prophages

Summary

Summary: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.

Top Publications

  1. Hermans A, Beuling A, van Hoek A, Aarts H, Abee T, Zwietering M. Distribution of prophages and SGI-1 antibiotic-resistance genes among different Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates. Microbiology. 2006;152:2137-47 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the distribution of the prophages identified, ST104 and ST64B, and the novel prophage remnant designated prophage ST104B, was tested among 23 non-..
  2. Toba F, Thompson M, Campbell B, Junker L, Rueggeberg K, Hay A. Role of DLP12 lysis genes in Escherichia coli biofilm formation. Microbiology. 2011;157:1640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide evidence that the S, R and Rz/Rz(1) gene homologues encoded by DLP12 are not merely genetic junk, but rather play an important, though undefined, role in cell wall maintenance. ..
  3. Ye C, Lan R, Xia S, Zhang J, Sun Q, Zhang S, et al. Emergence of a new multidrug-resistant serotype X variant in an epidemic clone of Shigella flexneri. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The clone has also acquired resistance to multiple antibiotics. These findings underscore the challenges to the current vaccine development and control strategies for shigellosis...
  4. Zhou Y, Liang Y, Lynch K, Dennis J, Wishart D. PHAST: a fast phage search tool. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:W347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..PHAST also generates downloadable, high quality, interactive graphics that display all identified prophage components in both circular and linear genomic views. PHAST is available at (http://phast.wishartlab.com). ..
  5. Skorb E, Andreeva D, Raiski A, Belyasova N, Mohwald H, Sviridov D. Titanium dioxide-assisted photocatalytic induction of prophages to lytic cycle. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2011;10:1974-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On this basis a novel photocatalytic method of a prophage induction to the lytic cycle and detection of lysogenic bacteria is proposed. ..
  6. Ventura M, Canchaya C, Bernini V, Altermann E, Barrangou R, McGrath S, et al. Comparative genomics and transcriptional analysis of prophages identified in the genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:3130-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively...
  7. Orsi R, Borowsky M, Lauer P, Young S, Nusbaum C, Galagan J, et al. Short-term genome evolution of Listeria monocytogenes in a non-controlled environment. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:539 pubmed publisher
    ..Short-term evolution of L. monocytogenes in non-controlled environments appears to involve limited diversification beyond plasmid gain or loss and prophage diversification, highlighting the importance of phages in bacterial evolution. ..
  8. Nejman Falenczyk B, Golec P, Maciag M, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Inhibition of development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages by either treatment with citrate or amino acid starvation. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic strains, whose virulence depends on induction of Shiga toxin-converting prophages and their subsequent lytic development...
  9. Mellor G, Sim E, Barlow R, D Astek B, Galli L, Chinen I, et al. Phylogenetically related Argentinean and Australian Escherichia coli O157 isolates are distinguished by virulence clades and alternative Shiga toxin 1 and 2 prophages. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:4724-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support further understanding of O157 phylogeny and may foster greater insight into the differential virulence of O157 lineages. ..

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Campoy S, Hervas A, Busquets N, Erill I, Teixidó L, Barbe J. Induction of the SOS response by bacteriophage lytic development in Salmonella enterica. Virology. 2006;351:360-7 pubmed
    ..enterica SOS network induction. Furthermore, S. enterica Gifsy prophages are induced following the infection with SE1 and P22 lytic derivatives...
  2. Yang Z, Kim J, Zhang C, Zhang M, Nietfeldt J, Southward C, et al. Genomic instability in regions adjacent to a highly conserved pch prophage in Escherichia coli O157:H7 generates diversity in expression patterns of the LEE pathogenicity island. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3553-68 pubmed publisher
  3. Richards V, Lang P, Bitar P, Lefebure T, Schukken Y, Zadoks R, et al. Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..agalactiae strain, and the importance of LGT among pathogens within a shared environment. ..
  4. Akhter S, Aziz R, Edwards R. PhiSpy: a novel algorithm for finding prophages in bacterial genomes that combines similarity- and composition-based strategies. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:e126 pubmed publisher
    b>Prophages are phages in lysogeny that are integrated into, and replicated as part of, the host bacterial genome...
  5. Panis G, Mejean V, Ansaldi M. Control and regulation of KplE1 prophage site-specific recombination: a new recombination module analyzed. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21798-809 pubmed
    ..This study thus defines a new site-specific recombination module, and implications for the mechanism and regulation of recombination are discussed. ..
  6. Gilmour M, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, Tyler S, Kent H, Trout Yakel K, et al. High-throughput genome sequencing of two Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates during a large foodborne outbreak. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:120 pubmed publisher
  7. James C, Fothergill J, Kalwij H, Hall A, Cottell J, Brockhurst M, et al. Differential infection properties of three inducible prophages from an epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:216 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa populations and is associated with increased morbidity. Previously, multiple inducible prophages have been found to coexist in the LES chromosome and to constitute a major component of the accessory genome not ..
  8. McShan W, Ferretti J, Karasawa T, Suvorov A, Lin S, Qin B, et al. Genome sequence of a nephritogenic and highly transformable M49 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7773-85 pubmed publisher
    ..As with the previously sequenced S. pyogenes genomes, three unique prophages are a major source of genetic diversity...
  9. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated induction of the Shiga toxin-converting lambdoid prophage ST2-8624 in Escherichia coli O157:H7. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;58:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because genes coding for Shiga toxins are located on lambdoid prophages, effective toxin production occurs only after prophage induction...
  10. Champ S, Puvirajesinghe T, Perrody E, Menouni R, Genevaux P, Ansaldi M. Chaperone-assisted excisive recombination, a solitary role for DnaJ (Hsp40) chaperone in lysogeny escape. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38876-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results underline a novel and unsuspected functional interaction between the generic host stress-regulated chaperone and temperate bacteriophage lysogenic development. ..
  11. Duron O, Bernard C, Unal S, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Weill M. Tracking factors modulating cytoplasmic incompatibilities in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:3061-71 pubmed
    ..However, Gp15 is partially correlated with CI expression, suggesting that it could be just linked to a CI gene. ..
  12. Varga M, Kuntová L, Pantucek R, Mašlaňová I, Ruzickova V, Doskar J. Efficient transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids by transduction within methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 clone. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;332:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..frequencies (10(-5) - 10(-6) CFU/PFU) were observed using phages propagated on donor strains as well as prophages induced from donors by ultraviolet light...
  13. Bae T, Baba T, Hiramatsu K, Schneewind O. Prophages of Staphylococcus aureus Newman and their contribution to virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1035-47 pubmed
    Four prophages (phiNM1-4) were identified in the genome of Staphylococcus aureus Newman, a human clinical isolate...
  14. Bielaszewska M, Prager R, Köck R, Mellmann A, Zhang W, Tschäpe H, et al. Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:3144-50 pubmed
    ..The suggested occurrence of this process in the human intestine has diagnostic, clinical, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications. ..
  15. Biers E, Wang K, Pennington C, Belas R, Chen F, Moran M. Occurrence and expression of gene transfer agent genes in marine bacterioplankton. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:2933-9 pubmed publisher
    ..GTA homologs are surprisingly infrequent in marine metagenomic sequence data, however, and the role of this lateral gene transfer mechanism in ocean bacterioplankton communities remains unclear...
  16. Maiti D, Das B, Saha A, Nandy R, Nair G, Bhadra R. Genetic organization of pre-CTX and CTX prophages in the genome of an environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain. Microbiology. 2006;152:3633-41 pubmed
    ..In the present study extensive genetic mapping analyses indicated that two copies of tandemly arrayed CTX prophages are integrated in the small chromosome of an environmental V. cholerae strain, VCE232, belonging to serogroup O4...
  17. Wang X, Kim Y, Ma Q, Hong S, Pokusaeva K, Sturino J, et al. Cryptic prophages help bacteria cope with adverse environments. Nat Commun. 2010;1:147 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explore the impact of cryptic prophages on cell physiology by precisely deleting all nine prophage elements (166 kbp) using Escherichia coli...
  18. Glinkowska M, Los J, Szambowska A, Czyz A, Całkiewicz J, Herman Antosiewicz A, et al. Influence of the Escherichia coli oxyR gene function on lambda prophage maintenance. Arch Microbiol. 2010;192:673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This proposal is discussed in the light of efficiency of induction of lambdoid prophages bearing genes coding for Shiga toxins.
  19. Lepage E, Brinster S, Caron C, Ducroix Crépy C, Rigottier Gois L, Dunny G, et al. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of Enterococcus faecalis: identification of genes absent from food strains. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6858-68 pubmed
    ..Most of the variable genes were clustered in regions that, in the published V583 sequence, related to prophages or mobile genetic elements...
  20. Cooke F, Wain J, Fookes M, Ivens A, Thomson N, Brown D, et al. Prophage sequences defining hot spots of genome variation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can be used to discriminate between field isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2590-8 pubmed
    ..These multiplex PCR assays, based on prophage-like elements and Salmonella genomic island 1, provide a simple method for identifying new variants of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in the field. ..
  21. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Altruism of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: recent hypothesis versus experimental results. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:166 pubmed publisher
    ..Since genes coding for Shiga toxins (stx genes) are located on lambdoid prophages, their effective production occurs only after prophage induction...
  22. Serra Moreno R, Jofre J, Muniesa M. Insertion site occupancy by stx2 bacteriophages depends on the locus availability of the host strain chromosome. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6645-54 pubmed
    ..Five insertion sites, used mainly by these prophages, have been described to date...
  23. Long A, McDaniel L, Mobberley J, Paul J. Comparison of lysogeny (prophage induction) in heterotrophic bacterial and Synechococcus populations in the Gulf of Mexico and Mississippi River plume. ISME J. 2008;2:132-44 pubmed
    ..This indicated that heterotrophic bacterial populations were well adapted to the river plume environments, thus providing a possible explanation for differences in prevalence of lysogeny observed between the two populations. ..
  24. Fortier L, Moineau S. Morphological and genetic diversity of temperate phages in Clostridium difficile. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7358-66 pubmed
    ..phages belonging to the family Myoviridae are highly similar and most likely related to previously described prophages phiC2, phiC5, and phiCD119...
  25. Winstanley C, Langille M, Fothergill J, Kukavica Ibrulj I, Paradis Bleau C, Sanschagrin F, et al. Newly introduced genomic prophage islands are critical determinants of in vivo competitiveness in the Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genome Res. 2009;19:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This strongly indicates that enhanced in vivo competitiveness is a major driver for maintenance and diversifying selection of these genomic prophage genes. ..
  26. Wang X, Kim Y, Wood T. Control and benefits of CP4-57 prophage excision in Escherichia coli biofilms. ISME J. 2009;3:1164-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Hha induces excision of prophages, CP4-57 and DLP12, by inducing excision genes and by reducing SsrA synthesis...
  27. Tinsley C, Bille E, Nassif X. Bacteriophages and pathogenicity: more than just providing a toxin?. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1365-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss the search for new bacteriophage-associated pathogenicity factors, with emphasis on recent advances brought by the use of genomic sequence data and the techniques of genomic epidemiology. ..
  28. Kropinski A, Sulakvelidze A, Konczy P, Poppe C. Salmonella phages and prophages--genomics and practical aspects. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;394:133-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The only member of the T7-like group is SP6. The properties of each of these phages are discussed, along with their role as agents of genetic exchange and as therapeutic agents and their involvement in phage typing...
  29. Udden S, Zahid M, Biswas K, Ahmad Q, Cravioto A, Nair G, et al. Acquisition of classical CTX prophage from Vibrio cholerae O141 by El Tor strains aided by lytic phages and chitin-induced competence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11951-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The CTX prophages encoding cholera toxin in the two biotypes have distinct repressor (rstR) genes...
  30. Shimizu T, Ohta Y, Noda M. Shiga toxin 2 is specifically released from bacterial cells by two different mechanisms. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2813-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we present evidence that specific Stx2 release from bacterial cells is involved in both the Stx2-encoding phage induction system and another Stx2 release system...
  31. Hassan F, Kamruzzaman M, Mekalanos J, Faruque S. Satellite phage TLC? enables toxigenic conversion by CTX phage through dif site alteration. Nature. 2010;467:982-5 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial chromosomes often carry integrated genetic elements (for example plasmids, transposons, prophages and islands) whose precise function and contribution to the evolutionary fitness of the host bacterium are unknown...
  32. Bhattacharya T, Chatterjee S, Maiti D, Bhadra R, Takeda Y, Nair G, et al. Molecular analysis of the rstR and orfU genes of the CTX prophages integrated in the small chromosomes of environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains. Environ Microbiol. 2006;8:526-634 pubmed publisher
    ..of the rstR gene present in the RS2 region of the CTX prophage revealed the presence of new alleles of the prophages in four environmental non-O1, non-O139 strains VCE22 (O36), VCE228 (O27), VCE232 (O4) and VCE233 (O27), and the ..
  33. Krupovic M, Bamford D. Putative prophages related to lytic tailless marine dsDNA phage PM2 are widespread in the genomes of aquatic bacteria. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:236 pubmed
    ..It has also been suggested that viruses are ancient and possibly predate modern cells...
  34. Srividhya K, Alaguraj V, Poornima G, Kumar D, Singh G, Raghavenderan L, et al. Identification of prophages in bacterial genomes by dinucleotide relative abundance difference. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1193 pubmed
    b>Prophages are integrated viral forms in bacterial genomes that have been found to contribute to interstrain genetic variability. Many virulence-associated genes are reported to be prophage encoded...
  35. Croucher N, Harris S, Fraser C, Quail M, Burton J, van der Linden M, et al. Rapid pneumococcal evolution in response to clinical interventions. Science. 2011;331:430-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study details how genomic plasticity within lineages of recombinogenic bacteria can permit adaptation to clinical interventions over remarkably short time scales...
  36. Fouts D. Phage_Finder: automated identification and classification of prophage regions in complete bacterial genome sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5839-51 pubmed
    ..Using a test dataset of 42 bacterial genomes whose prophages have been manually identified, Phage_Finder found 91% of the regions, resulting in 7% false positive and 9% ..
  37. Vernikos G, Thomson N, Parkhill J. Genetic flux over time in the Salmonella lineage. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R100 pubmed
    ..Over time, the composition of those sequences tends to become more similar to the compositional signature of their host (amelioration)...
  38. Scott J, Thompson Mayberry P, Lahmamsi S, King C, McShan W. Phage-associated mutator phenotype in group A streptococcus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Such genetic elements may be common in S. pyogenes since 6 of 13 completed genomes have related prophages, and a survey of 100 strains found that about 20% of them are positive for phages occupying the SF370...
  39. Safa A, Nair G, Kong R. Evolution of new variants of Vibrio cholerae O1. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of the atypical El Tor strains...
  40. Reyes A, Haynes M, Hanson N, Angly F, Heath A, Rohwer F, et al. Viruses in the faecal microbiota of monozygotic twins and their mothers. Nature. 2010;466:334-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that a predatory viral-microbial dynamic, manifest in a number of other characterized environmental ecosystems, is notably absent in the very distal intestine...
  41. Gödeke J, Paul K, Lassak J, Thormann K. Phage-induced lysis enhances biofilm formation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. ISME J. 2011;5:613-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined whether eDNA is released through cell lysis mediated by the three prophages LambdaSo, MuSo1 and MuSo2 that are harbored in the genome of S. oneidensis MR-1...
  42. McDaniel L, Rosario K, Breitbart M, Paul J. Comparative metagenomics: natural populations of induced prophages demonstrate highly unique, lower diversity viral sequences. Environ Microbiol. 2014;16:570-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Libraries were prepared from extracted DNA of the ambient viruses and induced prophages from the co-occurring, viral-reduced microbial assemblage...
  43. Clark C, Ng L. Sequence variability of Campylobacter temperate bacteriophages. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:49 pubmed publisher
    b>Prophages integrated within the chromosomes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates have been demonstrated very recently...
  44. Garcia Aljaro C, Muniesa M, Jofre J, Blanch A. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among induced, stx2-carrying bacteriophages from environmental Escherichia coli strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The high level of diversity and the great infectious capacity of these phages could enhance the spread of the stx(2) gene and variants of this gene among different bacterial populations in environments to which humans may be exposed...
  45. Salloum M, van der Mee Marquet N, Domelier A, Arnault L, Quentin R. Molecular characterization and prophage DNA contents of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from adult skin and osteoarticular infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that S. agalactiae strains from CC1 and CC23 may be subject to particular transduction mechanisms in gene recombination, rendering them particularly capable of invading the skin, bone, or joints in adults...
  46. Ravin N. N15: the linear phage-plasmid. Plasmid. 2011;65:102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomes of all these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny modules and replication genes, as well as plasmid-partitioning genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor...
  47. Tree J, Roe A, Flockhart A, McAteer S, Xu X, Shaw D, et al. Transcriptional regulators of the GAD acid stress island are carried by effector protein-encoding prophages and indirectly control type III secretion in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Mol Microbiol. 2011;80:1349-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have used a collection of deletions in cryptic prophages and EHEC O157 O-islands to screen for novel regulators of T3S...
  48. Rahimi F, Bouzari M, Katouli M, Pourshafie M. Prophage and antibiotic resistance profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in Iran. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1807-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a high rate of resistance of MRSA isolates to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and kanamycin. This is the first study showing high prevalence and diverse bacteriophage populations in MRSA strains in Iranian hospitals...
  49. Kuenne C, Billion A, Mraheil M, Strittmatter A, Daniel R, Goesmann A, et al. Reassessment of the Listeria monocytogenes pan-genome reveals dynamic integration hotspots and mobile genetic elements as major components of the accessory genome. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:47 pubmed publisher
    ..These were comparatively analyzed in conjunction with publicly available data and assessed for pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella insect model...
  50. Słomiński B, Całkiewicz J, Golec P, Wegrzyn G, Wrobel B. Plasmids derived from Gifsy-1/Gifsy-2, lambdoid prophages contributing to the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: implications for the evolution of replication initiation proteins of lambdoid phages and enterobacteria. Microbiology. 2007;153:1884-96 pubmed
    Gifsy-1 and Gifsy-2 are lambdoid prophages which contribute to the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
  51. Mavrodi D, Loper J, Paulsen I, Thomashow L. Mobile genetic elements in the genome of the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed mobile genetic elements of the Pf-5 genome in an effort to identify determinants that might contribute to Pf-5's ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and/or colonize new ecological niches...
  52. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn G, Wegrzyn A. Differential efficiency of induction of various lambdoid prophages responsible for production of Shiga toxins in response to different induction agents. Microb Pathog. 2009;47:289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of these toxins depends on the presence of stx1 and stx2 genes, which are located on lambdoid prophages, and their expression is stimulated upon prophage induction...
  53. Lee J, Choi S, Jeon Y, Lee H, Kim E, Nguyen B, et al. Classification of hybrid and altered Vibrio cholerae strains by CTX prophage and RS1 element structure. J Microbiol. 2009;47:783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Group II strains harbor RS1 and CTX prophage, which has an E1 Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome...
  54. Lynch K, Stothard P, Dennis J. Genomic analysis and relatedness of P2-like phages of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:599 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of our study was to sequence and characterize three novel BCC-specific phages: KS5 (vB_BceM-KS5 or vB_BmuZ-ATCC 17616), KS14 (vB_BceM-KS14) and KL3 (vB_BamM-KL3 or vB_BceZ-CEP511)...
  55. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn G. Bacteriophages carrying Shiga toxin genes: genomic variations, detection and potential treatment of pathogenic bacteria. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:909-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The most notorious virulence factors of EHEC are Shiga toxins, encoded by genes located on genomes of lambdoid prophages. Production and release of these toxins is strongly stimulated after the induction of these prophages...
  56. Eppinger M, Mammel M, Leclerc J, Ravel J, Cebula T. Genomic anatomy of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..coli O157:H7 resistance and virulence phenotypes...
  57. Fortier L, Sekulovic O. Importance of prophages to evolution and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Virulence. 2013;4:354-65 pubmed publisher
    ..to integrate into the chromosome of their host upon infection, where they can reside as "quiescent" prophages until conditions favor their reactivation...
  58. Sozhamannan S, Chute M, McAfee F, Fouts D, Akmal A, Galloway D, et al. The Bacillus anthracis chromosome contains four conserved, excision-proficient, putative prophages. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:34 pubmed
    ..The B. anthracis genome sequence contains four putative lambdoid prophages. We undertook this study in order to understand whether the four prophages are unique to B...
  59. Kawai M, Uchiyama I, Kobayashi I. Genome comparison in silico in Neisseria suggests integration of filamentous bacteriophages by their own transposase. DNA Res. 2005;12:389-401 pubmed
    We have identified filamentous prophages, Nf (Neisserial filamentous phages), during an in silico genome comparison in Neisseria...
  60. Serra Moreno R, Acosta S, Hernalsteens J, Jofre J, Muniesa M. Use of the lambda Red recombinase system to produce recombinant prophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes. BMC Mol Biol. 2006;7:31 pubmed
    ..These modifications included: confirming the stability of the target stx gene increasing the number of cells to be transformed and using a three-step PCR method to produce the amplimer containing the antibiotic resistance gene...
  61. Lang A, Beatty J. Importance of widespread gene transfer agent genes in alpha-proteobacteria. Trends Microbiol. 2007;15:54-62 pubmed
    ..Here, we use the genomic sequence data that are currently available to identify candidate GTA-producing species and propose an evolutionary scheme for RcGTA-like elements in the alpha-proteobacteria...
  62. Faruque S, Tam V, Chowdhury N, Diraphat P, Dziejman M, Heidelberg J, et al. Genomic analysis of the Mozambique strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 reveals the origin of El Tor strains carrying classical CTX prophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5151-6 pubmed
    ..Besides other genetic differences the CTX prophages encoding cholera toxin in the two biotypes of V. cholerae O1 have distinct repressor (rstR) genes...
  63. Serra Moreno R, Jofre J, Muniesa M. The CI repressors of Shiga toxin-converting prophages are involved in coinfection of Escherichia coli strains, which causes a down regulation in the production of Shiga toxin 2. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4722-35 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of the number of prophages on Stx production, we produced E...
  64. Dubois J, Kouwen T, Schurich A, Reis C, Ensing H, Trip E, et al. Immunity to the bacteriocin sublancin 168 Is determined by the SunI (YolF) protein of Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the bulk of the protein faces the cytoplasm of B. subtilis. This topology has not yet been reported for known bacteriocin producer immunity proteins, which implies that SunI belongs to a novel class of bacteriocin antagonists...
  65. Yasmin A, Kenny J, Shankar J, Darby A, Hall N, Edwards C, et al. Comparative genomics and transduction potential of Enterococcus faecalis temperate bacteriophages. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:1122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..cremoris prophages. Homologs of the Streptococcus mitis platelet binding phage tail proteins, PblA and PblB, are encoded on each ..
  66. McDonald J, Smith D, Fogg P, McCarthy A, Allison H. High-throughput method for rapid induction of prophages from lysogens and its application in the study of Shiga Toxin-encoding Escherichia coli strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:2360-5 pubmed publisher
    A high-throughput 96-well plate-based method for the rapid induction of endogenous prophages from individual bacterial strains was developed...
  67. Novick R, Christie G, Penadés J. The phage-related chromosomal islands of Gram-positive bacteria. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss the shared genetic content of PRCIs, their life cycle and their ability to be transferred across large phylogenetic distances...
  68. Babb K, Bykowski T, Riley S, Miller M, DeMoll E, Stevenson B. Borrelia burgdorferi EbfC, a novel, chromosomally encoded protein, binds specific DNA sequences adjacent to erp loci on the spirochete's resident cp32 prophages. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4331-9 pubmed
    ..The location of the ebfC gene on the B. burgdorferi chromosome suggests that the cp32 prophages have evolved to use this bacterial host protein for their own benefit and that EbfC probably plays additional ..
  69. Lindroos H, Vinnere O, Mira A, Repsilber D, Näslund K, Andersson S. Genome rearrangements, deletions, and amplifications in the natural population of Bartonella henselae. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7426-39 pubmed
    ..henselae population plays an important role in the establishment of long-term persistent infection in the natural host by promoting antigenic variation and escape from the host immune response...
  70. Goh S, Ong P, Song K, Riley T, Chang B. The complete genome sequence of Clostridium difficile phage phiC2 and comparisons to phiCD119 and inducible prophages of CD630. Microbiology. 2007;153:676-85 pubmed
    ..Homologues of structural and replication proteins were found in prophages 1 and 2 of the sequenced C. difficile CD630 genome. A putative holin appears unique to the C...
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    ..This mechanism may be important for endovascular infection...
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    ..This host-Wolbachia system, with its complex patterns of sterility induced between populations, now provides an excellent model for unraveling the molecular systems underlying host reproductive manipulation...
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    ..The highly specific interactions between different SaPI repressors and helper-phage-encoded antirepressors represent a remarkable evolutionary adaptation involved in pathogenicity island mobilization...
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    ..Moreover, we found that IHF is the only nucleoid associated protein (NAP) involved in KplE1 recombination, although it is dispensable. This is consistent with the presence of only one functional IHF site on attR and none on attL...
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    ..serotype O11), which was associated with a prolonged clinical healing time, revealed several genomic islands and prophages within the accessory genome...
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    Bacteriophages capable of integrating into host bacterial genomes as prophages affect the biology and virulence of their bacterial hosts...
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    ..Although genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of prophages, it was unable to confirm which phage elements within the genome were viable...
  79. Bose M, Barber R. Prophage Finder: a prophage loci prediction tool for prokaryotic genome sequences. In Silico Biol. 2006;6:223-7 pubmed
    ..Additional analyses from Prophage Finder searches of several draft prokaryotic genome sequences are available through the Web site (http://bioinformatics.uwp.edu/~phage/DOEResults.php) to illustrate the potential of this application...
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    ..The results also suggested that MRSA strains that predominated between 1979 and 1985 were generated from PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains through the integration of SCCmec elements...
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    ..coli O157:H7 and may well contribute to the evolution of the virulence of these bacteria to colonize humans...
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    ..module in phage 1706, most likely involved in host recognition that shared similarities with lactococcal prophages. We propose that the virulent phage 1706 infected another bacterial genus before picking up a lactococcal host ..
  83. Chatterjee S, Patra T, Ghosh K, Raychoudhuri A, Pazhani G, Das M, et al. Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical strains isolated in 1992 in Kolkata with progenitor traits of the 2004 Mozambique variant. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:239-47 pubmed publisher
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    ..ulcerans 809 was initially isolated from an elderly woman with fatal pulmonary infection and C. ulcerans BR-AD22 was recovered from a nasal sample of an asymptomatic dog...
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    ..by DNA sequencing and compared with the corresponding regions of five previously described NleA-encoding prophages. The analyzed nleA variants were all located downstream of the DNA region responsible for phage morphogenesis...
  86. Chen F, Wang K, Stewart J, Belas R. Induction of multiple prophages from a marine bacterium: a genomic approach. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4995-5001 pubmed
    ..strain TM1040 revealed five prophage-like elements in its genome. The genomes of these prophages (named prophages 1 to 5) are approximately 74, 30, 39, 36, and 15 kb long, respectively...
  87. Srividhya K, Krishnaswamy S. Subclassification and targeted characterization of prophage-encoded two-component cell lysis cassette. J Biosci. 2007;32:979-90 pubmed
    ..b>Prophages are integrated forms of bacteriophages in bacterial genomes providing a repertoire for bacterial evolution...
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    ..These findings suggest that presence of a CD119-like temperate phage can influence toxin gene regulation in this nosocomially important pathogen...
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    ..arise by direct inhibition of the resident microbiota (dominated by lactobacilli) or, possibly, by induction of prophages harbored in their genomes, leading to cell lysis...
  90. Burns L, Adams C, Riley S, Jutras B, Bowman A, Chenail A, et al. BpaB, a novel protein encoded by the Lyme disease spirochete's cp32 prophages, binds to erp Operator 2 DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5443-55 pubmed publisher
    ..erp operons are located on episomal cp32 prophages, and a single bacterium may contain as many as 10 different cp32s...
  91. Ahmed S, Awosika J, Baldwin C, Bishop Lilly K, Biswas B, Broomall S, et al. Genomic comparison of Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolates from 2009 and 2011 reveals plasmid, and prophage heterogeneity, including shiga toxin encoding phage stx2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48228 pubmed publisher
    ..coli O104:H4 strains probably occurred more than once, or that the current outbreak isolates may be the result of a recent transfer of a new stx2 phage element into a pre-existing stx2-positive genetic background...
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    ..5 orthologs from enteropathogenic E. coli and Pseudomonas putida prophages. Both proteins are characterized by a fused homeodomain/zinc-finger fold that escaped detection by primary ..