Summary: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.

Top Publications

  1. Rybniker J, Kramme S, Small P. Host range of 14 mycobacteriophages in Mycobacterium ulcerans and seven other mycobacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis--application for identification and susceptibility testing. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:37-42 pubmed
    The host range of well-characterized mycobacteriophages, such as D29 and TM4, has been determined, together with that of more recently isolated mycobacteriophages, in Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis ..
  2. McNerney R. TB: the return of the phage. A review of fifty years of mycobacteriophage research. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999;3:179-84 pubmed
    ..This review outlines the history of these remarkable organisms, from their discovery fifty years ago to the current developments in rapid diagnostic techniques. ..
  3. Eltringham I, Wilson S, Drobniewski F. Evaluation of a bacteriophage-based assay (phage amplified biologically assay) as a rapid screen for resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, pyrazinamide, and ciprofloxacin among clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3528-32 pubmed
    ..We believe that this low-cost assay may have widespread applicability for the rapid screening of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates, especially in developing countries. ..
  4. Nkrumah L, Muhle R, Moura P, Ghosh P, Hatfull G, Jacobs W, et al. Efficient site-specific integration in Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes mediated by mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrase. Nat Methods. 2006;3:615-21 pubmed
    ..falciparum life cycle, and it illustrates the utility of Bxb1-based integrative recombination for genetic studies of intracellular eukaryotic organisms. ..
  5. Bibb L, Hancox M, Hatfull G. Integration and excision by the large serine recombinase phiRv1 integrase. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1896-910 pubmed
  6. Pope W, Anders K, Baird M, Bowman C, Boyle M, Broussard G, et al. Cluster M mycobacteriophages Bongo, PegLeg, and Rey with unusually large repertoires of tRNA isotypes. J Virol. 2014;88:2461-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Three newly isolated temperate mycobacteriophages, Bongo, PegLeg, and Rey, constitute a new group (cluster M), with the closely related phages Bongo and ..
  7. Ghosh P, Wasil L, Hatfull G. Control of phage Bxb1 excision by a novel recombination directionality factor. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e186 pubmed publisher
    ..28 kDa), unrelated to all other RDFs, and presumably performs dual functions since it is well conserved in mycobacteriophages that utilize unrelated integration systems...
  8. Pashley C, Parish T. Efficient switching of mycobacteriophage L5-based integrating plasmids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;229:211-5 pubmed
    ..Excision of the resident vector and integration of the incoming vector occurred at an extremely high efficiency. This technique will allow us to study the role and functionality of essential genes in this important human pathogen. ..
  9. Pope W, Jacobs Sera D, Russell D, Peebles C, Al Atrache Z, Alcoser T, et al. Expanding the diversity of mycobacteriophages: insights into genome architecture and evolution. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16329 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis...

More Information


  1. Lee S, Kriakov J, Vilcheze C, Dai Z, Hatfull G, Jacobs W. Bxz1, a new generalized transducing phage for mycobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;241:271-6 pubmed
    ..smegmatis. We also demonstrated cotransduction of a transposon insertion linked to a point mutation of the ndh gene. ..
  2. Hatfull G, Jacobs Sera D, Lawrence J, Pope W, Russell D, Ko C, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of 60 Mycobacteriophage genomes: genome clustering, gene acquisition, and gene size. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:119-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts. Expansion of a collection of sequenced phage genomes to a total of 60-all infecting a common bacterial host-provides further insight into their diversity and evolution...
  3. Riska P, Jacobs W, Bloom B, Mckitrick J, Chan J. Specific identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the luciferase reporter mycobacteriophage: use of p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxy propiophenone. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:3225-31 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis, demonstrating the ability of the NAP-modified LRP assay to identify M. tuberculosis complex organisms with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. ..
  4. Catalão M, Gil F, Moniz Pereira J, Pimentel M. Functional analysis of the holin-like proteins of mycobacteriophage Ms6. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2793-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that in Ms6 infection, the correct and programmed timing of lysis is achieved by the combined action of Gp4 and Gp5. ..
  5. Chattopadhyay C, Sau S, Mandal N. Cloning and characterization of the promoters of temperate mycobacteriophage L1. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;36:586-92 pubmed
    ..By analyzing most of the best characterized mycobacteriophages-specific promoters, including the L1 promoter P4, we suggest that both the -10 and -35 hexamers of the ..
  6. Bardarov S, Bardarov S, Pavelka M, Sambandamurthy V, Larsen M, Tufariello J, et al. Specialized transduction: an efficient method for generating marked and unmarked targeted gene disruptions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis. Microbiology. 2002;148:3007-17 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis, BCG or M. smegmatis which differ by defined mutations. ..
  7. Donnelly Wu M, Jacobs W, Hatfull G. Superinfection immunity of mycobacteriophage L5: applications for genetic transformation of mycobacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1993;7:407-17 pubmed
  8. Rybniker J, Nowag A, van Gumpel E, Nissen N, Robinson N, Plum G, et al. Insights into the function of the WhiB-like protein of mycobacteriophage TM4--a transcriptional inhibitor of WhiB2. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:642-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The systematic determination of the genome sequences of mycobacteriophages has revealed the presence of several whiB-like genes in these viruses...
  9. Hatfull G. Mycobacteriophages: genes and genomes. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2010;64:331-56 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis--and the difficulties that have plagued their genetic manipulation, mycobacteriophages are especially appealing subjects for discovery, genomic characterization, and manipulation...
  10. McNerney R, Kambashi B, Kinkese J, Tembwe R, Godfrey Faussett P. Development of a bacteriophage phage replication assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2115-20 pubmed
    ..3, 96.8, 91.2, and 67.6%. The small increase in sensitivity over that of direct microscopy does not justify the introduction of this technique for routine diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis at this time...
  11. Zhu H, Yin S, Shuman S. Characterization of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase enzymes from Mycobacteriophages omega and Cjw1 and vibriophage KVP40. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26358-69 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mycobacteriophages Omega and Cjw1 and vibriophage KVP40 also encode bifunctional Pnkp enzymes consisting of a proximal 5'-..
  12. Ghosh P, Kim A, Hatfull G. The orientation of mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integration is solely dependent on the central dinucleotide of attP and attB. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1101-11 pubmed
  13. Ghosh P, Pannunzio N, Hatfull G. Synapsis in phage Bxb1 integration: selection mechanism for the correct pair of recombination sites. J Mol Biol. 2005;349:331-48 pubmed
  14. Catalão M, Milho C, Gil F, Moniz Pereira J, Pimentel M. A second endolysin gene is fully embedded in-frame with the lysA gene of mycobacteriophage Ms6. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20515 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacteriophages are dsDNA viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts...
  15. Payne K, Hatfull G. Mycobacteriophage endolysins: diverse and modular enzymes with multiple catalytic activities. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34052 pubmed publisher
    The mycobacterial cell wall presents significant challenges to mycobacteriophages--viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts--because of its unusual structure containing a mycolic acid-rich mycobacterial outer membrane attached to an ..
  16. Watterson S, Wilson S, Yates M, Drobniewski F. Comparison of three molecular assays for rapid detection of rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1969-73 pubmed
    ..7 and 100%), respectively. For the 21 isolates submitted by clinicians, both assays correlated 100% with routine testing...
  17. da Silva P, Boffo M, de Mattos I, Silva A, Palomino J, Martin A, et al. Comparison of redox and D29 phage methods for detection of isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:293-6 pubmed
  18. Tori K, Dassa B, Johnson M, Southworth M, Brace L, Ishino Y, et al. Splicing of the mycobacteriophage Bethlehem DnaB intein: identification of a new mechanistic class of inteins that contain an obligate block F nucleophile. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2515-26 pubmed publisher
  19. Payne K, Sun Q, Sacchettini J, Hatfull G. Mycobacteriophage Lysin B is a novel mycolylarabinogalactan esterase. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:367-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacteriophages encounter a unique problem among phages of Gram-positive bacteria, in that lysis must not only degrade the peptidoglycan layer but also circumvent a mycolic acid-rich outer membrane covalently attached to the ..
  20. Sau S, Chattoraj P, Ganguly T, Lee C, Mandal N. Cloning and sequencing analysis of the repressor gene of temperate mycobacteriophage L1. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;37:254-9 pubmed
    ..A comparative analysis of the repressor proteins of different mycobacteriophages suggests that the mycobacteriophage-specific repressor proteins constitute a new family of repressors, which ..
  21. Pope W, Jacobs Sera D, Best A, Broussard G, Connerly P, Dedrick R, et al. Cluster J mycobacteriophages: intron splicing in capsid and tail genes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69273 pubmed publisher
    ..A new group of genomes sharing substantial nucleotide sequences constitute Cluster J. The six mycobacteriophages forming Cluster J are morphologically members of the Siphoviridae, but have unusually long genomes ranging ..
  22. Ganguly T, Chattoraj P, Das M, Chanda P, Mandal N, Lee C, et al. A point mutation at the C-terminal half of the repressor of temperate mycobacteriophage L1 affects its binding to the operator DNA. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;37:709-14 pubmed
  23. Ojha A, Anand M, Bhatt A, Kremer L, Jacobs W, Hatfull G. GroEL1: a dedicated chaperone involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis during biofilm formation in mycobacteria. Cell. 2005;123:861-73 pubmed
  24. Hatfull G. The secret lives of mycobacteriophages. Adv Virus Res. 2012;82:179-288 pubmed publisher
    The study of mycobacteriophages provides insights into viral diversity and evolution, as well as the genetics and physiology of their pathogenic hosts...
  25. Henry M, O Sullivan O, Sleator R, Coffey A, Ross R, McAuliffe O, et al. In silico analysis of Ardmore, a novel mycobacteriophage isolated from soil. Gene. 2010;453:9-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ardmore genome appears highly similar to mycobacteriophages Fruitloop and Tweety with BLASTn analysis showing 87% and 80% identity respectively...
  26. McNerney R, Kiepiela P, Bishop K, Nye P, Stoker N. Rapid screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for susceptibility to rifampicin and streptomycin. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000;4:69-75 pubmed
    ..To investigate rapid detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis using the genotypic Inno-LiPA Rif TB assay and a novel, low-cost, bacteriophage-based susceptibility assay...
  27. van Kessel J, Hatfull G. Efficient point mutagenesis in mycobacteria using single-stranded DNA recombineering: characterization of antimycobacterial drug targets. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:1094-107 pubmed publisher
  28. Piuri M, Jacobs W, Hatfull G. Fluoromycobacteriophages for rapid, specific, and sensitive antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4870 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluorescence withstands fixation by paraformaldehyde providing enhanced biosafety for testing MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections...
  29. Henry M, Begley M, Neve H, Maher F, Ross R, McAuliffe O, et al. Cloning and expression of a mureinolytic enzyme from the mycobacteriophage TM4. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;311:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence of peptidoglycan-degrading activity was observed initially by a chloroform assay and later by conventional zymogram analysis...
  30. Kumar V, Loganathan P, Sivaramakrishnan G, Kriakov J, Dusthakeer A, Subramanyam B, et al. Characterization of temperate phage Che12 and construction of a new tool for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008;88:616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The morphology of the phage particles was observed by electron microscopy, revealing similarities to other mycobacteriophages like L5, D29 and TM4...
  31. Gil F, Grzegorzewicz A, Catalão M, Vital J, McNeil M, Pimentel M. Mycobacteriophage Ms6 LysB specifically targets the outer membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Microbiology. 2010;156:1497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..smegmatis TDM. The identification of a phage-encoded enzyme that targets the outer membrane of the mycobacterial cell wall enhances our understanding of the mechanism of mycobacteriophage lysis...
  32. van Kessel J, Hatfull G. Mycobacterial recombineering. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;435:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Although homologs of these recombination proteins are rare among mycobacteriophages, we have identified one phage, Che9c, encoding relatives of both RecE and RecT of the E. coli rac prophage...
  33. Banaiee N, Bobadilla del Valle M, Bardarov S, Riska P, Small P, Ponce de Leon A, et al. Luciferase reporter mycobacteriophages for detection, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mexico. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3883-8 pubmed
    The utility of luciferase reporter mycobacteriophages (LRPs) for detection, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was prospectively evaluated in a clinical microbiology laboratory in Mexico ..
  34. Vultos T, Méderlé I, Abadie V, Pimentel M, Moniz Pereira J, Gicquel B, et al. Modification of the mycobacteriophage Ms6 attP core allows the integration of multiple vectors into different tRNAala T-loops in slow- and fast-growing mycobacteria. BMC Mol Biol. 2006;7:47 pubmed
    ..This provided the basis for the development of recombinant M. bovis BCG strains expressing several reporter genes inserted into different tRNAala genes...
  35. Catalão M, Gil F, Moniz Pereira J, Pimentel M. The mycobacteriophage Ms6 encodes a chaperone-like protein involved in the endolysin delivery to the peptidoglycan. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:672-86 pubmed publisher
    ..smegmatis lysis, as Ms6 gp1 deletion results in host lysis defects. We propose that delivery of Ms6 endolysin to the murein layer is assisted by Gp1, a chaperone-like protein, in a holin-independent manner...
  36. Hatfull G, Cresawn S, Hendrix R. Comparative genomics of the mycobacteriophages: insights into bacteriophage evolution. Res Microbiol. 2008;159:332-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have approached these questions by isolating and characterizing a collection of mycobacteriophages that infect a common bacterial host, Mycobacterium smegmatis...
  37. van Kessel J, Marinelli L, Hatfull G. Recombineering mycobacteria and their phages. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008;6:851-7 pubmed publisher
    Bacteriophages are central components in the development of molecular tools for microbial genetics. Mycobacteriophages have proven to be a rich resource for tuberculosis genetics, and the recent development of a mycobacterial ..
  38. Hatfull G, Pedulla M, Jacobs Sera D, Cichon P, Foley A, Ford M, et al. Exploring the mycobacteriophage metaproteome: phage genomics as an educational platform. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e92 pubmed
  39. Garcia M, Pimentel M, Moniz Pereira J. Expression of Mycobacteriophage Ms6 lysis genes is driven by two sigma(70)-like promoters and is dependent on a transcription termination signal present in the leader RNA. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3034-43 pubmed
    ..Moreover, an antitermination mechanism might be involved in their transcription regulation...
  40. Banaiee N, Bobadilla del Valle M, Riska P, Bardarov S, Small P, Ponce de Leon A, et al. Rapid identification and susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from MGIT cultures with luciferase reporter mycobacteriophages. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:557-61 pubmed
    In a prospective study conducted in a diagnostic laboratory in Mexico City, luciferase reporter mycobacteriophages (LRPs) were evaluated for their utility and performance in identification and antibiotic-susceptibility testing of ..
  41. Hatfull G, Sarkis G. DNA sequence, structure and gene expression of mycobacteriophage L5: a phage system for mycobacterial genetics. Mol Microbiol. 1993;7:395-405 pubmed
  42. Sampson T, Broussard G, Marinelli L, Jacobs Sera D, Ray M, Ko C, et al. Mycobacteriophages BPs, Angel and Halo: comparative genomics reveals a novel class of ultra-small mobile genetic elements. Microbiology. 2009;155:2962-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacteriophages BPs, Angel and Halo are closely related viruses isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis, and possess the smallest known mycobacteriophage genomes, 41,901 bp, 42,289 bp and 41,441 bp, respectively...
  43. Caruso S, Sandoz J, Kelsey J. Non-STEM undergraduates become enthusiastic phage-hunters. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2009;8:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The class produced a group poster and gave PowerPoint presentations, and one student presented the joint work at a science symposium...
  44. Ghosh P, Bibb L, Hatfull G. Two-step site selection for serine-integrase-mediated excision: DNA-directed integrase conformation and central dinucleotide proofreading. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3238-43 pubmed publisher
  45. Ford M, Stenstrom C, Hendrix R, Hatfull G. Mycobacteriophage TM4: genome structure and gene expression. Tuber Lung Dis. 1998;79:63-73 pubmed
    ..While not a close relative of other mycobacteriophages, TM4 encodes several proteins with sequence similarity to those of other bacteriophages--including L5 and ..
  46. Bibb L, Hatfull G. Integration and excision of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prophage-like element, phiRv1. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:1515-26 pubmed
    ..Integration-proficient plasmid vectors derived from phiRv1 efficiently transform BCG, can utilize four of the seven REP13E12 sites present in BCG as attachment sites, and can occupy more than one site simultaneously...
  47. Banaiee N, January V, Barthus C, Lambrick M, Roditi D, Behr M, et al. Evaluation of a semi-automated reporter phage assay for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in South Africa. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008;88:64-8 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis cultures in diagnostic laboratories with limited financial resources, but with competent technologists...
  48. Pope W, Ferreira C, Jacobs Sera D, Benjamin R, Davis A, DeJong R, et al. Cluster K mycobacteriophages: insights into the evolutionary origins of mycobacteriophage TM4. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26750 pubmed publisher
    Five newly isolated mycobacteriophages--Angelica, CrimD, Adephagia, Anaya, and Pixie--have similar genomic architectures to mycobacteriophage TM4, a previously characterized phage that is widely used in mycobacterial genetics...
  49. Piuri M, Hatfull G. A peptidoglycan hydrolase motif within the mycobacteriophage TM4 tape measure protein promotes efficient infection of stationary phase cells. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1569-85 pubmed
    ..Tmp's of mycobacteriophages may thus have acquired these motifs in order to avoid a selective disadvantage that results from changes in ..
  50. Springer B, Sander P, Sedlacek L, Ellrott K, Bottger E. Instability and site-specific excision of integration-proficient mycobacteriophage L5 plasmids: development of stably maintained integrative vectors. Int J Med Microbiol. 2001;290:669-75 pubmed
    ..By providing attP in cis and integrase function in trans, vectors integrating at the attB site are stably maintained, even when carrying genes that deleteriously affect the host...
  51. Hazbón M, Guarin N, Ferro B, Rodríguez A, Labrada L, Tovar R, et al. Photographic and luminometric detection of luciferase reporter phages for drug susceptibility testing of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4865-9 pubmed
    ..The turnaround time for results was reduced from 3 weeks for PM to 54 or 94 h for luminometry or the Bronx box, respectively. These results support the utility of LRPs as a screening test for the surveillance of MDR tuberculosis...
  52. Simboli N, Takiff H, McNerney R, Lopez B, Martin A, Palomino J, et al. In-house phage amplification assay is a sound alternative for detecting rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in low-resource settings. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:425-7 pubmed
    ..2% predictive value for resistance in a test of 129 isolates from a hot spot area of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The applicability of the test was demonstrated in the routine work flow of a low-resource reference laboratory...
  53. McNerney R, Traore H. Mycobacteriophage and their application to disease control. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;99:223-33 pubmed
  54. Hatfull G. Complete genome sequences of 138 mycobacteriophages. J Virol. 2012;86:2382-4 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mycobacteriophages-the viruses of mycobacterial hosts-provide insights into this diversity as well as tools for manipulating ..
  55. Mageeney C, Pope W, Harrison M, Moran D, Cross T, Jacobs Sera D, et al. Mycobacteriophage Marvin: a new singleton phage with an unusual genome organization. J Virol. 2012;86:4762-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacteriophages represent a genetically diverse group of viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts...
  56. Rybniker J, Wolke M, Haefs C, Plum G. Transposition of Tn5367 in Mycobacterium marinum, using a conditionally recombinant mycobacteriophage. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1745-8 pubmed
    ..marinum. Using this technique we succeeded in generating a representative mutant library of this species, and we conclude that TM4-derived mycobacteriophages are temperature-independent suicide vectors for M. marinum.
  57. Pai M, Kalantri S, Pascopella L, Riley L, Reingold A. Bacteriophage-based assays for the rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. J Infect. 2005;51:175-87 pubmed
    ..To summarize, using meta-analysis, the accuracy of bacteriophage-based assays for the detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  58. Morris P, Marinelli L, Jacobs Sera D, Hendrix R, Hatfull G. Genomic characterization of mycobacteriophage Giles: evidence for phage acquisition of host DNA by illegitimate recombination. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..current perspective on bacteriophage genetic diversity, with more than 60% of the genes unrelated to other mycobacteriophages, but offers novel insights into how mosaic genomes are created...
  59. Pitcher R, Tonkin L, Daley J, Palmbos P, Green A, Velting T, et al. Mycobacteriophage exploit NHEJ to facilitate genome circularization. Mol Cell. 2006;23:743-8 pubmed
    ..We identified Ku homologs in Corndog and Omega, two related mycobacteriophages of Mycobacterium smegmatis...
  60. van Kessel J, Hatfull G. Recombineering in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nat Methods. 2007;4:147-52 pubmed
    ..Identifiable recombination proteins are rare in mycobacteriophages, and only 1 of 30 genomically characterized mycobacteriophages (Che9c) encodes homologs of both RecE and ..
  61. Gil F, Catalão M, Moniz Pereira J, Leandro P, McNeil M, Pimentel M. The lytic cassette of mycobacteriophage Ms6 encodes an enzyme with lipolytic activity. Microbiology. 2008;154:1364-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of protein databases revealed significant similarities to other putative proteins that are encoded by mycobacteriophages only, indicating that LysB and those proteins may be specific to their mycobacterial hosts...
  62. Huff J, Czyz A, Landick R, Niederweis M. Taking phage integration to the next level as a genetic tool for mycobacteria. Gene. 2010;468:8-19 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis strains with multiple integrations of gfp increased concomitantly with the copy number demonstrating that these vectors can be used to generate stronger phenotypes and/or to analyze several genes simultaneously in vivo...
  63. Pedulla M, Ford M, Houtz J, Karthikeyan T, Wadsworth C, Lewis J, et al. Origins of highly mosaic mycobacteriophage genomes. Cell. 2003;113:171-82 pubmed
    ..The genomic sequences of ten newly isolated mycobacteriophages suggest that the bacteriophage population as a whole is amazingly diverse and may represent the largest ..
  64. Gali N, Dominguez J, Blanco S, Prat C, Quesada M, Matas L, et al. Utility of an in-house mycobacteriophage-based assay for rapid detection of rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2647-9 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the assay were 100%. This test is rapid to perform and suitable for widespread implementation...
  65. Kim A, Ghosh P, Aaron M, Bibb L, Jain S, Hatfull G. Mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrates into the Mycobacterium smegmatis groEL1 gene. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:463-73 pubmed
    ..Establishment of a defined in vitro system for Bxb1 integration shows that recombination occurs efficiently without requirement for high-energy cofactors, divalent metals, DNA supercoiling or additional proteins...
  66. Bandhu A, Ganguly T, Jana B, Mondal R, Sau S. Regions and residues of an asymmetric operator DNA interacting with the monomeric repressor of temperate mycobacteriophage L1. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4235-43 pubmed publisher
  67. Yzquierdo S, Lemus D, Echemendia M, Montoro E, McNerney R, Martin A, et al. Evaluation of phage assay for rapid phenotypic detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2006;5:11 pubmed
    ..Phage assay have been reported as a rapid useful tools for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The aim of this study was to apply the Phage assay for rapid detection of resistance on Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Cuba...
  68. Pham T, Jacobs Sera D, Pedulla M, Hendrix R, Hatfull G. Comparative genomic analysis of mycobacteriophage Tweety: evolutionary insights and construction of compatible site-specific integration vectors for mycobacteria. Microbiology. 2007;153:2711-23 pubmed
    ..genes, and shows significant but interrupted nucleotide sequence similarity with the previously described mycobacteriophages Llij, PMC and Che8...