bacteriophage phi x 174

Summary

Summary: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.

Top Publications

  1. Zechner E, Wu C, Marians K. Coordinated leading- and lagging-strand synthesis at the Escherichia coli DNA replication fork. III. A polymerase-primase interaction governs primer size. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4054-63 pubmed
  2. Wichman H, Brown C. Experimental evolution of viruses: Microviridae as a model system. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2010;365:2495-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of these mechanisms is aided by the availability of capsid and pro-capsid structures for phiX174 and builds on years of genetic studies of the phage life history...
  3. Cherwa J, Fane B. Complete virion assembly with scaffolding proteins altered in the ability to perform a critical conformational switch. J Virol. 2009;83:7391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the ability to isolate strains that could utilize the single mutant D protein species would not have been predicted from past structural analyses...
  4. Wichman H, Millstein J, Bull J. Adaptive molecular evolution for 13,000 phage generations: a possible arms race. Genetics. 2005;170:19-31 pubmed
    ..We instead suggest that continuing molecular evolution reflects a potentially indefinite arms race, stemming from high levels of co-infection and the resulting conflict among genomes competing within the same cell...
  5. Chen M, Uchiyama A, Fane B. Eliminating the requirement of an essential gene product in an already very small virus: scaffolding protein B-free øX174, B-free. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:308-14 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they demonstrate a novel mechanism by which a stringently required gene product can be bypassed, even in a system encoding only eight strictly essential proteins...
  6. Rokyta D, Joyce P, Caudle S, Wichman H. An empirical test of the mutational landscape model of adaptation using a single-stranded DNA virus. Nat Genet. 2005;37:441-4 pubmed
  7. Brown C, Zhao L, Evans K, Ally D, Stancik A. Positive selection at high temperature reduces gene transcription in the bacteriophage ?X174. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:378 pubmed publisher
    ..For one cis-regulatory region, we investigate the individual effects of four adaptive substitutions on transcript levels and fitness for phage growing on three hosts at two temperatures...
  8. Roof W, Horne S, Young K, Young R. slyD, a host gene required for phi X174 lysis, is related to the FK506-binding protein family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerases. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:2902-10 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of slyD in E. coli is toxic. These findings are discussed in terms of a model for SlyD involvement in E function and in terms of a model for SlyD involvement of the ubiquitous FKBP rotamases...
  9. Cherwa J, Organtini L, Ashley R, Hafenstein S, Fane B. In VITRO ASSEMBLY of the øX174 procapsid from external scaffolding protein oligomers and early pentameric assembly intermediates. J Mol Biol. 2011;412:387-96 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications90

  1. Pepin K, Samuel M, Wichman H. Variable pleiotropic effects from mutations at the same locus hamper prediction of fitness from a fitness component. Genetics. 2006;172:2047-56 pubmed
    ..The data highlight that even in this simple, well-characterized system, prediction of fitness from a fitness component depends on genetic architecture and environment...
  2. Bull J, Badgett M, Wichman H, Huelsenbeck J, Hillis D, Gulati A, et al. Exceptional convergent evolution in a virus. Genetics. 1997;147:1497-507 pubmed
    ..Substitution rates and fitness improvements were higher during the initial period of adaptation than during a later period, except when the host was changed...
  3. Marchart J, Dropmann G, Lechleitner S, Schlapp T, Wanner G, Szostak M, et al. Pasteurella multocida- and Pasteurella haemolytica-ghosts: new vaccine candidates. Vaccine. 2003;21:3988-97 pubmed
    ..multocida-ghosts. Animals which received 1.15 x 10(8) ghosts and a challenge dose of up to 60 cfu (LD90), showed 100% protection. According to these results, we suggest ghosts of P. multocida and P. haemolytica as new vaccine candidates...
  4. Bernhardt T, Roof W, Young R. Genetic evidence that the bacteriophage phi X174 lysis protein inhibits cell wall synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:4297-302 pubmed
    ..The isolation of these lysis-defective mutants supports a model in which translocase I is the cellular target of E and that inhibition of cell wall synthesis is the mechanism of lysis...
  5. Inagaki M, Kawaura T, Wakashima H, Kato M, Nishikawa S, Kashimura N. Different contributions of the outer and inner R-core residues of lipopolysaccharide to the recognition by spike H and G proteins of bacteriophage phiX174. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;226:221-7 pubmed
    ..However, G protein showed significant affinity to the LPSs lacking all the residues of the outer R-core and some of the inner R-core. Thus, G protein rather than H protein well recognized the residues of the inner R-core of LPS...
  6. Panthel K, Jechlinger W, Matis A, Rohde M, Szostak M, Lubitz W, et al. Generation of Helicobacter pylori ghosts by PhiX protein E-mediated inactivation and their evaluation as vaccine candidates. Infect Immun. 2003;71:109-16 pubmed
    ..Coadministration of ghosts with cholera toxin as mucosal adjuvant resulted in a complete protection of 10 of 10 and 8 of 8 mice against H. pylori challenge, with three animals showing a sterile immunity...
  7. Holder K, Bull J. Profiles of adaptation in two similar viruses. Genetics. 2001;159:1393-404 pubmed
    ..This study provides the greatest detail yet in combining fitness profiles with the underlying pattern of genetic changes, and the results support recent theories on the range of fitness effects of substitutions fixed during adaptation...
  8. Jalava K, Eko F, Riedmann E, Lubitz W. Bacterial ghosts as carrier and targeting systems for mucosal antigen delivery. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003;2:45-51 pubmed
    ..The potency, safety and relatively low production cost of bacterial ghosts offer a significant technical advantage, especially when used as combination vaccines...
  9. Cherwa J, Young L, Fane B. Uncoupling the functions of a multifunctional protein: the isolation of a DNA pilot protein mutant that affects particle morphogenesis. Virology. 2011;411:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotypes are highly influenced by host and phage physiology. This phenomenon was unique to am(H) mutants, not observed with amber mutants in other genes...
  10. Bernhardt T, Roof W, Young R. The Escherichia coli FKBP-type PPIase SlyD is required for the stabilization of the E lysis protein of bacteriophage phi X174. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:99-108 pubmed
    ..These data are discussed in terms of a model for the specific role of the SlyD PPIase in E folding, and of the use of the very strict SlyD- dependence phenotype for identifying elements of PPIase selectivity...
  11. Burch A, Fane B. Genetic analyses of putative conformation switching and cross-species inhibitory domains in Microviridae external scaffolding proteins. Virology. 2003;310:64-71 pubmed
    ..The results of second-site genetic analyses indicate that the capsid-external scaffolding protein interface is larger than revealed in the crystal structure...
  12. Inagaki M, Tanaka A, Suzuki R, Wakashima H, Kawaura T, Karita S, et al. Characterization of the binding of spike H protein of bacteriophage phiX174 with receptor lipopolysaccharides. J Biochem. 2000;127:577-83 pubmed
    ..7 kJ mol(-1) and 179 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 22 degrees C, respectively, and this binding was thereby concluded to be an entropy-driven reaction...
  13. Wichman H, Badgett M, Scott L, Boulianne C, Bull J. Different trajectories of parallel evolution during viral adaptation. Science. 1999;285:422-4 pubmed
    ..However, the order of these changes differed between replicates, and parallel substitutions did not reflect the changes with the largest beneficial effects or indicate a common trajectory of adaptation...
  14. Poon A, Chao L. The rate of compensatory mutation in the DNA bacteriophage phiX174. Genetics. 2005;170:989-99 pubmed
    ..We estimate that about half of all compensatory mutations are located extragenically in this organism...
  15. Wang X, Lu C. Mice orally vaccinated with Edwardsiella tarda ghosts are significantly protected against infection. Vaccine. 2009;27:1571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..tarda challenge (86.7% survival) compared to 73.3 and 33.3% survival in the FKC-immunized and PBS-treated control, respectively, suggesting that an ETG oral vaccine could confer protection against infection in a mouse model of disease...
  16. Novak C, Fane B. The functions of the N terminus of the phiX174 internal scaffolding protein, a protein encoded in an overlapping reading frame in a two scaffolding protein system. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:383-90 pubmed
    ..Defects in conformational switching can be suppressed by substitutions in the external scaffolding protein, suggesting some redundancy of function between the two proteins...
  17. Inagaki M, Wakashima H, Kato M, Kaitani K, Nishikawa S. Crucial role of the lipid part of lipopolysaccharide for conformational change of minor spike H protein of bacteriophage phiX174. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;251:305-11 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the lipid part of LPS is responsible for the conformational change of minor spike H protein, which would function as a trigger for phage DNA ejection for infection of the host cell...
  18. Poon A, Chao L. Functional origins of fitness effect-sizes of compensatory mutations in the DNA bacteriophage phiX174. Evolution. 2006;60:2032-43 pubmed
  19. Uchiyama A, Chen M, Fane B. Characterization and function of putative substrate specificity domain in microvirus external scaffolding proteins. J Virol. 2007;81:8587-92 pubmed
    ..These second-site mutations appear to act on a kinetic level, shortening the lag phase before virion production, perhaps lowering the critical concentration of the chimeric protein required for a nucleation reaction...
  20. Pepin K, Wichman H. Variable epistatic effects between mutations at host recognition sites in phiX174 bacteriophage. Evolution. 2007;61:1710-24 pubmed
    ..We discuss these findings in the context of studying the role of epistasis in evolution...
  21. Ruboyianes M, Chen M, Dubrava M, Cherwa J, Fane B. The expression of N-terminal deletion DNA pilot proteins inhibits the early stages of phiX174 replication. J Virol. 2009;83:9952-6 pubmed publisher
    ..While coexpression relieved the block in DNA biosynthesis, viral protein synthesis remained suppressed. These data indicate that protein H's role in DNA replication and stimulating viral protein synthesis can be uncoupled...
  22. Pepin K, Wichman H. Experimental evolution and genome sequencing reveal variation in levels of clonal interference in large populations of bacteriophage phiX174. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:85 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic sequences of multiple individuals from evolved populations were used to detect competing beneficial mutations...
  23. Pepin K, Domsic J, McKenna R. Genomic evolution in a virus under specific selection for host recognition. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:825-34 pubmed publisher
    ..33% of mutations were synonymous and showed evidence of selection on codon usage. Lastly, results supported previous findings that evolving populations of small ssDNA viruses may maintain relatively high levels of genetic variation...
  24. Hafenstein S, Fane B. phi X174 genome-capsid interactions influence the biophysical properties of the virion: evidence for a scaffolding-like function for the genome during the final stages of morphogenesis. J Virol. 2002;76:5350-6 pubmed
    ..The results of these experiments suggest that the structure of the genome and/or its association with the capsid's inner surface may perform a scaffolding-like function during the procapsid-to- virion transition...
  25. Bull J, Badgett M, Wichman H. Big-benefit mutations in a bacteriophage inhibited with heat. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:942-50 pubmed
    ..9 to 0. 8. These results support a model in which viral fitness is bounded by an upper limit and the benefit of a mutation is scaled according to the remaining opportunity for fitness improvement in the genome...
  26. Cox J, Putonti C. Mechanisms responsible for a PhiX174 mutant's ability to infect Escherichia coli by phosphorylation. J Virol. 2010;84:4860-3 pubmed publisher
    ..coli K-12, which does not have the necessary LPS. The conversion of an alanine to a very reactive threonine on its virion surface was found to be responsible for the strain's expanded host range. ..
  27. Kow Y, Faundez G, Hays S, Bonner C, Goodman M, Wallace S. Absence of a role for DNA polymerase II in SOS-induced translesion bypass of phi X174. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:561-4 pubmed
    ..Lastly, repair of gapped DNA molecules, intermediates in methyl-directed mismatch repair, was also unaffected by the presence or absence of DNA polymerase II. ..
  28. Taube R, Avidan O, Bakhanashvili M, Hizi A. DNA synthesis exhibited by the reverse transcriptase of mouse mammary tumor virus: processivity and fidelity of misinsertion and mispair extension. Eur J Biochem. 1998;258:1032-9 pubmed
    ..It is clear that MMTV RT has a fidelity higher than that of lentiviral RTs. ..
  29. Malling H, Delongchamp R, Valentine C. Three origins of phiX174 am3 revertants in transgenic cell culture. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2003;42:258-73 pubmed
    ..These results show that only in vivo revertants reflect mutagen treatment. They also provide a basis for identifying PhiX174 am3 revertants induced in vivo and may increase the sensitivity of the assay for in vivo mutation. ..
  30. Douarche C, Sikorav J, Goldar A. Aggregation and adsorption at the air-water interface of bacteriophage phiX174 single-stranded DNA. Biophys J. 2008;94:134-46 pubmed
    ..DNA adsorption involves attractive van der Waals forces, and these forces are also operating in the bulk aggregation process. ..
  31. Phillips M, Cormier J, Ferrence J, Dowd C, Kiss R, Lutz H, et al. Performance of a membrane adsorber for trace impurity removal in biotechnology manufacturing. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1078:74-82 pubmed
    ..The rigid microporous structure of the membrane layers allows for high process flux operation and uniform bed consistency at all processing scales...
  32. Yen G, Lai H. Inhibitory effects of isoflavones on nitric oxide- or peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage in RAW 264.7 cells and phiX174 DNA. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1433-40 pubmed
  33. Chuang S, Wang H, Hsiao C, Cherng S. Zinc ion enhances GABA tea-mediated oxidative DNA damage. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:1586-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that a balance between EGCG-induced pro-oxidation and GABA-mediated antioxidation may occur in a complex mixture of GABA tea extract. ..
  34. Lelie P, Reesink H, Lucas C. Inactivation of 12 viruses by heating steps applied during manufacture of a hepatitis B vaccine. J Med Virol. 1987;23:297-301 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the two heat-inactivation steps used during the production of this vaccine kill a wide variety of viruses that might be present in human blood. ..
  35. Sandler S, Samra H, Clark A. Differential suppression of priA2::kan phenotypes in Escherichia coli K-12 by mutations in priA, lexA, and dnaC. Genetics. 1996;143:5-13 pubmed
    ..We conclude that priA's primosome-assembly activity is essential for DNA repair and recombination and that the dnaC suppressor mutations allow these processes to occur in the absence of priA. ..
  36. Reinagel M, Taylor R. Transfer of immune complexes from erythrocyte CR1 to mouse macrophages. J Immunol. 2000;164:1977-85 pubmed
    ..The released IC are then internalized and processed by the macrophages. ..
  37. Cuevas J, Duffy S, Sanjuan R. Point mutation rate of bacteriophage PhiX174. Genetics. 2009;183:747-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0x10(-6) substitutions per base per round of copying, which is consistent with Drake's rule (0.003 mutations per genome per round of copying in DNA-based microorganisms). ..
  38. Mass M, Tennant A, Roop B, Cullen W, Styblo M, Thomas D, et al. Methylated trivalent arsenic species are genotoxic. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001;14:355-61 pubmed
  39. Lund L, Williams M, Dodson R, Aust A. Iron associated with asbestos bodies is responsible for the formation of single strand breaks in phi X174 RFI DNA. Occup Environ Med. 1994;51:200-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest, however, that the iron that is deposited on asbestos fibres in vivo may be reactive, potentially increasing the damage to biomolecules, such as DNA, above that of the uncoated fibres...
  40. Kobayashi S, Koyama Y. Topological differences in the interaction of human DNA topoisomerase I with DNA-histone complexes modified by cis- and trans-DDP. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007;55:526-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the distinguishing of anti-neoplastic activity of cis- and trans-DDP can be partially explained by the distinct topologies of DNA, trefoil, figure-eight knot, and mini circular closed DNA that they produce. ..
  41. Wong B, Chiu S, Chow S. The role of negative superhelicity and length of homology in the formation of paranemic joints promoted by RecA protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:12120-7 pubmed
    ..These results support a model of two distinct kinds of DNA unwinding occurring in paranemic joint formation: an initial unwinding caused by heterologous contacts during synapsis and a later one during pairing of the homologous molecules...
  42. Peng W, Si W, Yin L, Liu H, Yu S, Liu S, et al. Salmonella enteritidis ghost vaccine induces effective protection against lethal challenge in specific-pathogen-free chicks. Immunobiology. 2011;216:558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..enteritidis were a result of the induction of a more effective immune response than that observed with the inactivated vaccine. These findings demonstrate the potential of S. enteritidis ghosts to be used as effective vaccines...
  43. Lee M, Chang Y, Hong E, Grubb J, Chang C, Bishop D, et al. Calcium ion promotes yeast Dmc1 activity via formation of long and fine helical filaments with single-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40980-4 pubmed
    ..Our data support the view that the active form of Dmc1 protein is a helical filament rather than a ring. We speculate that Ca(2+) plays a significant role in regulating meiotic recombination. ..
  44. Dang F, Shinohara S, Tabata O, Yamaoka Y, Kurokawa M, Shinohara Y, et al. Replica multichannel polymer chips with a network of sacrificial channels sealed by adhesive printing method. Lab Chip. 2005;5:472-8 pubmed
    ..The current work establishes the feasibility of mass production of PMMA multichannel chips at a cost-effective basis. ..
  45. Webster J, Burns M, Burke D, Mastrangelo C. Monolithic capillary electrophoresis device with integrated fluorescence detector. Anal Chem. 2001;73:1622-6 pubmed
    ..Separations of DNA restriction fragments have been performed in these devices with femtogram detection limits using SYBR Green I intercalating dye. ..
  46. Kuo C, Wang J, Lee G. A microfabricated CE chip for DNA pre-concentration and separation utilizing a normally closed valve. Electrophoresis. 2009;30:3228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clearly demonstrate that successful DNA pre-concentration for signal enhancement and separation analysis can be performed by using this new micro-CE chip. ..
  47. Misstear D, Gill L. The inactivation of phages MS2, ?X174 and PR772 using UV and solar photocatalysis. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2012;107:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is thought that the variation in solar intensity during the trials had a major effect on disinfection rates, as kinetics for phages varied considerably under different weather conditions. ..
  48. Soh Y, Shin M, Lee J, Jang J, Kim O, Kang H, et al. Oxidative DNA damage and glioma cell death induced by tetrahydropapaveroline. Mutat Res. 2003;544:129-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, pretreatment with inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK rescued the glioma cells from THP-induced cytotoxicity, suggestive of the involvement of these kinases in THP-induced C6 glioma cell damage. ..
  49. Teotónio H, Rose M. Perspective: reverse evolution. Evolution. 2001;55:653-60 pubmed
    ..We discuss reverse evolution experiments with Drosophila, bacterial, and viral populations. Field studies of the reverse evolution of melanism in the peppered moth are also reviewed...
  50. Mochizuki T, Prangishvili D. A simple and sensitive method for determining the strand orientation of single-stranded viral genomes. J Virol Methods. 2012;185:149-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a rapid, sensitive and simple PCR-based method is described to identify the strand orientation of single-stranded viral genomes. This method has been tested on the single-stranded DNA viruses, M13 and phiX174. ..
  51. Ozalp Yaman S, de Hoog P, Amadei G, Pitie M, Gamez P, Dewelle J, et al. Platinated copper(3-clip-phen) complexes as effective DNA-cleaving and cytotoxic agents. Chemistry. 2008;14:3418-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, both Cu(3-Clip-Phen) and 6 induces vacuolisation processes in the cell in contrast to complex 1 and cisplatin. Thus, the four complexes cisplatin tested, Cu(3-Clip-Phen), 1 and 6 stimulate different cellular responses. ..
  52. Jaschke P, Lieberman E, Rodriguez J, Sierra A, Endy D. A fully decompressed synthetic bacteriophage øX174 genome assembled and archived in yeast. Virology. 2012;434:278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..1f genome from E. coli C strains that independently express full-length gene F. We expect that yeast can serve as a genomic 'drydock' within which to maintain and manipulate clonal lineages of other obligate lytic phage. ..
  53. Uchiyama A, Heiman P, Fane B. N-terminal deletions of the phiX174 external scaffolding protein affect the timing and fidelity of assembly. Virology. 2009;386:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One class of suppressors most likely acts by altering mutant external scaffolding protein expression while the second class of suppressors appears to act on the level of protein-protein interactions. ..
  54. Decrey L, Udert K, Tilley E, Pecson B, Kohn T. Fate of the pathogen indicators phage ?X174 and Ascaris suum eggs during the production of struvite fertilizer from source-separated urine. Water Res. 2011;45:4960-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Sunlight exposure did not directly affect the infectivity of phages or Ascaris eggs in struvite cakes, though the resultant rise in temperature accelerated the drying of the struvite cake, which contributed to inactivation...
  55. Ogata N, Sakasegawa M, Miura T, Shibata T, Takigawa Y, Taura K, et al. Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas. Pharmacology. 2016;97:301-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly support the potential use of ClO2 gas at a non-toxic level to reduce infections caused by the inhalation of pathogenic microbes in nursing homes and medical facilities. ..
  56. Peng B, Ye P, Blazar B, Freeman G, Rawlings D, Ochs H, et al. Transient blockade of the inducible costimulator pathway generates long-term tolerance to factor VIII after nonviral gene transfer into hemophilia A mice. Blood. 2008;112:1662-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that transient anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody treatment represents a novel single-agent immunomodulatory strategy to overcome the immune responses against transgene product after gene therapy...
  57. Zheng Y, Struck D, Dankenbring C, Young R. Evolutionary dominance of holin lysis systems derives from superior genetic malleability. Microbiology. 2008;154:1710-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The inferior malleability of single-gene systems like E would restrict their occurrence to phages in which coding capacity is the overriding evolutionary constraint...
  58. Krueger J, Ochs H, Patel P, Gilkerson E, Guttman Yassky E, Dummer W. Effect of therapeutic integrin (CD11a) blockade with efalizumab on immune responses to model antigens in humans: results of a randomized, single blind study. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results expand our knowledge of how immune responses are modulated in humans by CD11a blockade and have implications for vaccinations of patients treated with this agent...
  59. Sung P. Catalysis of ATP-dependent homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange by yeast RAD51 protein. Science. 1994;265:1241-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, RAD51 is a eukaryotic recombination protein that can catalyze the strand exchange reaction...
  60. Brezeanu M, Taucher Scholz G, Psonka K, Träger F, Hubenthal F. SFM studies of carbon ion induced damages in plasmid DNA. J Mol Recognit. 2007;20:502-7 pubmed
    ..2 after exposure to the highest dose of D = 5000 Gy. The results provide experimental data for the spatially correlated production of DSBs after carbon irradiation, that are relevant to the understanding of its biological effectiveness...
  61. Menon E, Morrison H. Formation of singlet oxygen by urocanic acid by UVA irradiation and some consequences thereof. Photochem Photobiol. 2002;75:565-9 pubmed
    ..Singlet oxygen does not appear to play a role in the nicking of the plasmid...
  62. Sano H, Royer H, Sager R. Identification of 5-methylcytosine in DNA fragments immobilized on nitrocellulose paper. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:3581-5 pubmed
    ..02 pmol of m5Cyt and with 100 ng of satellite DNA containing about 0.5 pmol of m5Cyt. Thus, the method makes possible the identification of individual methylated sites in purified DNAs in the size range of single genes...
  63. Achwal C, Ganguly P, Chandra H. Estimation of the amount of 5-methylcytosine in Drosophila melanogaster DNA by amplified ELISA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. EMBO J. 1984;3:263-6 pubmed
    ..melanogaster DNA, one 5-methylcytosine residue in approximately 12 500 bases or 0.008 mol% methylation...
  64. Cherwa J, Fane B. From resistance to stimulation: the evolution of a virus in the presence of a dominant lethal inhibitory scaffolding protein. J Virol. 2011;85:6589-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, along with the coat protein mutations, stimulation required two external scaffolding protein genes: the once inhibitory gene and the mutant gene acquired during evolution...
  65. Jechlinger W, Szostak M, Witte A, Lubitz W. Altered temperature induction sensitivity of the lambda pR/cI857 system for controlled gene E expression in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;173:347-52 pubmed
    ..In this study we describe a mutation in the lambda pR promoter, which allows stringent repression of gene E expression at temperatures up to 36 degrees C, but still permits induction of cell lysis at 42 degrees C...
  66. Kamei T, Paegel B, Scherer J, Skelley A, Street R, Mathies R. Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices. Anal Chem. 2003;75:5300-5 pubmed
  67. Morais M, Fisher M, Kanamaru S, Przybyla L, Burgner J, Fane B, et al. Conformational switching by the scaffolding protein D directs the assembly of bacteriophage phiX174. Mol Cell. 2004;15:991-7 pubmed
    ..Hence, comparison with the procapsid structure provides a rare opportunity to follow the conformational switching events necessary for the construction of complex macromolecular assemblies...
  68. Walcher P, Mayr U, Azimpour Tabrizi C, Eko F, Jechlinger W, Mayrhofer P, et al. Antigen discovery and delivery of subunit vaccines by nonliving bacterial ghost vectors. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004;3:681-91 pubmed
    ..The potency, safety and relatively low production cost of BGs offer a significant technical advantage over currently utilized vaccine technologies...
  69. Johnson J, Johnston B, Clabots C, Kuskowski M, Pendyala S, Debroy C, et al. Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 as an emerging fluoroquinolone-resistant uropathogen among renal transplant recipients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:546-50 pubmed publisher
    ..ST131 emerged significantly during the study period. These findings suggest that E. coli ST131 may constitute an important new multidrug-resistant threat to renal transplant recipients. ..
  70. Restrepo P. [Comment on the Technical Note "Determination of the viral permeability of polyolefin membrane condoms by bacteriophage phiX174"]. Biomedica. 2006;26:169; author reply 169-70 pubmed
  71. Zhuang J, Jin Y. Interactions between viruses and goethite during saturated flow: effects of solution pH, carbonate, and phosphate. J Contam Hydrol. 2008;98:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..About 70% of the total input viruses (both phiX174 and MS-2) were removed during transport, of which 35% phiX174 and 85% MS-2 were eventually inactivated...
  72. Bryant F, Menge K, Nguyen T. Kinetic modeling of the recA protein promoted renaturation of complementary DNA strands. Biochemistry. 1989;28:1062-9 pubmed
  73. Fu L, Lu C. A novel dual vector coexpressing PhiX174 lysis E gene and staphylococcal nuclease A gene on the basis of lambda promoter pR and pL, respectively. Mol Biotechnol. 2013;54:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..By substituting these two genes with customized multiple cloning sites sequences, the plasmid could be modified to a dual expression vector (pKF396M-5)...
  74. Gordon E, Knuff C, Fane B. Conformational switch-defective X174 internal scaffolding proteins kinetically trap assembly intermediates before procapsid formation. J Virol. 2012;86:9911-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this model, an incomplete or improper switch would kinetically trap intermediates...
  75. Tong L, Rossmann M. The locked rotation function. Acta Crystallogr A. 1990;46 ( Pt 10):783-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, the peak-to-noise ratio is substantially improved...
  76. Li N, Wen Z, Yang W, Wang J, Li J, Hu L, et al. [Evaluation of the protective performance of a positive pressure bio-protective clothing against viral aerosol]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;46:67-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the protective performance of a positive pressure bio-protective clothing against viral aerosol...
  77. Harris D. Optimizing cord blood sample cryopreservation. Cytotherapy. 2012;14:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..CB may be cryopreserved in either vials or bags without concern for temperature stability. Sample overwrapping is sufficient to prevent microbiologic contamination of the samples while in liquid-phase liquid nitrogen storage. ..
  78. Nonoyama S, Smith F, Bernstein I, Ochs H. Strain-dependent leakiness of mice with severe combined immune deficiency. J Immunol. 1993;150:3817-24 pubmed
    ..After immunization with bacteriophage phi X 174, neither C3H nor CB17 SCID mice, including leaky mice, produced specific antibody to phage...
  79. Barta C, Sasvari Szekely M, Guttman A. Simultaneous analysis of various mutations on the 21-hydroxylase gene by multi-allele specific amplification and capillary gel electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 1998;817:281-6 pubmed
    ..In the present study, several point mutations were analyzed simultaneously by MASA-CGE on the 21-hydroxylase gene of a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia...
  80. Mosley Foreman C, Choi J, Wang S, Yu H. Phototoxicity of phenylenediamine hair dye chemicals in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and human skin keratinocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3780-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Two chlorinated PDs and two non-chlorinated PDs are cytotoxic at a fairly high concentration (1000microM) upon exposure to light irradiation...
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    ..Temperature was found to have a significant effect on separation efficiency...