Summary: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.

Top Publications

  1. Kehoe J, Kay B. Filamentous phage display in the new millennium. Chem Rev. 2005;105:4056-72 pubmed
  2. Iannolo G, Minenkova O, Petruzzelli R, Cesareni G. Modifying filamentous phage capsid: limits in the size of the major capsid protein. J Mol Biol. 1995;248:835-44 pubmed
    ..We have used this information to build phage libraries where each phage displays approximately 2700 copies of a different octapeptide all over the phage surface...
  3. Xue H, Xu Y, Boucher Y, Polz M. High frequency of a novel filamentous phage, VCY ?, within an environmental Vibrio cholerae population. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Outside the cell, the phage displays a morphology typical of Inovirus, with filamentous particles ?1.8 ?m in length and 7 nm in width...
  4. Nakasone N, Honma Y, Toma C, Yamashiro T, Iwanaga M. Filamentous phage fs1 of Vibrio cholerae O139. Microbiol Immunol. 1998;42:237-9 pubmed
    ..This phage was previously reported as novel fimbriae of that organism. The genome of the phage was a 6.5 kb single-stranded DNA. The capsid of fsl consists of a small molecule peptide (about 2.5 kDa)...
  5. Campos J, Martínez E, Suzarte E, Rodríguez B, Marrero K, Silva Y, et al. VGJ phi, a novel filamentous phage of Vibrio cholerae, integrates into the same chromosomal site as CTX phi. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5685-96 pubmed
    ..cholerae El Tor...
  6. Rakonjac J, Bennett N, Spagnuolo J, Gagic D, Russel M. Filamentous bacteriophage: biology, phage display and nanotechnology applications. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2011;13:51-76 pubmed
    ..In the first half of the review, both the Ff and temperate phage are described and compared. A large section of the review is devoted to an overview of phage display technology and its applications in nanotechnology...
  7. Campos J, Mart nez E, Izquierdo Y, Fando R. VEJ{phi}, a novel filamentous phage of Vibrio cholerae able to transduce the cholera toxin genes. Microbiology. 2010;156:108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..that it is organized in modules of functionally related genes in an array that is characteristic of the genus Inovirus (filamentous phages). VEJphi is closely related to other previously described filamentous phages of V...
  8. Kim S, Park S. Selection and characterization of human antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) by phage-display. Hybrid Hybridomics. 2002;21:385-92 pubmed
    ..The Fabs were expressed soluble in E. coli and exhibited affinities of 2.1 x 10(8) approximately 7.7 x 10(8) M(-1)...
  9. Davis B, Waldor M. Filamentous phages linked to virulence of Vibrio cholerae. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2003;6:35-42 pubmed
    ..The genetic island that encodes TCP has also been described as a filamentous phage; however, these sequences are unlike the genome of any previously characterized filamentous phage...

More Information


  1. Straus S, Scott W, Symmons M, Marvin D. On the structures of filamentous bacteriophage Ff (fd, f1, M13). Eur Biophys J. 2008;37:521-7 pubmed
    The filamentous bacteriophage (Inovirus) strain Ff (fd, f1, M13) is widely used in molecular biophysics as a simple model system...
  2. Kimsey H, Waldor M. The CTXphi repressor RstR binds DNA cooperatively to form tetrameric repressor-operator complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2640-7 pubmed
    ..These observations support a model in which protein-protein contacts between neighboring RstR dimers contribute to strong operator binding...
  3. Davis B, Kimsey H, Kane A, Waldor M. A satellite phage-encoded antirepressor induces repressor aggregation and cholera toxin gene transfer. EMBO J. 2002;21:4240-9 pubmed
    ..The sequestration/inactivation process induced by RstC resembles those induced by mutant polyglutamine-containing proteins implicated in human neurodegenerative disorders...
  4. Somers V, Brandwijk R, Joosten B, Moerkerk P, Arends J, Menheere P, et al. A panel of candidate tumor antigens in colorectal cancer revealed by the serological selection of a phage displayed cDNA expression library. J Immunol. 2002;169:2772-80 pubmed
    ..Some of the Ags we have identified may be candidates for tumor vaccination, for sero-diagnosis of cancer, as prognostic markers, or as probes for monitoring tumor cell-based vaccination trials...
  5. McLeod S, Waldor M. Characterization of XerC- and XerD-dependent CTX phage integration in Vibrio cholerae. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:935-47 pubmed
  6. Nguyen D, Nguyen B, Tran H, Ngo T, Le T, Nguyen H, et al. Filamentous vibriophage fs2 encoding the rstC gene integrates into the same chromosomal region as the CTX phage [corrected]. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;284:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..cholerae O1 and O139. When infected with fs2, a fimbriate strain of V. cholerae O1 appeared to reduce fimbrial production in an adult rabbit ileal loop assay...
  7. McLeod S, Kimsey H, Davis B, Waldor M. CTXphi and Vibrio cholerae: exploring a newly recognized type of phage-host cell relationship. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:347-56 pubmed
    ..These and other processes illustrate the remarkable dependence of CTXphi on host-encoded factors...
  8. De Berardinis P, Sartorius R, Fanutti C, Perham R, Del Pozzo G, Guardiola J. Phage display of peptide epitopes from HIV-1 elicits strong cytolytic responses. Nat Biotechnol. 2000;18:873-6 pubmed
  9. Løset G, Kristinsson S, Sandlie I. Reliable titration of filamentous bacteriophages independent of pIII fusion moiety and genome size by using trypsin to restore wild-type pIII phenotype. Biotechniques. 2008;44:551-2, 554 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the trypsin treatment has a very large but heterogeneous effect on the phage infection efficiency, depending on the pIII fusion domain and the valence of display...
  10. Mooij M, Drenkard E, Llamas M, Vandenbroucke Grauls C, Savelkoul P, Ausubel F, et al. Characterization of the integrated filamentous phage Pf5 and its involvement in small-colony formation. Microbiology. 2007;153:1790-8 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa SCVs. ..
  11. Freund N, Enshell Seijffers D, Gershoni J. Phage display selection, analysis, and prediction of B cell epitopes. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2009;Chapter 9:Unit 9.8 pubmed publisher
    ..Epitope profiles recognized by polyclonal serum samples can also be generated. Detailed step by step protocols and discussion of applications are provided. ..
  12. Kang Y, Park E, Kim J, Min N, Kim S. Development of bio-nanowire networks using phage-enabled assembly for biological sensor application. Talanta. 2010;81:1425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, it may have wide application in analytical systems, label-free detection and biological sensors. ..
  13. Piekarowicz A, Kłyż A, Majchrzak M, Stein D. Oral Immunization of Rabbits with S. enterica Typhimurium Expressing Neisseria gonorrhoeae Filamentous Phage Φ6 Induces Bactericidal Antibodies Against N. gonorrhoeae. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22549 pubmed publisher
    ..The sera also had bactericidal activity. These data demonstrate that N. gonorrhoeae filamentous phage can induce antibodies with anti-gonococcal activity and that phage proteins may be a candidate for vaccine development. ..
  14. Hagens S, Habel A, Blasi U. Augmentation of the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics by filamentous phage. Microb Drug Resist. 2006;12:164-8 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa K by concomitant treatment with phage Pf1 and low concentrations of gentamicin, neither of which was able to cure the infection when administered alone...
  15. Opalka N, Beckmann R, Boisset N, Simon M, Russel M, Darst S. Structure of the filamentous phage pIV multimer by cryo-electron microscopy. J Mol Biol. 2003;325:461-70 pubmed
    ..5 nm diameter phage particle. ..
  16. Mou T, Gray C, Terwilliger T, Gray D. Ff gene 5 protein has a high binding affinity for single-stranded phosphorothioate DNA. Biochemistry. 2001;40:2267-75 pubmed
  17. Grabowska A, Jennings R, Laing P, Darsley M, Jameson C, Swift L, et al. Immunisation with phage displaying peptides representing single epitopes of the glycoprotein G can give rise to partial protective immunity to HSV-2. Virology. 2000;269:47-53 pubmed
    ..This suggests a possible role for phage-displayed peptides in inducing protective immunity against pathogens and provides a model system for investigating the underlying mechanisms. ..
  18. Kawai M, Uchiyama I, Kobayashi I. Genome comparison in silico in Neisseria suggests integration of filamentous bacteriophages by their own transposase. DNA Res. 2005;12:389-401 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the PivNM/Irg transposase on Nfs integrated their circular forms into the chromosomal 5'-CT-containing sequences and probably mediated the above rearrangements...
  19. Hathorne A, Bermudez H. Effects of short elastin-like peptides on filamentous particles and their transition behavior. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:1822-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the growing use of ELPs within supra-molecular scaffolds, such effects are important design considerations for future applications. ..
  20. Silacci M, Brack S, Schirru G, Mårlind J, Ettorre A, Merlo A, et al. Design, construction, and characterization of a large synthetic human antibody phage display library. Proteomics. 2005;5:2340-50 pubmed
  21. Meyer J, Brissac T, Frapy E, Omer H, Euphrasie D, Bonavita A, et al. Characterization of MDA?, a temperate filamentous bacteriophage of Neisseria meningitidis. Microbiology. 2016;162:268-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data demonstrate that the MDA island encodes a functional prophage able to produce infectious filamentous phage particles. ..
  22. Luo W, Hsu J, Tsao C, Ko E, Wang X, Ferrone S. Differential immunogenicity of two peptides isolated by high molecular weight-melanoma-associated antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies with different affinities. J Immunol. 2005;174:7104-10 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that affinity for TAA is a variable to take into account when selecting mAb to isolate peptide mimics from a phage display peptide library. ..
  23. Li G, Wen Q, Tang J. Single filament electrophoresis of F-actin and filamentous virus fd. J Chem Phys. 2005;122:104708 pubmed
    ..A reliable ratio of 1.26 is measured for fd virus to F-actin. The influence of the orientation dependent drag on electrophoretic mobility is discussed and a strategy for reliable measurement is proposed. ..
  24. Dimant H, Solomon B. Filamentous phages reduce alpha-synuclein oligomerization in the membrane fraction of SH-SY5Y cells. Neurodegener Dis. 2010;7:203-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction in AS oligomers from the plasma membrane in treated cells may suggest further therapeutic application. ..
  25. Li Z, Koch H, Dubel S. Mutations in the N-terminus of the major coat protein (pVIII, gp8) of filamentous bacteriophage affect infectivity. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;6:57-66 pubmed
    ..These results shed new light on the true complexity of random peptide pVIII phage display libraries. ..
  26. Petrova M, Shcherbatova N, Kurakov A, Mindlin S. Genomic characterization and integrative properties of phiSMA6 and phiSMA7, two novel filamentous bacteriophages of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Arch Virol. 2014;159:1293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..maltophilia clinical strain D457. We suggest that the other three filamentous phages of S. maltophilia described previously also have the capacity to integrate into the genome of their bacterial host. ..
  27. Zhou H, Vermeulen A, Jucker F, Pardi A. Incorporating residual dipolar couplings into the NMR solution structure determination of nucleic acids. Biopolymers. 1999;52:168-80 pubmed
    ..Here we review recent progress in application of residual dipolar couplings to structural studies of nucleic acids. We also present results showing how refinement procedures affect the final solution structures of nucleic acids. ..
  28. Wan Y, Wu Y, Zhou J, Zou L, Liang Y, Zhao J, et al. Cross-presentation of phage particle antigen in MHC class II and endoplasmic reticulum marker-positive compartments. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:2041-50 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that endocytosed phage particles may be processed and cross-presented in organelles positive for phagosome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers via a classical ER MHC class I loading mechanism. ..
  29. Wen J, Gray D. Ff gene 5 single-stranded DNA-binding protein assembles on nucleotides constrained by a DNA hairpin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2622-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the finding that hairpins of U-4 can dimerize emphasizes the unexpected nature of sequence-dependent structures that can be recognized by the g5p ssDNA-binding protein. ..
  30. Celik E, Fisher A, Guarino C, Mansell T, DeLisa M. A filamentous phage display system for N-linked glycoproteins. Protein Sci. 2010;19:2006-13 pubmed publisher
    ..coli cells. ..
  31. Kawasaki T, Nagata S, Fujiwara A, Satsuma H, Fujie M, Usami S, et al. Genomic characterization of the filamentous integrative bacteriophages {phi}RSS1 and {phi}RSM1, which infect Ralstonia solanacearum. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5792-802 pubmed
    ..attP of phiRSS1 is within a sequence element of the IG region. ..
  32. Velappan N, Fisher H, Pesavento E, Chasteen L, D Angelo S, Kiss C, et al. A comprehensive analysis of filamentous phage display vectors for cytoplasmic proteins: an analysis with different fluorescent proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:e22 pubmed publisher
    ..This vector was able to display less robust forms of GFP, including ones with inserted epitopes, as well as fluorescent proteins of the Azami green series. It was also functional in mock selection experiments. ..
  33. Smith G, Petrenko V, Matthews L. Cross-linked filamentous phage as an affinity matrix. J Immunol Methods. 1998;215:151-61 pubmed
  34. Samoylova T, Norris M, Samoylov A, Cochran A, Wolfe K, Petrenko V, et al. Infective and inactivated filamentous phage as carriers for immunogenic peptides. J Virol Methods. 2012;183:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, vaccines formulated to include UV-inactivated filamentous phage might represent environmentally safe alternatives to live phage vaccines. ..
  35. Oksanen H, Domanska A, Bamford D. Monolithic ion exchange chromatographic methods for virus purification. Virology. 2012;434:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Monolithic ion exchange chromatography is easily scalable and can be combined with other preparative virus purification methods...
  36. Hemminga M, Vos W, Nazarov P, Koehorst R, Wolfs C, Spruijt R, et al. Viruses: incredible nanomachines. New advances with filamentous phages. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This basic physicochemical rule cannot be violated and any new bionanotechnology that will emerge from bacteriophage M13 should take this into account. ..
  37. Enshell Seijffers D, Smelyanski L, Gershoni J. The rational design of a 'type 88' genetically stable peptide display vector in the filamentous bacteriophage fd. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:E50-0 pubmed
    ..The fth1 vector is not only genetically stable but also of high copy number and produces high titers of recombinant phages. ..
  38. Souza G, Molina J, Raphael R, Ozawa M, Stark D, Levin C, et al. Three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic cell levitation. Nat Nanotechnol. 2010;5:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that levitated three-dimensional culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and may be more feasible for long-term multicellular studies...
  39. Curtis S, Dunbar W, MacGillivray R. Bacteriophage-induced aggregation of oil sands tailings. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that not only are the functional groups of the amino acids important, but the conformation that is adopted by the variable pVIII peptide is also important for phage-induced MFT aggregation. ..
  40. Filippini M, Ortelli C, Svercel M, Bagheri H. Interspecies variation in survival and growth of filamentous heterotrophic bacteria in response to UVC radiation. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2011;103:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..aestuarina, where the 5 and 10min exposures increased the average filament length. R. lutea and F. limi are potential candidates for further research into survival and resistance to ultraviolet radiation stress. ..
  41. Click E, Webster R. Filamentous phage infection: required interactions with the TolA protein. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6464-71 pubmed
    ..The essential interaction of TolA domain III with phage via gene III protein appears to require interaction with a third component, either the pilus tip or a periplasmic entity. ..
  42. Malik B, Jamieson G, Ball W. Identification of the amino acids comprising a surface-exposed epitope within the nucleotide-binding domain of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase using a random peptide library. Protein Sci. 1993;2:2103-11 pubmed
    ..The M8-P1-A3 epitope was found to consist of the five amino acid 494-PRHLL-498 sequence stretch of alpha, with residues PRxLx being critical for antibody recognition. ..
  43. Rui Y, Kan B, Gao S, Liu Y, Qi G. [Sequence analysis of the mutated genes in CTXEVC Phi and nct-CTXnew Phi genomes in Vibrio cholerae JS94484 strain]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2005;25:1361-4 pubmed
    ..To analyze the sequences of the mutated genes in CTX(EVC)Phi and nct-CTX(new)Phi genomes in Vibrio cholerae JS94484 strain...
  44. Cao P, Xia Z, Song W, Zhang S. Neutralizing human anti-B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) scFv selected from phage antibody library. Immunol Lett. 2005;101:87-94 pubmed
    ..Together with its fully human mature, F8 scFv may have therapeutic implications in therapy of autoimmune disorders mediated by BAFF. ..
  45. Dickerson T, Kaufmann G, Janda K. Bacteriophage-mediated protein delivery into the central nervous system and its application in immunopharmacotherapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2005;5:773-81 pubmed
    ..These phage particles are an effective vector for central nervous system penetration and are capable of binding cocaine, thereby blocking its behavioural effects in a rodent model. ..
  46. Wang L, Yu M. Epitope identification and discovery using phage display libraries: applications in vaccine development and diagnostics. Curr Drug Targets. 2004;5:1-15 pubmed
    ..Instead, this review aims to focus on specific applications related to the discovery and identification of epitopes which have potential as vaccine candidates or can be used in disease diagnosis...
  47. Frenkel D, Solomon B. Filamentous phage as vector-mediated antibody delivery to the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5675-9 pubmed
    ..The ability to image A beta deposits in vivo would arguably provide the most useful diagnostic and monitoring test for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
  48. Verhaert R, van Duin J, Quax W. Processing and functional display of the 86 kDa heterodimeric penicillin G acylase on the surface of phage fd. Biochem J. 1999;342 ( Pt 2):415-22 pubmed
    ..Polyvalent display was not observed despite the use of genetic constructs designed for this aim. These results are discussed in relation to the pore size being formed by the g4p multimer...
  49. Yang Q, Wang L, Lu D, Gao R, Song J, Hua P, et al. Prophylactic vaccination with phage-displayed epitope of C. albicans elicits protective immune responses against systemic candidiasis in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccine. 2005;23:4088-96 pubmed
    ..albicans. These results indicate that hybrid phage displaying epitope LKVIRK may serve as a potential vaccine conferring a resistance to systemic candidiasis...
  50. Morag O, Abramov G, Goldbourt A. Similarities and differences within members of the Ff family of filamentous bacteriophage viruses. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:15370-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Straus S, Scott W, Marvin D. The hand of the filamentous bacteriophage helix. Eur Biophys J. 2008;37:1077-82 pubmed publisher
    Filamentous bacteriophage (Inovirus) is a widely studied model system in molecular biophysics. The structure of the virion has been analysed by various methods, but the methods have seldom questioned the hand of the virion helix...
  52. Taylor R, Burritt J, Baniulis D, Foubert T, Lord C, Dinauer M, et al. Site-specific inhibitors of NADPH oxidase activity and structural probes of flavocytochrome b: characterization of six monoclonal antibodies to the p22phox subunit. J Immunol. 2004;173:7349-57 pubmed
    ..A combination of computational predictions, available experimental data, and results obtained with the mAbs reported in this study was used to generate a novel topology model of p22(phox)...
  53. Tsuboi M, Tsunoda M, Overman S, Benevides J, Thomas G. A structural model for the single-stranded DNA genome of filamentous bacteriophage Pf1. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1737-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results are combined with a previously proposed projection of the intraviral path of Pf1 DNA [Liu, D. J., and Day, L. A. (1994) Science 265, 671-674] to develop a novel molecular model for the Pf1 assembly...
  54. Abbineni G, Modali S, Safiejko Mroczka B, Petrenko V, Mao C. Evolutionary selection of new breast cancer cell-targeting peptides and phages with the cell-targeting peptides fully displayed on the major coat and their effects on actin dynamics during cell internalization. Mol Pharm. 2010;7:1629-42 pubmed publisher
  55. Kupsch J, Tidman N, Bishop J, McKay I, Leigh I, Crowe J. Generation and selection of monoclonal antibodies, single-chain Fv and antibody fusion phage specific for human melanoma-associated antigens. Melanoma Res. 1995;5:403-11 pubmed
    ..Both the scFv and the fusion phage were shown to bind specifically to melanoma cells. A method for the selection of melanoma cell-binding phages from phage libraries is described...
  56. Strobel H, Ladant D, Jestin J. Efficient display of two enzymes on filamentous phage using an improved signal sequence. Mol Biotechnol. 2003;24:1-10 pubmed
    ..Further, the display of two enzymes on phage has been achieved and may provide a strategy for directing coevolution of the two proteins. These findings should be useful for display of large and cytoplasmic proteins on filamentous phage...
  57. Askora A, Abdel Haliem M, Yamada T. Site-specific recombination systems in filamentous phages. Mol Genet Genomics. 2012;287:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first review to describe the diversity of site-specific recombination in filamentous phages...
  58. Frenkel D, Dewachter I, Van Leuven F, Solomon B. Reduction of beta-amyloid plaques in brain of transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by EFRH-phage immunization. Vaccine. 2003;21:1060-5 pubmed
    ..The immunization provoked a considerable reduction in the number of Abeta amyloid plaques in the brain of the transgenic mice and may serve as the basis for anti-Abeta vaccine...
  59. Pavoni E, Monteriù G, Cianfriglia M, Minenkova O. New display vector reduces biological bias for expression of antibodies in E. coli. Gene. 2007;391:120-9 pubmed
    ..The pKM19 plasmid facilitates an efficient maturation process, resulting in selection of antibodies with improved affinity without any stop codons...
  60. Holland S, Sanz C, Perham R. Identification and specificity of pilus adsorption proteins of filamentous bacteriophages infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Virology. 2006;345:540-8 pubmed
    ..However, there are likely to be subtle differences yet to be discovered in the way these virions effect entry into their targeted bacterial cells...
  61. Stirk C, Reid A, Melvin W, Thompson W. Locating the active site for angiogenesis and cell proliferation due to fibrin fragment E with a phage epitope display library. Gen Pharmacol. 2000;35:261-7 pubmed
    ..Such peptide information has therapeutic potential for both stimulating and suppressing angiogenesis and cell proliferation...
  62. van Houten N, Zwick M, Menendez A, Scott J. Filamentous phage as an immunogenic carrier to elicit focused antibody responses against a synthetic peptide. Vaccine. 2006;24:4188-200 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed with respect to the advantages of phage as an alternative to traditional carrier proteins for synthetic peptides, carbohydrates and haptens, and to further improvements in phage as immunogenic carriers...
  63. Nakamura M, Tsumoto K, Kumagai I, Ishimura K. A morphologic study of filamentous phage infection of Escherichia coli using biotinylated phages. FEBS Lett. 2003;536:167-72 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that phage major coat proteins are integrated into the outer membrane and that phages cause periplasmic expansion during infection...
  64. Jian H, Xiao X, Wang F. Role of filamentous phage SW1 in regulating the lateral flagella of Shewanella piezotolerans strain WP3 at low temperatures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:7101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The phage SW1 is shown to have a significant influence on the swarming ability of the host and thus may play an important role in adjusting the fitness of the cells in the deep-sea environment. ..
  65. Branston S, Stanley E, Keshavarz Moore E, Ward J. Precipitation of filamentous bacteriophages for their selective recovery in primary purification. Biotechnol Prog. 2012;28:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that precipitation of bacteriophages can be an effective primary purification step in a large-scale bioprocess...
  66. Lorenz S, Schmid F. Reprogramming the infection mechanism of a filamentous phage. Mol Microbiol. 2011;80:827-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The redesigned phage fd was robust and as infectious as wild-type phage fd...
  67. Watkins J. Screening of phage-expressed antibody libraries by capture lift. Methods Mol Biol. 2002;178:187-93 pubmed
  68. Mullen L, Nair S, Ward J, Rycroft A, Henderson B. Phage display in the study of infectious diseases. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:141-7 pubmed
    ..In particular, this technique has proved successful in identifying microbial adhesins that are vital for colonization...
  69. Thammawong P, Kasinrerk W, Turner R, Tayapiwatana C. Twin-arginine signal peptide attributes effective display of CD147 to filamentous phage. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;69:697-703 pubmed
    ..This modified phagemid will be useful in phage display technique when the correctly folded structure is required (i.e., antibody libraries and ligand-receptor tracing)...
  70. Yacoby I, Shamis M, Bar H, Shabat D, Benhar I. Targeting antibacterial agents by using drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophages. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:2087-97 pubmed
    ..Reintroduction of such drugs into the arsenal of useful tools may help to combat emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance...
  71. Aström E, Ohlson S. Detection of weakly interacting anti-carbohydrate scFv phages using surface plasmon resonance. J Mol Recognit. 2006;19:282-6 pubmed
    ..Inhibition studies verified the specificity. These results clearly show that SPR technology can be used to evaluate in terms of binding and specificity weakly interacting scFv displayed on the phage surface...
  72. Wilson D, Siebers A, Finlay B. Antigenic analysis of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin with phage display libraries and rabbit anti-filamentous hemagglutinin polyclonal antibodies. Infect Immun. 1998;66:4884-94 pubmed
    ..Leininger et al. (J. Infect. Dis. 175:1423-1431, 1997), peptides derived from residues of 1929 to 2019 of FHA are strong candidates for future protection studies...
  73. Falero A, Caballero A, Ferrán B, Izquierdo Y, Fando R, Campos J. DNA binding proteins of the filamentous phages CTXphi and VGJphi of Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5873-6 pubmed publisher
  74. Ramanujam P, Tan W, Nathan S, Yusoff K. Pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus with a filamentous bacteriophage. Biotechniques. 2004;36:296-300, 302 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a high degree of correlation between the binding affinities and pathotyping of NDV strains using the TLTTKLY phage...
  75. Grieco S, Lee S, Dunbar W, MacGillivray R, Curtis S. Maximizing filamentous phage yield during computer-controlled fermentation. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2009;32:773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4, the dO(2) held at 100% and agitation at 800 rpm. These computer-controlled fermentations result in a minimum of a tenfold higher filamentous phage production compared to standard shake flask conditions...
  76. Barrientos L, Louis J, Gronenborn A. Characterization of the cholesteric phase of filamentous bacteriophage fd for molecular alignment. J Magn Reson. 2001;149:154-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that the degree of alignment inversely scales with the lengths of the phage particles for phages with identical mass and charge per unit length...
  77. Wang F, Wang F, Li Q, Xiao X. A novel filamentous phage from the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 is induced at low temperature. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7151-3 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcription quantitative PCR further revealed that the key genes of the SW1 phage were significantly induced at low temperature...
  78. Melnyk R, Partridge A, Deber C. Transmembrane domain mediated self-assembly of major coat protein subunits from Ff bacteriophage. J Mol Biol. 2002;315:63-72 pubmed
  79. He J, Viamontes J, Tang J. Counterion-induced abnormal slowdown of F-actin diffusion across the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. Phys Rev Lett. 2007;99:068103 pubmed
  80. Yacoby I, Benhar I. Targeted filamentous bacteriophages as therapeutic agents. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2008;5:321-9 pubmed
    ..We believe that the combination of those separately developed methodologies would result in clinical applications of phage-based therapeutics...
  81. Heiskanen T, Lundkvist A, Soliymani R, Koivunen E, Vaheri A, Lankinen H. Phage-displayed peptides mimicking the discontinuous neutralization sites of puumala Hantavirus envelope glycoproteins. Virology. 1999;262:321-32 pubmed
    ..Similarities of the selected phage clones to a monoclonal antibody-escape mutant site and to a linear early-phase epitope were found...
  82. Larocca D, Jensen Pergakes K, Burg M, Baird A. Gene transfer using targeted filamentous bacteriophage. Methods Mol Biol. 2002;185:393-401 pubmed
  83. Malik P, Perham R. New vectors for peptide display on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage. Gene. 1996;171:49-51 pubmed
  84. Løset G, Bogen B, Sandlie I. Expanding the versatility of phage display I: efficient display of peptide-tags on protein VII of the filamentous phage. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14702 pubmed publisher
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