bacteriophage mu

Summary

Summary: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.

Top Publications

  1. Ferrières L, Hémery G, Nham T, Guerout A, Mazel D, Beloin C, et al. Silent mischief: bacteriophage Mu insertions contaminate products of Escherichia coli random mutagenesis performed using suicidal transposon delivery plasmids mobilized by broad-host-range RP4 conjugative machinery. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:6418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we demonstrate that bacteriophage Mu, which was deliberately introduced during the original construction of the widely used donor strains SM10 ?..
  2. Schumacher S, Clubb R, Cai M, Mizuuchi K, Clore G, Gronenborn A. Solution structure of the Mu end DNA-binding ibeta subdomain of phage Mu transposase: modular DNA recognition by two tethered domains. EMBO J. 1997;16:7532-41 pubmed
    ..Based on the present binding data and the structures of the Ibeta and Igamma subdomains, a model for the interaction of the complete Ibetagamma domain with DNA is proposed. ..
  3. Pato M. Replication of Mu prophages lacking the central strong gyrase site. Res Microbiol. 2004;155:553-8 pubmed
    ..However, there were also exceptions to this overall gradient. Possible explanations for the differences in the delays observed with SGS(-) prophages are discussed. ..
  4. Masignani V, Giuliani M, Tettelin H, Comanducci M, Rappuoli R, Scarlato V. Mu-like Prophage in serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis coding for surface-exposed antigens. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2580-8 pubmed
    ..These likely represent genes acquired by horizontal transfer. Three of the acquired genes are shown to code for surface-associated antigens, and the encoded proteins are able to induce bactericidal antibodies. ..
  5. Pathania S, Jayaram M, Harshey R. Path of DNA within the Mu transpososome. Transposase interactions bridging two Mu ends and the enhancer trap five DNA supercoils. Cell. 2002;109:425-36 pubmed
    ..Difference topology provides a simple method for determining the ordered sequestration of DNA segments within nucleoprotein assemblies. ..
  6. Greene E, Mizuuchi K. Dynamics of a protein polymer: the assembly and disassembly pathways of the MuB transposition target complex. EMBO J. 2002;21:1477-86 pubmed
    ..involved in the selection of an appropriate site on the Escherichia coli chromosome for the insertion of the bacteriophage Mu genome...
  7. Hattman S. Unusual transcriptional and translational regulation of the bacteriophage Mu mom operon. Pharmacol Ther. 1999;84:367-88 pubmed
    The bacteriophage Mu mom gene encodes a novel DNA modification that protects the viral genome against a wide variety of restriction endonucleases. Expression of mom is subject to a series of unusual regulatory controls...
  8. Han Y, Mizuuchi K. Phage Mu transposition immunity: protein pattern formation along DNA by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism. Mol Cell. 2010;39:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that iterative loop formation/disruption cycles with intervening diffusional steps result in larger DNA loops, leading to preferential insertion of the transposon at sites distant from the transposon ends. ..
  9. Kruklitis R, Welty D, Nakai H. ClpX protein of Escherichia coli activates bacteriophage Mu transposase in the strand transfer complex for initiation of Mu DNA synthesis. EMBO J. 1996;15:935-44 pubmed
    During transposition bacteriophage Mu transposase (MuA) catalyzes the transfer of a DNA strand at each Mu end to target DNA and then remains tightly bound to the Mu ends...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Abalakina E, Tokmakova I, Gorshkova N, Gak E, Akhverdyan V, Mashko S, et al. Phage Mu-driven two-plasmid system for integration of recombinant DNA in the Methylophilus methylotrophus genome. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;81:191-200 pubmed publisher
  2. Sandler S, McCool J, Do T, Johansen R. PriA mutations that affect PriA-PriC function during replication restart. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:697-704 pubmed
    ..We conclude that priA300 and priA301 mostly affect the PriA-PriC pathway and do so more than priA306. We suggest that PriA's helicase activity is important for the PriA-PriC pathway of replication restart. ..
  3. Rice P, Mizuuchi K. Structure of the bacteriophage Mu transposase core: a common structural motif for DNA transposition and retroviral integration. Cell. 1995;82:209-20 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the core domain of bacteriophage Mu transposase, MuA, has been determined at 2.4 A resolution...
  4. North S, Kirtland S, Nakai H. Translation factor IF2 at the interface of transposition and replication by the PriA-PriC pathway. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:1566-78 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage Mu DNA synthesis is initiated during transposition by replication restart proteins PriA, DnaT and either PriB or PriC...
  5. Levchenko I, Yamauchi M, Baker T. ClpX and MuB interact with overlapping regions of Mu transposase: implications for control of the transposition pathway. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1561-72 pubmed
  6. Hopkins J, Clements M, Syvanen M. New class of mutations in Escherichia coli (uup) that affect precise excision of insertion elements and bacteriophage Mu growth. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:384-9 pubmed
    ..The stimulation was recA independent. The mutations also reduced the rate of production of bacteriophage Mu progeny. The mutations were mapped by two- and three-factor crosses with closely linked Tn10 insertions...
  7. Kondou Y, Kitazawa D, Takeda S, Tsuchiya Y, Yamashita E, Mizuguchi M, et al. Structure of the central hub of bacteriophage Mu baseplate determined by X-ray crystallography of gp44. J Mol Biol. 2005;352:976-85 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage Mu is a double-stranded DNA phage that consists of an icosahedral head, a contractile tail with baseplate and six tail fibers, similar to the well-studied T-even phages...
  8. Morgan G, Hatfull G, Casjens S, Hendrix R. Bacteriophage Mu genome sequence: analysis and comparison with Mu-like prophages in Haemophilus, Neisseria and Deinococcus. J Mol Biol. 2002;317:337-59 pubmed
    We report the complete 36,717 bp genome sequence of bacteriophage Mu and provide an analysis of the sequence, both with regard to the new genes and other genetic features revealed by the sequence itself and by a comparison to eight ..
  9. Pato M, Banerjee M. The Mu strong gyrase-binding site promotes efficient synapsis of the prophage termini. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:283-92 pubmed
    A strong DNA gyrase-binding site (SGS) is located midway between the termini of the bacteriophage Mu genome and is required for efficient replicative transposition...
  10. Chaconas G, Lavoie B, Watson M. DNA transposition: jumping gene machine, some assembly required. Curr Biol. 1996;6:817-20 pubmed
    ..Transposition of the mobile DNA element Mu is stringently controlled by the assembly of an elaborate jumping gene machine, which is inactive until all the pieces are in place...
  11. d Adda di Fagagna F, Weller G, Doherty A, Jackson S. The Gam protein of bacteriophage Mu is an orthologue of eukaryotic Ku. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:47-52 pubmed
    ..These data reveal structural and functional parallels between bacteriophage Gam and eukaryotic Ku and suggest that their functions have been evolutionarily conserved...
  12. Roldan L, Baker T. Differential role of the Mu B protein in phage Mu integration vs. replication: mechanistic insights into two transposition pathways. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:141-55 pubmed
    ..Efficient replicative transposition, however, demands that the Mu B protein not only activate transposase, but also bind and deliver the target DNA...
  13. Margolin W, Howe M. Localization and DNA sequence analysis of the C gene of bacteriophage Mu, the positive regulator of Mu late transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:4881-97 pubmed
    The C gene of bacteriophage Mu, required for transcription of the phage late genes, was localized by construction and analysis of a series of deleted derivatives of pKN50, a plasmid containing a 9...
  14. Lee I, Harshey R. Importance of the conserved CA dinucleotide at Mu termini. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:433-44 pubmed
  15. Oram M, Travers A, Howells A, Maxwell A, Pato M. Dissection of the bacteriophage Mu strong gyrase site (SGS): significance of the SGS right arm in Mu biology and DNA gyrase mechanism. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:619-32 pubmed
    The bacteriophage Mu strong gyrase site (SGS), required for efficient phage DNA replication, differs from other gyrase sites in the efficiency of gyrase binding coupled with a highly processive supercoiling activity...
  16. Haapa Paananen S, Rita H, Savilahti H. DNA transposition of bacteriophage Mu. A quantitative analysis of target site selection in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2843-51 pubmed
    ..Also surrounding sequences influence the preference of a given pentamer; a symmetrical structural component was revealed, suggesting potential hinges at and around the target site...
  17. Burton B, Baker T. Mu transpososome architecture ensures that unfolding by ClpX or proteolysis by ClpXP remodels but does not destroy the complex. Chem Biol. 2003;10:463-72 pubmed
    ..These results provide a framework for protein remodeling, wherein the physical attributes of a complex can limit the unfolding activity of its remodeler...
  18. Ranquet C, Geiselmann J, Toussaint A. The tRNA function of SsrA contributes to controlling repression of bacteriophage Mu prophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10220-5 pubmed
    ..In SsrA-defective Escherichia coli strains, thermoinducible mutants of the transposable bacteriophage Mu (Mucts) are no longer induced at high temperature...
  19. Ge J, Harshey R. Congruence of in vivo and in vitro insertion patterns in hot E. coli gene targets of transposable element Mu: opposing roles of MuB in target capture and integration. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:598-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Actual integration events are then directed to sites that are in proximity to MuB filaments but are themselves free of MuB...
  20. Yuan J, Beniac D, Chaconas G, Ottensmeyer F. 3D reconstruction of the Mu transposase and the Type 1 transpososome: a structural framework for Mu DNA transposition. Genes Dev. 2005;19:840-52 pubmed
  21. Clubb R, Schumacher S, Mizuuchi K, Gronenborn A, Clore G. Solution structure of the I gamma subdomain of the Mu end DNA-binding domain of phage Mu transposase. J Mol Biol. 1997;273:19-25 pubmed
    ..The helix-turn-helix motif of I gamma, however, differs from that of the homeodomains in so far as the loop is longer and the second helix is shorter, reminiscent of that in the POU-specific domain...
  22. Mhammedi Alaoui A, Pato M, Gama M, Toussaint A. A new component of bacteriophage Mu replicative transposition machinery: the Escherichia coli ClpX protein. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:1109-16 pubmed
    We have shown previously that some particular mutations in bacteriophage Mu repressor, the frameshift vir mutations, made the protein very sensitive to the Escherichia coli ATP-dependent Clp protease...
  23. Poussu E, Vihinen M, Paulin L, Savilahti H. Probing the alpha-complementing domain of E. coli beta-galactosidase with use of an insertional pentapeptide mutagenesis strategy based on Mu in vitro DNA transposition. Proteins. 2004;54:681-92 pubmed
    ..b>Bacteriophage Mu in vitro DNA transposition was used to generate an extensive library of pentapeptide insertion mutants within ..
  24. Greene E, Mizuuchi K. Visualizing the assembly and disassembly mechanisms of the MuB transposition targeting complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16736-43 pubmed
    MuB, a protein essential for replicative DNA transposition by the bacteriophage Mu, is an ATPase that assembles into a polymeric complex on DNA...
  25. Gueguen E, Rousseau P, Duval Valentin G, Chandler M. The transpososome: control of transposition at the level of catalysis. Trends Microbiol. 2005;13:543-9 pubmed
    ..This has been underpinned by recent results obtained particularly with Tn5, Tn10 and bacteriophage Mu.
  26. Chaconas G. Studies on a "jumping gene machine": higher-order nucleoprotein complexes in Mu DNA transposition. Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;77:487-91 pubmed
    ..Transpososome assembly is a gradual process involving multiple steps with an inherent flexibility whereby alternate pathways can be used in the assembly process, biasing the reaction towards completion under different conditions...
  27. Jones J, Nakai H. Duplex opening by primosome protein PriA for replisome assembly on a recombination intermediate. J Mol Biol. 1999;289:503-16 pubmed
    ..proteins of Escherichia coli recruit the major replicative helicase DnaB for replisome assembly during bacteriophage Mu transposition and replication...
  28. Haapa S, Suomalainen S, Eerikäinen S, Airaksinen M, Paulin L, Savilahti H. An efficient DNA sequencing strategy based on the bacteriophage mu in vitro DNA transposition reaction. Genome Res. 1999;9:308-15 pubmed
    A highly efficient DNA sequencing strategy was developed on the basis of the bacteriophage Mu in vitro DNA transposition reaction...
  29. Sokolsky T, Baker T. DNA gyrase requirements distinguish the alternate pathways of Mu transposition. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:397-409 pubmed
    The MuA transposase mediates transposition of bacteriophage Mu through two distinct mechanisms. The first integration event following infection occurs through a non-replicative mechanism...
  30. Laasik E, Ojarand M, Pajunen M, Savilahti H, Mäe A. Novel mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora defective in the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes generated by Mu transpososome-mediated insertion mutagenesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;243:93-9 pubmed
    ..The findings reported here demonstrate that we have isolated six new representatives that belong to the pool of genes modulating the production of virulence factors in E. carotovora...
  31. North S, Nakai H. Host factors that promote transpososome disassembly and the PriA-PriC pathway for restart primosome assembly. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1601-16 pubmed
    Initiation of bacteriophage Mu DNA replication by transposition requires the disassembly of the transpososome that catalyses strand exchange and the assembly of a replisome promoted by PriA, PriB, PriC and DnaT proteins, which function in ..
  32. Au T, Pathania S, Harshey R. True reversal of Mu integration. EMBO J. 2004;23:3408-20 pubmed
    ..Our results directly implicate an altered transposase configuration in the Mu strand transfer complex that inhibits reversal, thereby regulating the directionality of transposition...
  33. Mizuuchi M, Rice P, Wardle S, Haniford D, Mizuuchi K. Control of transposase activity within a transpososome by the configuration of the flanking DNA segment of the transposon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14622-7 pubmed
  34. Pajunen M, Pulliainen A, Finne J, Savilahti H. Generation of transposon insertion mutant libraries for Gram-positive bacteria by electroporation of phage Mu DNA transposition complexes. Microbiology. 2005;151:1209-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, a straightforward generation of sizeable mutant banks is feasible for these bacteria, potentiating several types of genomic-level approaches for studies of a variety of important bacterial processes, such as pathogenicity...
  35. Pathania S, Jayaram M, Harshey R. A unique right end-enhancer complex precedes synapsis of Mu ends: the enhancer is sequestered within the transpososome throughout transposition. EMBO J. 2003;22:3725-36 pubmed
    ..However, L-R interactions within LER appear to be flexible. Unexpectedly, the enhancer was seen to persist within the transpososome through cleavage and strand transfer of Mu ends to target DNA...
  36. Yin Z, Suzuki A, Lou Z, Jayaram M, Harshey R. Interactions of phage Mu enhancer and termini that specify the assembly of a topologically unique interwrapped transpososome. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:382-96 pubmed
    ..The model reveals straightforward geometric and topological relationships between the IW complex and a more relaxed enhancer-independent V-form of the transpososome assembled under altered reaction conditions...
  37. Yomantas Y, Tokmakova I, Gorshkova N, Abalakina E, Kazakova S, Gak E, et al. Aromatic amino acid auxotrophs constructed by recombinant marker exchange in Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 cells expressing the aroP-encoded transporter of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, introduction of foreign amino acid transporter genes appeared promising for the following isolation of desired auxotrophs on the basis of different methylotrophic bacteria...
  38. Kuo C, Zou A, Jayaram M, Getzoff E, Harshey R. DNA-protein complexes during attachment-site synapsis in Mu DNA transposition. EMBO J. 1991;10:1585-91 pubmed
    ..Three of these sites are loosely held and can be emptied of A upon challenge with heparin. A synaptic complex with only three sites occupied is stable and is fully competent in the subsequent strand-transfer step of transposition...
  39. Lanckriet A, Timbermont L, Happonen L, Pajunen M, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, et al. Generation of single-copy transposon insertions in Clostridium perfringens by electroporation of phage mu DNA transposition complexes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..perfringens, which is based on the bacteriophage Mu transposition system...
  40. Saariaho A, Lamberg A, Elo S, Savilahti H. Functional comparison of the transposition core machineries of phage Mu and Haemophilus influenzae Mu-like prophage Hin-Mu reveals interchangeable components. Virology. 2005;331:6-19 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage Mu uses DNA transposition for propagation and is a model for transposition studies in general...
  41. Gabbai C, Marians K. Recruitment to stalled replication forks of the PriA DNA helicase and replisome-loading activities is essential for survival. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the activities of PriA and its role in replication fork assembly and maintaining genomic integrity...
  42. Coros C, Chaconas G. Effect of mutations in the Mu-host junction region on transpososome assembly. J Mol Biol. 2001;310:299-309 pubmed
  43. Akroyd J, Clayson E, Higgins N. Purification of the gam gene-product of bacteriophage Mu and determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gam gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:6901-14 pubmed
    The gam gene of bacteriophage Mu encodes a protein which protects linear double stranded DNA from exonuclease degradation in vitro and in vivo...
  44. Lee I, Harshey R. The conserved CA/TG motif at Mu termini: T specifies stable transpososome assembly. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:261-75 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have found a new rule for suppression of terminal defects by MuB protein, as well as a role for metal ions in DNA opening at the termini...
  45. Lamberg A, Nieminen S, Qiao M, Savilahti H. Efficient insertion mutagenesis strategy for bacterial genomes involving electroporation of in vitro-assembled DNA transposition complexes of bacteriophage mu. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:705-12 pubmed
    ..This insertion mutagenesis strategy for microbial genomes may be applicable to a variety of organisms provided that a means to introduce DNA into their cells is available...
  46. Vilen H, Eerikäinen S, Tornberg J, Airaksinen M, Savilahti H. Construction of gene-targeting vectors: a rapid Mu in vitro DNA transposition-based strategy generating null, potentially hypomorphic, and conditional alleles. Transgenic Res. 2001;10:69-80 pubmed
    ..The strategy extends the use of diverse recombination reactions for advanced genome engineering and complements existing recombination-based approaches for generation of gene-targeting constructions...
  47. Nakai H, Doseeva V, Jones J. Handoff from recombinase to replisome: insights from transposition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8247-54 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage Mu replicates as a transposable element, exploiting host enzymes to promote initiation of DNA synthesis...
  48. Yin Z, Jayaram M, Pathania S, Harshey R. The Mu transposase interwraps distant DNA sites within a functional transpososome in the absence of DNA supercoiling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6149-56 pubmed
    ..We discuss the contribution of both MuA and DNA supercoiling to the 5-noded Mu synapse built at the 3-way junction...
  49. Wu Z, Chaconas G. A novel DNA binding and nuclease activity in domain III of Mu transposase: evidence for a catalytic region involved in donor cleavage. EMBO J. 1995;14:3835-43 pubmed
    ..This proposal for active site assembly is in agreement with the recently proposed domain sharing model by Yang et al. (Yang, J.Y., Kim, K., Jayaram, M. and Harshey, R.M. [1995] EMBO J., 14, 2374-2384)...
  50. Levchenko I, Luo L, Baker T. Disassembly of the Mu transposase tetramer by the ClpX chaperone. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2399-408 pubmed
    ..These data contribute to the emerging picture that members of the Clp family are chaperones specifically suited for disaggregating proteins and are able to function with or without a collaborating protease...
  51. Mizuuchi M, Mizuuchi K. Conformational isomerization in phage Mu transpososome assembly: effects of the transpositional enhancer and of MuB. EMBO J. 2001;20:6927-35 pubmed
    ..The transpososome assembly stimulation by MuB does not require its stable DNA binding activity, which appears critical for directing transposition to sites distant from the donor transposon...
  52. Butterfield Y, Marra M, Asano J, Chan S, Guin R, Krzywinski M, et al. An efficient strategy for large-scale high-throughput transposon-mediated sequencing of cDNA clones. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2460-8 pubmed
  53. Poussu E, Jantti J, Savilahti H. A gene truncation strategy generating N- and C-terminal deletion variants of proteins for functional studies: mapping of the Sec1p binding domain in yeast Mso1p by a Mu in vitro transposition-based approach. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:e104 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage Mu in vitro transposition constitutes a versatile tool in molecular biology, with applications ranging from engineering of single genes or proteins to modification of genome segments or entire genomes...
  54. Manna D, Deng S, Breier A, Higgins N. Bacteriophage Mu targets the trinucleotide sequence CGG. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3586-8 pubmed
    Target specificity for bacteriophage Mu was studied using a new phage derivative that enabled cloning of Mu-host junctions from phage DNA...
  55. Manna D, Breier A, Higgins N. Microarray analysis of transposition targets in Escherichia coli: the impact of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9780-5 pubmed
    ..Efficient transcription of genes had a strong negative influence on transposition. Our results indicate that local chromosome structure is more important than DNA sequence in determining Mu target-site selection...
  56. Choi W, Harshey R. DNA repair by the cryptic endonuclease activity of Mu transposase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10014-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that ClpX constitutes part of a highly regulated mechanism that unmasks the cryptic nuclease activity of MuA specifically in the repair pathway...
  57. Sandler S, Marians K, Zavitz K, Coutu J, Parent M, Clark A. dnaC mutations suppress defects in DNA replication- and recombination-associated functions in priB and priC double mutants in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:91-101 pubmed
    ..A model is proposed for the roles of these proteins in terms of restarting collapsed replication forks from recombinational intermediates...
  58. Ge J, Lou Z, Cui H, Shang L, Harshey R. Analysis of phage Mu DNA transposition by whole-genome Escherichia coli tiling arrays reveals a complex relationship to distribution of target selection protein B, transcription and chromosome architectural elements. J Biosci. 2011;36:587-601 pubmed
    ..The new data also suggest that MuB distribution and subsequent Mu integration is responsive to DNA sequences that contribute to the structural organization of the chromosome...
  59. Chakraborty A, Paul B, Nagaraja V. Bacteriophage Mu C protein is a new member of unusual leucine zipper-HTH class of proteins. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2007;20:1-5 pubmed
    Transcription activator protein C of bacteriophage Mu activates transcription of the late genes, including mom, during the lytic cycle of the phage...
  60. Scheirer K, Higgins N. Transcription induces a supercoil domain barrier in bacteriophage Mu. Biochimie. 2001;83:155-9 pubmed
    ..Supercoil movement was restricted ahead of but not behind the transcription machinery. We conclude that the strong Mu early promoter induces the appearance of a domain barrier within the limits of a MudAr-1 prophage...
  61. Kaminska K, Bujnicki J. Bacteriophage Mu Mom protein responsible for DNA modification is a new member of the acyltransferase superfamily. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:120-1 pubmed
  62. Becker F, Schnorr K, Wilting R, Tolstrup N, Bendtsen J, Olsen P. Development of in vitro transposon assisted signal sequence trapping and its use in screening Bacillus halodurans C125 and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 gene libraries. J Microbiol Methods. 2004;57:123-33 pubmed
    ..The 'bla gene was cloned into a bacteriophage Mu minitransposon enabling translational fusions between 'bla and target genes...
  63. Oram M, Pato M. Mu-like prophage strong gyrase site sequences: analysis of properties required for promoting efficient mu DNA replication. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4575-84 pubmed
    The bacteriophage Mu genome contains a centrally located strong gyrase site (SGS) that is required for efficient prophage replication...
  64. Basak S, Nagaraja V. DNA unwinding mechanism for the transcriptional activation of momP1 promoter by the transactivator protein C of bacteriophage Mu. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46941-5 pubmed
    ..C protein of bacteriophage Mu appears to transactivate the mom gene of the phage by this mode...
  65. Harshey R, Jayaram M. The mu transpososome through a topological lens. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;41:387-405 pubmed
    ..This methodology has also revealed the order and dynamics of association of the three interacting DNA sites, as well as the role of the enhancer in assembly of the Mu transpososome...
  66. Au T, Agrawal P, Harshey R. Chromosomal integration mechanism of infecting mu virion DNA. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1829-34 pubmed
    ..The results show similarities with human immunodeficiency virus integration and provide a unifying mechanism for development of Mu along either the lysogenic or lytic pathway...
  67. Kumaraswami M, Howe M, Park H. Crystal structure of the Mor protein of bacteriophage Mu, a member of the Mor/C family of transcription activators. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16581-90 pubmed
    Transcription from the middle promoter, Pm, of bacteriophage Mu requires the phage-encoded activator protein Mor and bacterial RNA polymerase...
  68. Geuskens V, Mhammedi Alaoui A, Desmet L, Toussaint A. Virulence in bacteriophage Mu: a case of trans-dominant proteolysis by the Escherichia coli Clp serine protease. EMBO J. 1992;11:5121-7 pubmed
    ..Virulent mutants of bacteriophage Mu, which carry a particular mutation in their repressor gene (vir mutation), successfully infect Mu lysogens ..