t phages

Summary

Summary: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.

Top Publications

  1. Kadyrov F, Shlyapnikov M, Kryukov V. A phage T4 site-specific endonuclease, SegE, is responsible for a non-reciprocal genetic exchange between T-even-related phages. FEBS Lett. 1997;415:75-80 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide a novel example of endonuclease-dependent generation of genetic variation in prokaryotes...
  2. Fukada K, Abelson J. DNA sequence of a T4 transfer RNA gene cluster. J Mol Biol. 1980;139:377-91 pubmed
  3. Sandegren L, Sjoberg B. Distribution, sequence homology, and homing of group I introns among T-even-like bacteriophages: evidence for recent transfer of old introns. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22218-27 pubmed
    ..These findings give further insight into the mechanisms of propagation and evolution of group I introns among the T-even-like bacteriophages...
  4. Hsu L, Cobb I, Ozmore J, Khoo M, Nahm G, Xia L, et al. Initial transcribed sequence mutations specifically affect promoter escape properties. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8841-54 pubmed
    ..How the ITS might influence the course of early transcription is discussed within the structural context of an initial transcribing complex. ..
  5. Hsieh T. Knotting of the circular duplex DNA by type II DNA topoisomerase from Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:8413-20 pubmed
    ..The ionic strength optimum for the knotting reaction is close, but not identical, to the optimal condition for the unknotting and supercoil relaxation reactions. Aspects of DNA knotting are discussed. ..
  6. Schneider H, Fsihi H, Kottwitz B, Mygind B, Bremer E. Identification of a segment of the Escherichia coli Tsx protein that functions as a bacteriophage receptor area. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2809-17 pubmed
    ..Our results are discussed in terms of a model for the topological organization of the carboxy-terminal end of the Tsx protein within the outer membrane. ..
  7. Harcombe W, Bull J. Impact of phages on two-species bacterial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:5254-9 pubmed
    ..coli was absent or present. These results suggest that phages can sometimes, although not always, provide long-term suppression of target bacteria...
  8. Zheng L, Wang X, Braymer H. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequences of two polypeptides encoded by the mcrB gene from Escherichia coli K-12. Gene. 1992;112:97-100 pubmed
    ..J. Bacteriol. 171 (1989b) 1974-1981]. The 33-kDa protein totally overlaps the C-terminal part of the 51-kDa protein. ..
  9. Leavitt M, Ito J. T5 DNA polymerase: structural--functional relationships to other DNA polymerases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:4465-9 pubmed
    ..These shared regions have been implicated in the 3'----5' exonuclease function of polymerase I, which suggests that the proofreading domains of all these enzymes may be evolutionarily related. ..

More Information

Publications110 found, 100 shown here

  1. Serwer P, Watson R, Hayes S. Multidimensional analysis of intracellular bacteriophage T7 DNA: effects of amber mutations in genes 3 and 19. J Virol. 1987;61:3499-509 pubmed
    ..In the absence of gene 3 endonuclease, the primary accumulation product was origin-associated 100S+ DNA with properties that suggest the accumulation of branches, primarily at the left end of mature DNA subunits within the 100S+ DNA. ..
  2. Moore J, Silversmith R, Maley G, Maley F. T4-phage deoxycytidylate deaminase is a metalloprotein containing two zinc atoms per subunit. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:2288-91 pubmed
    ..This region, which has the sequence His-X3-Cys-X14-His-X3-His, would represent a zinc-binding motif that has not been described previously. ..
  3. Morikawa K, Matsumoto O, Tsujimoto M, Katayanagi K, Ariyoshi M, Doi T, et al. X-ray structure of T4 endonuclease V: an excision repair enzyme specific for a pyrimidine dimer. Science. 1992;256:523-6 pubmed
    ..The amino-terminal segment penetrates between two major helices and prevents their direct contact. The refined structure suggests the residues involved in the substrate binding and the catalysis of the glycosylation reaction. ..
  4. Burgyan J, Nagy P, Russo M. Synthesis of infectious RNA from full-length cloned cDNA to RNA of cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus. J Gen Virol. 1990;71 ( Pt 8):1857-60 pubmed
    ..Virus particles isolated from infected plants had the same outward aspect and size as those of the wild-type virus and were decorated by an antiserum to CyRSV in immune electron microscopy tests. ..
  5. Aoyama T, Gonzalez F, Gelboin H. Mutagen activation by cDNA-expressed P(1)450, P(3)450, and P450a. Mol Carcinog. 1989;1:253-9 pubmed
    ..The vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase system described here can express cDNAs for diverse forms of P450, each of which can then be characterized for substrate and product specificity and for mutagen activation. ..
  6. Radany E, Naumovski L, Love J, Gutekunst K, Hall D, Friedberg E. Physical mapping and complete nucleotide sequence of the denV gene of bacteriophage T4. J Virol. 1984;52:846-56 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, the 3' end of the coding region of the denV locus was mapped to kilobase position 64.07 on the T4 physical map, and the 5' end was mapped to position 64.48. ..
  7. Mudd E, Carpousis A, Krisch H. Escherichia coli RNase E has a role in the decay of bacteriophage T4 mRNA. Genes Dev. 1990;4:873-81 pubmed
    ..Although the effect of the rne temperature-sensitive mutation could be indirect, the simplest interpretation of our results is that RNase E acts directly in the degradation of many T4 mRNAs. ..
  8. Arisaka F, Ishimoto L, Kassavetis G, Kumazaki T, Ishii S. Nucleotide sequence of the tail tube structural gene of bacteriophage T4. J Virol. 1988;62:882-6 pubmed
    ..The implication of the two late promoter sequences was examined by an S1 nuclease protection experiment. Both serve as weak promoters, but the bulk of the transcripts arise from further upstream of the two promoters. ..
  9. Sandkvist M, Michel L, Hough L, Morales V, Koomey M, DiRita V, et al. General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6994-7003 pubmed
    ..This is supported by the observations that apparent processing of EpsG occurs in a tcpJ mutant of V. cholerae and that, when coexpressed in E. coli, TcpJ cannot process EpsG although the PilD peptidase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae can...
  10. Williams K, LoPresti M, Setoguchi M. Primary structure of the bacteriophage T4 DNA helix-destabilizing protein. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:1754-62 pubmed
    ..The region between positions 72 and 116 contains 6 of the 8 tyrosine residues in the protein and may be important for DNA binding. ..
  11. Christensen A, Young E. T4 late transcripts are initiated near a conserved DNA sequence. Nature. 1982;299:369-71 pubmed
    ..Also, we have examine gene 23 mRNA synthetized in the absence of DNA replication using the 30- 46- mutant described above and find that it is identical to the true late transcript synthesized in normal infections. ..
  12. Wang C, Zakharova E, Li J, Joyce C, Wang J, Konigsberg W. Pre-steady-state kinetics of RB69 DNA polymerase and its exo domain mutants: effect of pH and thiophosphoryl linkages on 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Biochemistry. 2004;43:3853-61 pubmed
  13. Wu L, Chang S, Yen M, Yang T, Tseng Y. Characterization of extended-host-range pseudo-T-even bacteriophage Kpp95 isolated on Klebsiella pneumoniae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:2532-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, Kpp95 deserves further studies for development as a component of a therapeutic cocktail, owing to its high efficiencies of host lysis plus extended host range. ..
  14. Krauel V, Heller K. Cloning, sequencing, and recombinational analysis with bacteriophage BF23 of the bacteriophage T5 oad gene encoding the receptor-binding protein. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1287-97 pubmed
    ..The sequence upstream of the open reading frame shows typical characteristics of a promoter region with two overlapping, divergently orientated promoters. ..
  15. Sargent R, Ji J, Mun B, Mathews C. Ribonucleotide reductase: a determinant of 5-bromodeoxyuridine mutagenesis in phage T4. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;217:13-9 pubmed
  16. Koch T, Lamm N, Rüger W. Sequencing, cloning and overexpression of genes of bacteriophage T4 between map positions 74.325 and 77.184. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:4392 pubmed
  17. Kaliman A. Identification of the bacteriophage T5 dUTPase by protein sequence comparisons. DNA Seq. 1996;6:347-50 pubmed
    ..A similarity in size and high degree of sequence identity strongly suggest that the protein encoded by the ORF 148 of bacteriophage T5 is dUTPase. ..
  18. Gansz A, Kruse U, Rüger W. Gene product dsbA of bacteriophage T4 binds to late promoters and enhances late transcription. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;225:427-34 pubmed
    ..Gene dsbA is distinct from gene das which maps close to this genomic region. ..
  19. Derr L, Kreuzer K. Expression and function of the uvsW gene of bacteriophage T4. J Mol Biol. 1990;214:643-56 pubmed
    ..According to this suggestion, the restored late replication in a uvsW mutant is an abnormal continuation of an early mode(s) of replication. ..
  20. White R, Phillips D. Sequence-dependent termination of bacteriophage T7 transcription in vitro by DNA-binding drugs. Biochemistry. 1989;28:4277-83 pubmed
    ..nogalamycin, actinomycin, mithramycin, and echinomycin) but to a lesser extent with drugs of intermediate residence times [a bis(thiadaunomycin) and an acridine-tripyrrole, with half-lives of 230 and 7 s, respectively, at 20 degrees C] ..
  21. Tabor S, Richardson C. Selective oxidation of the exonuclease domain of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15330-3 pubmed
  22. Sastry S, Hearst J. Studies on the interaction of T7 RNA polymerase with a DNA template containing a site-specifically placed psoralen cross-link. II. Stability and some properties of elongation complexes. J Mol Biol. 1991;221:1111-25 pubmed
    ..The elongation complexes were stable during gel filtration through Sephacryl S-300 HR. However, it was found that 30% to 45% of the labeled RNA was retained during gel filtration as RNA that was apparently free from ternary complexes. ..
  23. Efimov V, Prilipov A, Mesyanzhinov V. Nucleotide sequences of bacteriophage T4 genes 6, 7 and 8. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:5313 pubmed
  24. Kim J, Linn S. The mechanisms of action of E. coli endonuclease III and T4 UV endonuclease (endonuclease V) at AP sites. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:1135-41 pubmed
    ..Whereas these enzymes use a lyase-like rather than a hydrolytic mechanism, they nonetheless catalyze phosphodiester bond cleavage. We suggest that the term endonuclease can be properly applied to them. ..
  25. Lee F, Yokota T, Otsuka T, Gemmell L, Larson N, Luh J, et al. Isolation of cDNA for a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by functional expression in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:4360-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that identification of full-length cDNAs for many colony-stimulating factors may be achieved entirely on the basis of detecting the functional polypeptide produced in mammalian cells. ..
  26. Heller K, Bryniok D. O antigen-dependent mutant of bacteriophage T5. J Virol. 1984;49:20-5 pubmed
  27. De Jong R, de Laaf L, Vennema H, Meijlink F. DNA-binding activity of the murine homeodomain protein Hox-2.3 produced by a hybrid phage T7/vaccinia virus system. Gene. 1992;116:195-203 pubmed
    ..Using Southwestern blot analysis, no Hox-2.3-binding sites were detected in a region of the Hox-2 cluster containing the Hox-2.3, Hox-2.4 and Hox-2.5 genes. ..
  28. Zeilstra Ryalls J, Fayet O, Georgopoulos C. The universally conserved GroE (Hsp60) chaperonins. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:301-25 pubmed
  29. Garforth S, Patel D, Feng M, Sayers J. Unusually wide co-factor tolerance in a metalloenzyme; divalent metal ions modulate endo-exonuclease activity in T5 exonuclease. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:2772-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that such a substrate may gain access to the active site of the enzyme by a process which does not involve threading...
  30. Prilipov A, Selivanov N, Nikolaeva L, Mesyanzhinov V. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of bacteriophage T4 gene wac. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:10361 pubmed
  31. Pan Y, Nakashima Y, Sharief F, Li S. Amino acid sequence studies on T4 gene 32 DNA-binding proteins. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1980;361:1139-53 pubmed
    ..The unusual characteristics of the amino-terminal A and carboxyl-terminal B regions are discussed in relation to their possible roles in DNA replication and genetic recombination. ..
  32. van der Vies S, Gatenby A, Georgopoulos C. Bacteriophage T4 encodes a co-chaperonin that can substitute for Escherichia coli GroES in protein folding. Nature. 1994;368:654-6 pubmed
    ..Like GroES, the bacteriophage Gp31 protein forms a stable complex with the E. coli GroEL protein in the presence of Mg-ATP and inhibits the ATPase activity of GroEL in vitro. ..
  33. Hennemuth W, Rhoads L, Eichelberger H, Watanabe M, Van Bell K, Ke L, et al. Ingestion and inactivation of bacteriophages by Tetrahymena. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008;55:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a polypeptide with the apparent molecular mass of 52 kDa was synthesized. This suggests that Tetrahymena can use phages as a minor nutrient source in the absence of bacteria. ..
  34. Prilipov A, Selivanov N, Efimov V, Marusich E, Mesyanzhinov V. Nucleotide sequences of bacteriophage T4 genes 9, 10 and 11. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:3303 pubmed
  35. Swart W, Warner H. Isolation and partial characterization of a bacteriophage T5 mutant unable to induce thymidylate synthetase and its use in studying the effect of uracil incorporation into DNA on early gene expression. J Virol. 1985;54:86-91 pubmed
    ..The presence of uracil in the parental DNA increased the rate of induction of this enzyme by about 2.5-fold. The T5 thy gene was mapped and is located near the T5 frd gene on the B region of the T5 genome. ..
  36. Raya R, Varey P, Oot R, Dyen M, Callaway T, Edrington T, et al. Isolation and characterization of a new T-even bacteriophage, CEV1, and determination of its potential to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 levels in sheep. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:6405-10 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7 grown both aerobically and anaerobically. In vivo, sheep receiving a single oral dose of CEV1 showed a 2-log-unit reduction in intestinal E. coli O157:H7 levels within 2 days compared to levels in the controls. ..
  37. Dodson M, Prince M, Anderson W, Lloyd R. Site-directed deletion mutagenesis within the T4 endonuclease V gene: dispensable sequences within putative loop regions. Mutat Res. 1991;255:19-29 pubmed
    ..This result supports the hypothesis that these regions are adjacent in the enzyme tertiary structure. ..
  38. Mukherjee A, Donachie W. Differential translation of cell division proteins. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6106-11 pubmed
    ..Levels of translation of FtsA are shown to be proportional to levels of transcription, and therefore there is no evidence of variable regulation of translation. ..
  39. Keller B, Bickle T. The nucleotide sequence of gene 21 of bacteriophage T4 coding for the prohead protease. Gene. 1986;49:245-51 pubmed
    ..A frame-shift mutation in the gene was therefore constructed which allowed the synthesis of large amounts of a stable N-terminal fragment of the protein. ..
  40. Yamaguchi M, Hirokawa H, Sugahara K, Mizokami H, Takeo K. Electron microscopy of biological specimens by the plasma-polymerization rapid-freeze replica method. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1997;46:425-30 pubmed
    ..From these results, we conclude that the plasma-polymerization rapid-freeze replica method provides a useful technique for observation of biological specimens in a natural state and at high resolution. ..
  41. Ruckman J, Parma D, Tuerk C, Hall D, Gold L. Identification of a T4 gene required for bacteriophage mRNA processing. New Biol. 1989;1:54-65 pubmed
    ..Introduction of a cloned copy of this open reading frame into a unique site in the chromosome of farP phage is sufficient to restore mRNA processing capability. The open reading frame probably encodes the T4 regB protein. ..
  42. V lker T, Gafner J, Bickle T, Showe M. Gene 67, a new, essential bacteriophage T4 head gene codes for a prehead core component, PIP. I. Genetic mapping and DNA sequence. J Mol Biol. 1982;161:479-89 pubmed
  43. Toth K, Csik G, Ronto G. Dark and photoreactivity of 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen with T7 phage. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1990;5:167-78 pubmed
    ..Mono- and di-adducts influence DNA stability differently; biologically both types of adducts are genotoxic as measured by action spectra...
  44. Koonin E, Gorbalenya A. Related domains in yeast tRNA ligase, bacteriophage T4 polynucleotide kinase and RNA ligase, and mammalian myelin 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase revealed by amino acid sequence comparison. FEBS Lett. 1990;268:231-4 pubmed
    ..According to this model, tRNA ligase contains at least three functional domains, in the order: N-ligase-kinase-phosphohydrolase-C, whereas polynucleotide kinase and CNPase encompass only the two C-terminal domains in the same order...
  45. Blinov V, Koonin E, Gorbalenya A, Kaliman A, Kryukov V. Two early genes of bacteriophage T5 encode proteins containing an NTP-binding sequence motif and probably involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair. FEBS Lett. 1989;252:47-52 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that both D10 and D13 gene products of T5 might be NTPases, possibly DNA-dependent, mediating NTP-consuming steps during phage DNA replication, recombination and/or repair...
  46. Parker M, Christensen A, Boosman A, Stockard J, Young E, Doermann A. Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T4 gene 23 and the amino acid sequence of its product. J Mol Biol. 1984;180:399-416 pubmed
    ..Fifteen gene 23 amber mutation sites have been located within the sequence, and the 3' transcription termination site for genes 21, 22 and 23 has been identified...
  47. Joseph J, Kolodner R. Exonuclease VIII of Escherichia coli. I. Purification and physical properties. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:10411-7 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 0.6, and a Stokes radius of 142 +/- 6 A, which is consistent with its active form being a multimer. Exonuclease VIII has a frictional coefficient of 2.6 which indicates that it has an asymmetric structure...
  48. Abedon S, Hyman P, Thomas C. Experimental examination of bacteriophage latent-period evolution as a response to bacterial availability. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:7499-506 pubmed
    ..From these observations we suggest that phage displaying very short latent periods may be viewed as specialists for propagation when bacteria within cultures are highly prevalent and transmission between cultures is easily accomplished...
  49. Tsuchihashi Z, Brown P. Sequence requirements for efficient translational frameshifting in the Escherichia coli dnaX gene and the role of an unstable interaction between tRNA(Lys) and an AAG lysine codon. Genes Dev. 1992;6:511-9 pubmed
    ..coli. Expression in E. coli of a mutant tRNA(Lys) with a CUU anticodon specifically inhibited the frameshifting at the AAG codon, suggesting that the absence of this tRNA in E. coli contributes to the efficiency of the dnaX frameshift...
  50. Bova R, Cascino A, Cipollaro M, Grau O, Micheli M, Santoro M, et al. Bacteriophage T4 gene 27. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:3046 pubmed
  51. Duckworth D, Pinkerton T. ColIb plasmid genes that inhibit the replication of T5 and T7 bacteriophage. Plasmid. 1988;20:182-93 pubmed
    ..Promoters for pic have been mapped and hypotheses to explain the inhibition of T7 by a cloned gene but not the whole ColIb plasmid are presented...
  52. Thøgersen H, Morris H, Rand K, Gait M. Location of the adenylylation site in T4 RNA ligase. Eur J Biochem. 1985;147:325-9 pubmed
    ..The results show that the AMP residue is bound covalently to the lysine at position 99 of the RNA ligase protein sequence...
  53. Blaisdell P, Warner H. Cell-free transcription and translation of isolated restriction fragments localize bacteriophage T5 pre-early genes. J Virol. 1986;57:759-64 pubmed
    ..DNA immediately flanking the pre-early regions induced few proteins in vitro. Thus, this technique has allowed the overall gene organization of the pre-early region of T5 to be described...
  54. Sugino A, Drake J. Modulation of mutation rates in bacteriophage T4 by a base-pair change a dozen nucleotides removed. J Mol Biol. 1984;176:239-49 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing carried out during this analysis extends the known sequence of the rIIA cistron by 333 residues...
  55. Mondigler M, Holz T, Heller K. Identification of the receptor-binding regions of pb5 proteins of bacteriophages T5 and BF23. Virology. 1996;219:19-28 pubmed
    ..We propose that the receptor-binding region of pb5(T5) (pb5(BF23)) is formed by the region of nonsimilarity extending from amino acid position 89 (88) to position 305 (283)...
  56. Garforth S, Sayers J. Structure-specific DNA binding by bacteriophage T5 5'-->3' exonuclease. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:3801-7 pubmed
    ..Replacement of both cysteine residues of the molecule with serine did not greatly alter the catalytic or binding characteristics of the protein but did render it highly resistant to inhibition by PHMB...
  57. Nemoto T, Ohara Nemoto Y, Ota M. Association of the 90-kDa heat shock protein does not affect the ligand-binding ability of androgen receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1992;42:803-12 pubmed
    ..However, HSP90 seems to have little effect on the ligand-binding characteristics of the androgen receptor...
  58. Kaliman A, Krutilina A, Kryukov V, Bayev A. Cloning and DNA sequence of the 5'-exonuclease gene of bacteriophage T5. FEBS Lett. 1986;195:61-4 pubmed
    ..The sequence contains an open reading frame for 291 amino acid residues. The molecular mass of the 5'-exonuclease calculated from the predicted amino acid sequence is 33 400 Da...
  59. Nicholson A, Niebling K, McOsker P, Robertson H. Accurate in vitro cleavage by RNase III of phosphorothioate-substituted RNA processing signals in bacteriophage T7 early mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:1577-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, RNase III cleavage specificity is not altered by phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages...
  60. Das S, Fujimura R. Mechanism of primer-template-dependent conversion of dNTP leads to dNMP by T5 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:7149-54 pubmed
    ..A simple probabilistic model of turnover is discussed...
  61. Letellier L, Plançon L, Bonhivers M, Boulanger P. Phage DNA transport across membranes. Res Microbiol. 1999;150:499-505 pubmed
    ..The interest of such a model system in gene delivery and in the study of the mechanisms of DNA compaction will be discussed...
  62. Kibardin A, Mirkina I, Baranova E, Zakeyeva I, Georgiev G, Kiselev S. The differentially spliced mouse tagL gene, homolog of tag7/PGRP gene family in mammals and Drosophila, can recognize Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall independently of T phage lysozyme homology domain. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:467-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, this variety of isoforms of a single gene may play a role in circulating bacteria recognition in mammals...
  63. Nishiyama Y. [Historical overview of DNA virus research]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2007;52:1050-5 pubmed
  64. Sobolev B, Mesyanzhinov V. The wac gene product of bacteriophage T4 contains coiled-coil structural patterns. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 1991;8:953-65 pubmed
  65. Zeeh A, Shub D. The product of the split sunY gene of bacteriophage T4 is a processed protein. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6980-5 pubmed
    ..Insertional mutagenesis demonstrated that the sunY protein is not necessary for normal T4 growth under the conditions tested...
  66. Ishimoto L, Ishimoto K, Cascino A, Cipollaro M, Eiserling F. The structure of three bacteriophage T4 genes required for tail-tube assembly. Virology. 1988;164:81-90 pubmed
    ..We believe that this region of similarity is significant and consistent with the role gp54 may play in initiating T4 tail-tube polymerization...
  67. Nakai H, Richardson C. Interactions of the DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions involved in RNA-primed DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:15208-16 pubmed
    ..Preincubation of gene 4 protein, DNA polymerase, and M13 DNA in the presence of dTTP forms protein-DNA complexes that most efficiently catalyze RNA-primed DNA synthesis in the presence of excess single-stranded competitor DNA...
  68. Mondigler M, Vögele R, Heller K. Overproduced and purified receptor binding protein pb5 of bacteriophage T5 binds to the T5 receptor protein FhuA. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;130:293-300 pubmed
    ..Purification of pb5 from the cytosolic fraction was performed by FPLC using a MonoQ column. pb5, which did not bind to the matrix of the column, was obtained in almost pure form. The purified protein also inhibited T5 adsorption...
  69. Plan on L, Janmot C, le Maire M, Desmadril M, Bonhivers M, Letellier L, et al. Characterization of a high-affinity complex between the bacterial outer membrane protein FhuA and the phage T5 protein pb5. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:557-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The stability of the complex renders it suitable for high-resolution structural studies, allowing future analysis of conformational changes into both FhuA and pb5 upon adsorption of the virus to its host...
  70. Abe M, Izumoji Y, Tanji Y. Phenotypic transformation including host-range transition through superinfection of T-even phages. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;269:145-52 pubmed
  71. Burn T, Vigoreaux J, Tobin S. Alternative 5C actin transcripts are localized in different patterns during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 1989;131:345-55 pubmed
    ..In contrast, probes for each of the three polyadenylation regions do not detect any tissue-specific localization of transcripts...
  72. Shi Y, Gamper H, Hearst J. Interaction of T7 RNA polymerase with DNA in an elongation complex arrested at a specific psoralen adduct site. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:527-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the RNA polymerase undergoes a marked conformational change upon converting from an initiation complex to an elongation complex...
  73. Huber H, Tabor S, Richardson C. Escherichia coli thioredoxin stabilizes complexes of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and primed templates. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16224-32 pubmed
  74. LeMaster D. Nucleotide sequence and protein overproduction of bacteriophage T4 thioredoxin. J Virol. 1986;59:759-60 pubmed
    ..The DNA sequence is consistent with that reported from earlier protein sequence studies. The gene was subcloned into a lambda pL overexpression vector which allowed for the isolation of approximately 5 mg/liter...
  75. Ollis D, Kline C, Steitz T. Domain of E. coli DNA polymerase I showing sequence homology to T7 DNA polymerase. Nature. 1985;313:818-9 pubmed
    ..The parts of the Pol I and T7 DNA polymerase molecules that bind the DNA substrate appear to share common structural features, and these features may be shared by all of these varied DNA polymerases...
  76. Ksenzenko V, Kamynina T, Kazantsev S, Shlyapnikov M, Kryukov V, Bayev A. Cloning of genes for bacteriophage T5 stable RNAs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982;697:235-42 pubmed
    ..The arrangement of these genes on the physical map of T5 phage was as follows: -tRNAGln-tRNAHis-RNA III-RNA I-...-tRNAAsp...
  77. Hsu L, Vo N, Chamberlin M. Escherichia coli transcript cleavage factors GreA and GreB stimulate promoter escape and gene expression in vivo and in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11588-92 pubmed
    ..The stimulation of RNA chain initiation by Gre factors, together with their known biochemical properties in the transcription elongation reaction, suggests some specific models for steps in the transcription initiation reaction...
  78. Szyfter K, Hemminki K, Crane A, Watson W. Quantitative and kinetic examination of 32P-postlabeling of etheno-substituted nucleotides. Chem Biol Interact. 1991;80:99-107 pubmed
    ..The adducts are labeled efficiently at sub-femtomole levels. All the adducts were sensitive to the 3'-dephosphorylation by P1 nuclease although the guanine derivative appeared to be more resistant than the two other adducts...
  79. Kosak H, Kemper B. Large-scale preparation of T4 endonuclease VII from over-expressing bacteria. Eur J Biochem. 1990;194:779-84 pubmed
    ..In the absence of additional salt, the enzyme has a tendency to aggregate and products of molecular masses differing in steps of about 18 kDa appear on SDS-containing polyacrylamide gels...
  80. Miner Z, Schlagman S, Hattman S. Single amino acid changes that alter the DNA sequence specificity of the DNA-[N6-adenine] methyltransferase (Dam) of bacteriophage T4. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:8149-57 pubmed
    ..No enzyme activity is detected when phenylalanine, glutamic acid, or histidine is inserted at position 126. However, insertion of alanine, cysteine, or glycine at residue 126 produces enzymatic activity similar to Damh...
  81. Montecucco A, Pedrali Noy G, Spadari S, Ciarrocchi G. Multiple roles of DNA ligase at the replication fork. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;951:330-4 pubmed
    ..The AMP-dependent ability of DNA ligases to relax DNA might allow these enzymes to relieve possible topological complications of the nascent double helix generated by the replication of the lagging strand...
  82. Chapman D, Morad I, Kaufmann G, Gait M, Jorissen L, Snyder L. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of stp: the bacteriophage T4 anticodon nuclease gene. J Mol Biol. 1988;199:373-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that stp encodes a subunit of anticodon nuclease, perhaps one that harbors the catalytic site; while additional subunits, such as a putative prr gene product, impart protein folding environment and tRNA substrate recognition...
  83. Masters B, Stohl L, Clayton D. Yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is homologous to those encoded by bacteriophages T3 and T7. Cell. 1987;51:89-99 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the mitochondrial enzyme is highly homologous to the DNA-directed RNA polymerases of bacteriophages T3 and T7, especially in regions most highly conserved between the T3 and T7 enzymes themselves...
  84. Ripley L, Clark A, deBoer J. Spectrum of spontaneous frameshift mutations. Sequences of bacteriophage T4 rII gene frameshifts. J Mol Biol. 1986;191:601-13 pubmed
    ..The frequency and diversity of complex mutants suggest a challenge to the assumption that the molecular evolution of DNA must depend primarily upon the accumulation of single nucleotide changes...
  85. Kumar G, Black P. Bacterial long-chain fatty acid transport. Identification of amino acid residues within the outer membrane protein FadL required for activity. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:15469-76 pubmed
  86. Pickering T, Garforth S, Thorpe S, Sayers J, Grasby J. A single cleavage assay for T5 5'-->3' exonuclease: determination of the catalytic parameters forwild-type and mutant proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:730-5 pubmed
    ..All three lysines contribute to ground state binding of the substrate. In addition, K83 plays a significant role in the chemical reaction catalysed by this enzyme. Possible roles for mutated lysine residues are discussed...
  87. Chatterjee D, Fujimura R, Campbell J, Gerard G. Cloning and overexpression of the gene encoding bacteriophage T5 DNA polymerase. Gene. 1991;97:13-9 pubmed
    ..The majority of the T5Pol present in extracts of E. coli was insoluble. The amount of active enzyme present was estimated to be a maximum of tenfold higher than that found in extracts of T5 phage-infected cells...
  88. Raudonikiene A, Nivinskas R. Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T4 gene 31 region. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4280 pubmed
  89. Selivanov N, Prilipov A, Mesyanzhinov V. Nucleotide sequences of bacteriophage T4 genes 13, 14 and 15. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:3583 pubmed
  90. Gruidl M, Mosig G. Sequence and transcripts of the bacteriophage T4 DNA repair gene uvsY. Genetics. 1986;114:1061-79 pubmed
    ..Marker rescue experiments map gene 25 to the region upstream of uvsY. Gene 25 is likely, although not certain, to correspond to an ORF that is found upstream from uvsY and is translated in the same direction...
  91. McCorquodale D, Chen C, Joseph M, Woychik R. Modification of RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli by pre-early gene products of bacteriophage T5. J Virol. 1981;40:958-62 pubmed
    ..This RNA polymerase complex had altered transcriptional specificity, in that it transcribed pre-early genes less efficiently than it did early genes...
  92. Whelan K, Colleran E, Taylor D. Phage inhibition, colicin resistance, and tellurite resistance are encoded by a single cluster of genes on the IncHI2 plasmid R478. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5016-27 pubmed
    ..Insertions in terA reduced phage inhibition levels only. The presence of the terZ and terF ORFs in pMER610 was confirmed, and derivatives of this plasmid mediated Phi, PacB, and Ter...