with this important human-restricted pathogen...
  58. Dorn C, Schroeter A, Helmuth R. [Report on Salmonella isolates submitted to the German National Veterinary Salmonella Reference Laboratory in the year 1999]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2002;115:252-8 pubmed
    ..Enteritidis PT 4 with 9% of all isolations predominate like in the human isolates. These sero- and phagetypes are frequently isolated from food as well and consequently can reach the consumer via the food chain...
  59. Pasmans F, Van Immerseel F, Heyndrickx M, Martel A, Godard C, Wildemauwe C, et al. Host adaptation of pigeon isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium variant Copenhagen phage type 99 is associated with enhanced macrophage cytotoxicity. Infect Immun. 2003;71:6068-74 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the phage type 99 strains used in this study are highly adapted to pigeons and should be classified as a host-restricted lineage of the serovar Typhimurium...
  60. Karpe Y, Kanade G, Pingale K, Arankalle V, Banerjee K. Genomic characterization of Salmonella bacteriophages isolated from India. Virus Genes. 2016;52:117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have isolated Salmonella phages from sewage and river water...
  61. Augustine J, Louis L, Varghese S, Bhat S, Kishore A. Isolation and partial characterization of ?SP-1, a Salmonella specific lytic phage from intestinal content of broiler chicken. J Basic Microbiol. 2013;53:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Capability to survive under hostile environmental conditions, absence of virulence genes in genome and genus specificity suggest suitability of ?SP-1 to be used as a biocontrol agent...
  62. Li S, Li Y, Chen H, Horikawa S, Shen W, Simonian A, et al. Direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on fresh produce using phage-based magnetoelastic biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;26:1313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium suspensions with concentrations of 5×10(2)CFU/ml and greater. This study demonstrates the direct detection of food-borne bacteria on fresh produce...
  63. Flanigan A, Gardner J. Structural prediction and mutational analysis of the Gifsy-I Xis protein. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:199 pubmed publisher
    ..2 kDa and a pI of 10.2. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) suggested at least one region of the protein is responsible for protein-DNA interactions with a tripartite DNA binding site composed of three direct imperfect repeats...
  64. Carrique Mas J, Papadopoulou C, Evans S, Wales A, Teale C, Davies R. Trends in phage types and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from animals in Great Britain from 1990 to 2005. Vet Rec. 2008;162:541-6 pubmed
    ..pts 1, 5a, 6, 6a and 35 had the highest level of resistance after adjusting for species. During 2001 to 2005 there was an increase in resistance among pts 1, 6 and 7, in most cases involving nalidixic acid...
  65. Lytle C, Routson L, Jain N, Myers M, Green B. Virus passage through track-etch membranes modified by salinity and a nonionic surfactant. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:2773-5 pubmed
    ..Undiminished passage when 0.1% Tween 80 was added implied that nonionic virus adsorption occurred and indicated that high levels of salinity decreased virus passage by decreasing electrostatic repulsion that prevented adsorption...
  66. Hong J, Kim K, Heu S, Lee S, Adhya S, Ryu S. Identification of host receptor and receptor-binding module of a newly sequenced T5-like phage EPS7. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;289:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and studying phage infection in the mutant hosts, we showed that BtuB is also the host receptor of the phage EPS7. Whether EPS7 infection depends on TonB needs to be further studied...
  67. Levashov P, Popov D, Popova V, Zhilenkov E, Morozova O, Belogurova N, et al. Enzymes of SPZ7 phage: isolation and properties. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2010;75:1160-4 pubmed
    ..enteritidis cells and cannot lyse Micrococcus luteus, a good substrate for chicken egg lysozyme. Similar properties of exolysin and endolysin suggest that these enzymes are structurally similar or even identical...
  68. Krylov V, Miller S, Rachel R, Biebl M, Pletneva E, Shuetz M, et al. [Ambivalent bacteriophages of different species active on Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella sps. strains]. Genetika. 2006;42:159-68 pubmed
    ..Ambivalent phages are potentially useful for phage therapy and prevention of salmonellosis in humans and animals...
  69. Guzina J, Djordjevic M. Inferring bacteriophage infection strategies from genome sequence: analysis of bacteriophage 7-11 and related phages. BMC Evol Biol. 2015;15 Suppl 1:S1 pubmed publisher
    ..We address this question on a recently sequenced lytic bacteriophage 7 - 11 that infects bacterium Salmonella enterica...
  70. Santos S, Kropinski A, Ceyssens P, Ackermann H, Villegas A, Lavigne R, et al. Genomic and proteomic characterization of the broad-host-range Salmonella phage PVP-SE1: creation of a new phage genus. J Virol. 2011;85:11265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Both phages are unrelated to any other known virus, which suggests that an "rV5-like virus" genus should be created within the Myoviridae to contain these two phages...
  71. Ross I, Heuzenroeder M. Discrimination within phenotypically closely related definitive types of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium by the multiple amplification of phage locus typing technique. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1604-11 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that multiple amplification of phage locus typing may provide sufficient discrimination for epidemiological purposes without recourse to MLST...
  72. Pickard D, Kingsley R, Hale C, Turner K, Sivaraman K, Wetter M, et al. A genomewide mutagenesis screen identifies multiple genes contributing to Vi capsular expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:1320-6 pubmed publisher
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    ..This ability may be important for the association of PT4 infection with the consumption of eggs...
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