bacteriophage p2

Summary

Summary: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.

Top Publications

  1. Ziermann R, Bartlett B, Calendar R, Christie G. Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4974-84 pubmed
    Successful completion of the bacteriophage P2 lytic cycle requires phage-induced lysis of its Escherichia coli host, a process that is poorly understood...
  2. Markov D, Christie G, Sauer B, Calendar R, Park T, Young R, et al. P2 growth restriction on an rpoC mutant is suppressed by alleles of the Rz1 homolog lysC. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4628-37 pubmed
    ..that removes the last 50 amino acids of the RNA polymerase beta' subunit and is nonpermissive for plating of bacteriophage P2. P2 gor mutants productively infect 397c and define a new gene, lysC, encoded by a reading frame that ..
  3. Odegrip R, Haggård Ljungquist E. The two active-site tyrosine residues of the a protein play non-equivalent roles during initiation of rolling circle replication of bacteriophage p2. J Mol Biol. 2001;308:147-63 pubmed
    The A protein of bacteriophage P2 initiates rolling circle DNA replication by a single-stranded cut at the origin...
  4. Liu T, Renberg S, Haggård Ljungquist E. The E protein of satellite phage P4 acts as an anti-repressor by binding to the C protein of helper phage P2. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:1041-50 pubmed
  5. Liu T, Renberg S, Haggård Ljungquist E. Derepression of prophage P2 by satellite phage P4: cloning of the P4 epsilon gene and identification of its product. J Virol. 1997;71:4502-8 pubmed
    ..The ash9 mutation, which is located upstream of the epsilon gene, enhances the E-mediated derepression of the Pe promoter. The purified E protein shows no specific DNA binding activity, and the implications of this are discussed...
  6. Nilsson A, Karlsson J, Haggård Ljungquist E. Site-specific recombination links the evolution of P2-like coliphages and pathogenic enterobacteria. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:1-13 pubmed
    ..The genes found between the IRs have unknown functions, and only a few clearly similar genes have been found in other bacteria...
  7. Christie G, Temple L, Bartlett B, Goodwin T. Programmed translational frameshift in the bacteriophage P2 FETUD tail gene operon. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6522-31 pubmed
    ..This arrangement shows a striking parallel to the organization in the tail gene cluster of phage lambda, despite a lack of amino acid sequence similarity between the tail gene products of these phage families...
  8. Nilsson A, Hagg rd Ljungquist E. Detection of homologous recombination among bacteriophage P2 relatives. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001;21:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The applicability of different methods used for detection of recombination breakpoints and estimation of rates of recombination in bacteriophages is discussed...
  9. Eriksson J, Haggård Ljungquist E. The multifunctional bacteriophage P2 cox protein requires oligomerization for biological activity. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6714-23 pubmed
    The Cox protein of bacteriophage P2 is a multifunctional protein of 91 amino acids. It is directly involved in the site-specific recombination event leading to excision of P2 DNA out of the host chromosome...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Frumerie C, Sylwan L, Ahlgren Berg A, Haggård Ljungquist E. Cooperative interactions between bacteriophage P2 integrase and its accessory factors IHF and Cox. Virology. 2005;332:284-94 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P2 integrase (Int) mediates site-specific recombination leading to integration or excision of the phage genome in or out of the bacterial chromosome...
  2. Rishovd S, Holzenburg A, Johansen B, Lindqvist B. Bacteriophage P2 and P4 morphogenesis: structure and function of the connector. Virology. 1998;245:11-7 pubmed
    ..We have focused on the bacteriophage P2/P4 connector, and here we report an image reconstruction based on 2D crystalline layers of connector protein ..
  3. Mosig G, Yu S, Myung H, Haggård Ljungquist E, Davenport L, Carlson K, et al. A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: bacteriophage P2 Tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4 single-stranded DNA binding protein, gp32. Virology. 1997;230:72-81 pubmed
    ..Thereby Tin protein inhibits either assembly or function, or both, of the T4 replisome. The inhibition of late gene expression by P2 Tin protein may be an indirect consequence of inhibition of DNA replication...
  4. Christie G, Cale S, Isaksson L, Jin D, Xu M, Sauer B, et al. Escherichia coli rpoC397 encodes a temperature-sensitive C-terminal frameshift in the beta' subunit of RNA polymerase that blocks growth of bacteriophage P2. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:6991-3 pubmed
    Escherichia coli 397c is temperature sensitive for growth at 43.5 degrees C and unable to plate bacteriophage P2 at 33 degrees C. The mutation conferring these phenotypes was mapped to the rpoC gene...
  5. Nilsson A, Haggård Ljungquist E. Evolution of P2-like phages and their impact on bacterial evolution. Res Microbiol. 2007;158:311-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this suggests that P2-like phages and their hosts are coevolving...
  6. Odegrip R, Nilsson A, Haggård Ljungquist E. Identification of a gene encoding a functional reverse transcriptase within a highly variable locus in the P2-like coliphages. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1643-7 pubmed
    ..The product of one of them exhibits reverse transcriptase activity and blocks infection of phage T5...
  7. Yu A, Haggård Ljungquist E. The Cox protein is a modulator of directionality in bacteriophage P2 site-specific recombination. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7848-55 pubmed
    ..Together, these data support the theory that in vivo, P2 can exert control over the direction of recombination by either expressing Int alone or Int and Cox together...
  8. Wang S, Chang J, Dokland T. Assembly of bacteriophage P2 and P4 procapsids with internal scaffolding protein. Virology. 2006;348:133-40 pubmed
    Assembly of the E. coli bacteriophage P2 into an icosahedral capsid with T = 7 symmetry is dependent on the gpN capsid protein, the gpQ connector protein and the gpO internal scaffolding protein...
  9. Liu Y, Haggård Ljungquist E. Studies of bacteriophage P2 DNA replication: localization of the cleavage site of the A protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:5204-10 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P2 replicates via a modified rolling circle-type of mechanism, where the P2 A protein acts as an initiator of the replication by inducing a single-stranded cut at the origin of replication (ori)...
  10. Rishovd S, Marvik O, Jacobsen E, Lindqvist B. Bacteriophage P2 and P4 morphogenesis: identification and characterization of the portal protein. Virology. 1994;200:744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has demonstrated processing of the major capsid protein. Thus, all essential capsid proteins of P2 and P4 are proteolytically cleaved during the morphogenetic process...
  11. Linderoth N, Julien B, Flick K, Calendar R, Christie G. Molecular cloning and characterization of bacteriophage P2 genes R and S involved in tail completion. Virology. 1994;200:347-59 pubmed
    The sequences of two previously known tail genes, R and S, of the temperate bacteriophage P2 and the sequence of an additional open reading frame (orf-30) located between S and V, were determined...
  12. Liu T, Hagg rd Ljungquist E. The transcriptional switch of bacteriophage WPhi, a P2-related but heteroimmune coliphage. J Virol. 1999;73:9816-26 pubmed
    ..However, in contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox is unable to activate the P4 Pll promoter...
  13. Kim K, Song J. Isolation and characterization of the smallest bacteriophage P4 derivatives packaged into P4-size head in bacteriophage P2-P4 system. J Microbiol. 2006;44:530-6 pubmed
    ..P4 ash8 delRI:: apr turned out to be the smallest P4 genome that can be packaged into P4-sized head...
  14. Hagg rd Ljungquist E, Jacobsen E, Rishovd S, Six E, Nilssen O, Sunshine M, et al. Bacteriophage P2: genes involved in baseplate assembly. Virology. 1995;213:109-21 pubmed
    The sequences of two previously defined tail genes, V and J, of the temperate bacteriophage P2, and those of two new essential tail genes, W and I, were determined...
  15. Massad T, Papadopoulos E, Henriksson Peltola P, Haggård Ljungquist E, Damberg P. Assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift resonances of P2 C-repressor protein. Biomol NMR Assign. 2008;2:215-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The C-repressor controls the genetic switch that determines if the temperate P2 phage should exist in the lytic or lysogenic lifemode...
  16. Renberg Eriksson S, Ahlgren Berg A, DeGrooth J, Haggård Ljungquist E. Characterization of the developmental switch region of bacteriophage P2 Hy dis. Virology. 2001;290:199-210 pubmed
    ..The P4 E protein was shown to derepress the developmental switch of P2 Hy dis in a plasmid-based derepression assay...
  17. Karlsson J, Cardoso Palacios C, Nilsson A, Haggård Ljungquist E. Evolution of immunity and host chromosome integration site of P2-like coliphages. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3923-35 pubmed
    ..The evolution of immunity and integration sites is complex, since it involves interactions both between the phages themselves and between phages and hosts, and often, both regulatory proteins and target DNA must change...
  18. Ahlgren Berg A, Henriksson Peltola P, Sehlén W, Haggård Ljungquist E. A comparison of the DNA binding and bending capacities and the oligomeric states of the immunity repressors of heteroimmune coliphages P2 and WPhi. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:3167-80 pubmed
    ..However, the protein-DNA complexes formed differ, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift experiments. A difference in spontaneous phage production is observed in isogenic lysogens...
  19. Spinelli S, Desmyter A, Verrips C, de Haard H, Moineau S, Cambillau C. Lactococcal bacteriophage p2 receptor-binding protein structure suggests a common ancestor gene with bacterial and mammalian viruses. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:85-9 pubmed
    ..The double-stranded DNA bacteriophage p2 infects specific L...
  20. Myung H, Calendar R. The old exonuclease of bacteriophage P2. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:497-501 pubmed
    The Old protein of bacteriophage P2 is responsible for interference with the growth of phage lambda and for killing of recBC mutant Escherichia coli...
  21. Dearborn A, Laurinmäki P, Chandramouli P, Rodenburg C, Wang S, Butcher S, et al. Structure and size determination of bacteriophage P2 and P4 procapsids: function of size responsiveness mutations. J Struct Biol. 2012;178:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bacteriophage P2 normally forms an icosahedral capsid with T=7 symmetry from the gpN capsid protein, the gpO scaffolding ..
  22. Lynch K, Stothard P, Dennis J. Genomic analysis and relatedness of P2-like phages of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:599 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of our study was to sequence and characterize three novel BCC-specific phages: KS5 (vB_BceM-KS5 or vB_BmuZ-ATCC 17616), KS14 (vB_BceM-KS14) and KL3 (vB_BamM-KL3 or vB_BceZ-CEP511)...
  23. Mao J, Inouye S, Inouye M. msDNA-Ec48, the smallest multicopy single-stranded DNA from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7865-8 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the DNA sequences flanking the retron indicates that retron-Ec48 is associated with a prophage related to phages P2 and P4. ..
  24. Marvik O, Jacobsen E, Dokland T, Lindqvist B. Bacteriophage P2 and P4 morphogenesis: assembly precedes proteolytic processing of the capsid proteins. Virology. 1994;205:51-65 pubmed
    ..This result supports the conclusion that gpO is required for both phages and strongly suggests that the O derivative, h7 (found in mature capsids), results from proteolytic cleavage after gpN/gpO coassembly...
  25. Garcia E, Chain P, Elliott J, Bobrov A, Motin V, Kirillina O, et al. Molecular characterization of L-413C, a P2-related plague diagnostic bacteriophage. Virology. 2008;372:85-96 pubmed
    ..pestis, and that the Y. pestis receptors that are recognized and bound by L-413C either do not exist in Y. pseudotuberculosis or have a different structure. ..
  26. Liu Y, Haggård Ljungquist E. Functional characterization of the P2 A initiator protein and its DNA cleavage site. Virology. 1996;216:158-64 pubmed
    The A protein of bacteriophage P2 initiates DNA replication by a single-stranded cut at the origin, and the DNA replication proceeds unidirectionally by a modified rolling circle type of replication...
  27. Ahlgren Berg A, Cardoso Palacios C, Eriksson J, Mandali S, Sehlén W, Sylwan L, et al. A comparative analysis of the bifunctional Cox proteins of two heteroimmune P2-like phages with different host integration sites. Virology. 2009;385:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..WPhi Cox, however, is essential for excisive recombination in vitro. WPhi Cox, like P2 Cox, binds cooperatively with integrase to attP. Both Cox proteins induce a strong bend in their DNA targets upon binding. ..
  28. Chang J, Spilman M, Rodenburg C, Dokland T. Functional domains of the bacteriophage P2 scaffolding protein: identification of residues involved in assembly and protease activity. Virology. 2009;384:144-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage P2 encodes a scaffolding protein, gpO, which is required for correct assembly of P2 procapsids from the gpN major capsid protein...
  29. Chang J, Poliakov A, Prevelige P, Mobley J, Dokland T. Incorporation of scaffolding protein gpO in bacteriophages P2 and P4. Virology. 2008;370:352-61 pubmed
    ..In bacteriophage P2, an internal scaffolding protein, gpO, is required for the assembly of correctly formed viral capsids...
  30. Massad T, Skaar K, Nilsson H, Damberg P, Henriksson Peltola P, Haggård Ljungquist E, et al. Crystal structure of the P2 C-repressor: a binder of non-palindromic direct DNA repeats. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:7778-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure provides insight into the mechanisms behind the mutants of P2 C causing dimer disruption, temperature sensitivity and insensitivity to the P4 antirepressor. ..
  31. Christie G, Anders D, McAlister V, Goodwin T, Julien B, Calendar R. Identification of upstream sequences essential for activation of a bacteriophage P2 late promoter. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4609-14 pubmed
    We have carried out a mutational scan of the upstream region of the bacteriophage P2 FETUD late operon promoter, P(F), which spans an element of hyphenated dyad symmetry that is conserved among all six of the P2 and P4 late promoters...
  32. Gebhardt K, King R, Christie G, Lindqvist B. Mutational analysis of the bacteriophage P2 Ogr protein: truncation of the carboxy terminus. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7724-6 pubmed
    ..is a 72-residue, zinc-binding transcription factor essential for activation of late gene expression in bacteriophage P2. Analysis of C-terminal truncated proteins generated by stop codon mutagenesis shows that deletion of ..
  33. Marvik O, Sharma P, Dokland T, Lindqvist B. Bacteriophage P2 and P4 assembly: alternative scaffolding proteins regulate capsid size. Virology. 1994;200:702-14 pubmed
    The capsid protein of bacteriophage P2, encoded by the N gene, can assemble into icosahedral capsids of two possible sizes, with diameters of 60 and 45 nm, respectively...
  34. Henriksson Peltola P, Sehlén W, Haggård Ljungquist E. Determination of the DNA-binding kinetics of three related but heteroimmune bacteriophage repressors using EMSA and SPR analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:3181-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, the kinetics of complex formation and the nature of the complexes formed differ extensively between these very closely related phages. ..
  35. Scaltriti E, Tegoni M, Rivetti C, Launay H, Masson J, Magadan A, et al. Structure and function of phage p2 ORF34(p2), a new type of single-stranded DNA binding protein. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:1156-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that ORF34(p2) is able to stimulate Escherichia coli RecA-mediated homologous recombination. The specific structural and biochemical properties that distinguish ORF34(p2) from other SSB proteins are discussed. ..
  36. Sváb D, Horvath B, Maroti G, Dobrindt U, Toth I. Sequence variability of P2-like prophage genomes carrying the cytolethal distending toxin V operon in Escherichia coli O157. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:4958-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that P2-like phages play a role in the dissemination of cdt-V between E. coli O157 strains and that after integration into the bacterial chromosome, they adapted to the respective hosts and became temperate. ..
  37. Lindqvist B, Deho G, Calendar R. Mechanisms of genome propagation and helper exploitation by satellite phage P4. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:683-702 pubmed
    ..Expression of P4 replication functions is prevented by premature transcription termination effected by this small RNA molecule, which contains a sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the transcript that it terminates. ..
  38. Sylwan L, Frumerie C, Haggård Ljungquist E. Identification of bases required for P2 integrase core binding and recombination. Virology. 2010;404:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed single nucleotides in attB and find that sequence homology within a non-centrally located quadruplet in the hypothetical overlap region is essential for efficient recombination in vivo. ..
  39. Portelli R, Dodd I, Xue Q, Egan J. The late-expressed region of the temperate coliphage 186 genome. Virology. 1998;248:117-30 pubmed
    ..The relative absence of lysogenic conversion genes in 186 suggests that the two phages have evolved to use the lytic and lysogenic reproductive modes to different extents...
  40. Esposito D, Fitzmaurice W, Benjamin R, Goodman S, Waldman A, Scocca J. The complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage HP1 DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2360-8 pubmed
  41. Julien B, Calendar R. Purification and characterization of the bacteriophage P4 delta protein. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3743-51 pubmed
    ..is a transcriptional activator of the late genes of P4 as well as the late genes of its helpers, such as bacteriophage P2. delta was purified, using a variation of the MalE fusion system...
  42. Siponen M, Sciara G, Villion M, Spinelli S, Lichière J, Cambillau C, et al. Crystal structure of ORF12 from Lactococcus lactis phage p2 identifies a tape measure protein chaperone. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest, therefore, that ORF12 might act as a chaperone for TMP hydrophobic repeats, maintaining TMP in solution during the tail assembly of the lactococcal siphophage p2...
  43. Hao W, Xu W, Chen B, Wang P, Dong W, Li M. [Preparation and identification of phage-displayed ICAM-1-mimic peptide]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;19:77-9 pubmed
    ..To obtain bioactive ICAM-1 mimetic peptide...
  44. Yamashita E, Nakagawa A, Takahashi J, Tsunoda K, Yamada S, Takeda S. The host-binding domain of the P2 phage tail spike reveals a trimeric iron-binding structure. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2011;67:837-41 pubmed publisher
    The adsorption and infection of bacteriophage P2 is mediated by tail fibres and tail spikes. The tail spikes on the tail baseplate are used to irreversibly adsorb to the host cells...
  45. Veesler D, Spinelli S, Mahony J, Lichière J, Blangy S, Bricogne G, et al. Structure of the phage TP901-1 1.8 MDa baseplate suggests an alternative host adhesion mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8954-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that these two families rely on diverse adhesion strategies which may lead to different signaling for genome release...
  46. Kunisawa T, Kanaya S, Kutter E. Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. DNA Res. 1998;5:319-26 pubmed
    ..Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available...
  47. Wood L, Tszine N, Christie G. Activation of P2 late transcription by P2 Ogr protein requires a discrete contact site on the C terminus of the alpha subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 1997;274:1-7 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P2 late transcription requires the product of the P2 ogr gene. Ogr-dependent transcription from P2 late promoters is blocked by certain point mutations affecting the alpha subunits of the host RNA polymerase...
  48. Bertani G. Deletions in bacteriophage P2. Circularity of the genetic map and its orientation relative to the DNA denaturation map. Mol Gen Genet. 1975;136:107-37 pubmed
    Several types of viable chromosomal deletions of bacteriophage P2 were isolated. One type gives the immunity insensitive phenotype and may extend to the genes for the immunity repressor (C) and for integrative recombination (int)...
  49. de Haard H, Bezemer S, Ledeboer A, Müller W, Boender P, Moineau S, et al. Llama antibodies against a lactococcal protein located at the tip of the phage tail prevent phage infection. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4531-41 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage p2 belongs to the most prevalent lactococcal phage group (936) responsible for considerable losses in industrial production of cheese...
  50. Bertani G, Deho G. Bacteriophage P2: recombination in the superinfection preprophage state and under replication control by phage P4. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:406-16 pubmed
    Genetic crosses (mixed infection, lytic cycle) with bacteriophage P2 are known to give extremely low recombination frequencies, and these are unaffected by the recA status of the host bacterium...
  51. Bebeacua C, Tremblay D, Farenc C, Chapot Chartier M, Sadovskaya I, Van Heel M, et al. Structure, adsorption to host, and infection mechanism of virulent lactococcal phage p2. J Virol. 2013;87:12302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis strains by phage p2 is a multistep process that involves reversible attachment, followed by baseplate activation, specific attachment of the RBPs to the saccharidic receptor, and DNA ejection...
  52. Veesler D, Blangy S, Spinelli S, Tavares P, Campanacci V, Cambillau C. Crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis SPP1 phage gp22 shares fold similarity with a domain of lactococcal phage p2 RBP. Protein Sci. 2010;19:1439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..35 A resolution. We found that gp22 is a monomer in solution and possesses a significant structural similarity with lactococcal phage p2 ORF 18 N-terminal "shoulder" domain...
  53. Julien B, Lefevre P, Calendar R. The two P2 Ogr-like domains of the delta protein from bacteriophage P4 are required for activity. Virology. 1997;230:292-9 pubmed
    The satellite P4 phage Delta protein positively regulates the late genes of its helper bacteriophage P2, as well as its own late genes...
  54. Davies R, Lee I. Diversity of temperate bacteriophages induced in bovine and ovine Mannheimia haemolytica isolates and identification of a new P2-like phage. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;260:162-70 pubmed
    ..1), representative of the RE type A phages, was identified from the incomplete M. haemolytica genome sequence. The phiPHL213.1 genome contains previously unidentified genes and represents a new member of the P2 phage family...
  55. Kageyama Y, Murayama M, Onodera T, Yamada S, Fukada H, Kudou M, et al. Observation of the membrane binding activity and domain structure of gpV, which comprises the tail spike of bacteriophage P2. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that gpV binds the E. coli membrane via its C-terminal domain. We conclude that the C-terminal domain of gpV is a stable trimer and serves as the receptor-binding domain for the second step in the phage adsorption process...
  56. Kita K, Kawakami H, Tanaka H. Evidence for horizontal transfer of the EcoT38I restriction-modification gene to chromosomal DNA by the P2 phage and diversity of defective P2 prophages in Escherichia coli TH38 strains. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2296-305 pubmed
    ..R)-modification (M) system (R-M system) was found to be inserted between the A and Q genes of defective bacteriophage P2, which was lysogenized in the chromosome at locI, one of the P2 phage attachment sites observed in both E...
  57. Morales Soto N, Gaudriault S, Ogier J, Thappeta K, Forst S. Comparative analysis of P2-type remnant prophage loci in Xenorhabdus bovienii and Xenorhabdus nematophila required for xenorhabdicin production. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;333:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombination between the main fiber genes and the C-terminal fragments could potentially expand the host range specificity of xenorhabdicin in the respective strains...
  58. Beilstein F, Dreiseikelmann B. Temperate bacteriophage PhiO18P from an Aeromonas media isolate: characterization and complete genome sequence. Virology. 2008;373:25-9 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139...
  59. Bjerve K, Lindqvist B. The N-terminal part of bacteriophage P2 capsid protein is essential for postassembly maturation of P2 and P4 capsids. Virology. 1996;224:568-72 pubmed
    During capsid assembly of bacteriophage P2 and its satellite phage P4, gpN undergoes proteolytic cleavage with the removal of the first 31 amino acids...
  60. To K, Dewey J, Weaver J, Park T, Young R. Functional analysis of a class I holin, P2 Y. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:1346-55 pubmed publisher
  61. Nilssen O, Fossdal C, Johansen B, Lindqvist B. Bacteriophage P4 capsid-size determination and its relationship to P2 helper interference. Virology. 1996;219:443-52 pubmed
    ..We propose that P4 encodes a yet-unidentified function that in concert with gpSid establishes full P2 helper interference at the level of capsid-size determination...
  62. Chang J, Spilman M, Dokland T. Assembly of bacteriophage P2 capsids from capsid protein fused to internal scaffolding protein. Virus Genes. 2010;40:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The gpO scaffolding protein of bacteriophage P2 also doubles as a maturation protease, while the scaffolding activity is confined to a 90 residue C-terminal &..
  63. Odegrip R, Schoen S, Haggård Ljungquist E, Park K, Chattoraj D. The interaction of bacteriophage P2 B protein with Escherichia coli DnaB helicase. J Virol. 2000;74:4057-63 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P2 requires several host proteins for lytic replication, including helicase DnaB but not the helicase loader, DnaC. Some genetic studies have suggested that the loading is done by a phage-encoded protein, P2 B...
  64. Nakayama K, Takashima K, Ishihara H, Shinomiya T, Kageyama M, Kanaya S, et al. The R-type pyocin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is related to P2 phage, and the F-type is related to lambda phage. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:213-31 pubmed
  65. Sciara G, Bebeacua C, Bron P, Tremblay D, Ortiz Lombardia M, Lichière J, et al. Structure of lactococcal phage p2 baseplate and its mechanism of activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These conformational changes reveal a novel siphophage activation and host-recognition mechanism leading ultimately to DNA ejection...
  66. Pelludat C, Mirold S, Hardt W. The SopEPhi phage integrates into the ssrA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium A36 and is closely related to the Fels-2 prophage. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5182-91 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that there is considerable variation among the P2-like phages present in closely related Salmonella spp...
  67. Reiersen H, Løbersli I, Løset G, Hvattum E, Simonsen B, Stacy J, et al. Covalent antibody display--an in vitro antibody-DNA library selection system. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:e10 pubmed
    The endonuclease P2A initiates the DNA replication of the bacteriophage P2 by making a covalent bond with its own phosphate backbone. This enzyme has now been exploited as a new in vitro display tool for antibody fragments...
  68. Frumerie C, M Eriksson J, Dugast M, Haggård Ljungquist E. Dimerization of bacteriophage P2 integrase is not required for binding to its DNA target but for its biological activity. Gene. 2005;344:221-31 pubmed
    ..The dimerization deficient mutants were unaffected in binding to its phage attachment site (attP) substrate, but had a reduced ability to complement an int-defective prophage...
  69. Chattoraj D, Younghusband H, Inman R. Physical mapping of bacteriophage P2 mutations and their relation to the genetic map. Mol Gen Genet. 1975;136:139-49 pubmed
    Three new deletion mutants and an insertion mutant of E. coli bacteriophage P2, del2, vir79, del4 and sig5, were mapped by the electron microscope heteroduplex method. The deletions were found to cover 45.5-51.6%, 75.6-76.7% and 92.3-99...
  70. Tremblay D, Tegoni M, Spinelli S, Campanacci V, Blangy S, Huyghe C, et al. Receptor-binding protein of Lactococcus lactis phages: identification and characterization of the saccharide receptor-binding site. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2400-10 pubmed
    ..Other saccharides bind RBP with comparable high affinity. These data prove the saccharidic nature of the bacterial receptor recognized by phage p2 and identify the position of its binding site in the RBP head domain...