bacteriophage lambda

Summary

Summary: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.

Top Publications

  1. Riley L, Veses Garcia M, Hillman J, Handfield M, McCarthy A, Allison H. Identification of genes expressed in cultures of E. coli lysogens carrying the Shiga toxin-encoding prophage ?24B. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:42 pubmed publisher
  2. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated induction of the Shiga toxin-converting lambdoid prophage ST2-8624 in Escherichia coli O157:H7. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;58:322-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Dutta D, Bandyopadhyay K, Datta A, Sardesai A, Parrack P. Properties of HflX, an enigmatic protein from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:2307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that HflX is a monomeric protein with a high (30% to 40%) content of helices. It exhibits GTPase as well as ATPase activities, but it has no role in lambda lysogeny or in transposition. ..
  4. Avlund M, Dodd I, Sneppen K, Krishna S. Minimal gene regulatory circuits that can count like bacteriophage lambda. J Mol Biol. 2009;394:681-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the functioning of even the smallest GRNs is difficult to predict. The bistable GRN of bacteriophage lambda is able to count to make a decision between lysis and lysogeny on the basis of the number of phages ..
  5. Tsay J, Sippy J, Feiss M, Smith D. The Q motif of a viral packaging motor governs its force generation and communicates ATP recognition to DNA interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..optical tweezers measurements to study the effect of mutations in the large terminase subunit in bacteriophage lambda on packaging motor dynamics...
  6. Gamage L, Ellis J, Hayes S. Immunogenicity of bacteriophage lambda particles displaying porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) capsid protein epitopes. Vaccine. 2009;27:6595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither LDP-D-CAP nor the lambda control elicited any untoward local or systemic reactions following immunization. These studies produced the first potential phage vaccine to porcine Circovirus 2. ..
  7. Edgar R, Rokney A, Feeney M, Semsey S, Kessel M, Goldberg M, et al. Bacteriophage infection is targeted to cellular poles. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1107-16 pubmed publisher
  8. Avlund M, Dodd I, Semsey S, Sneppen K, Krishna S. Why do phage play dice?. J Virol. 2009;83:11416-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Crucial to the argument is the clonal identity of the phage. ..
  9. Meyer J, Dobias D, Weitz J, Barrick J, Quick R, Lenski R. Repeatability and contingency in the evolution of a key innovation in phage lambda. Science. 2012;335:428-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows the complex interplay between genomic processes and ecological conditions that favor the emergence of evolutionary innovations. ..

More Information

Publications77

  1. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn G, Wegrzyn A. Differential efficiency of induction of various lambdoid prophages responsible for production of Shiga toxins in response to different induction agents. Microb Pathog. 2009;47:289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..results of our studies on five different phages, originally occurring in STEC strains, in comparison to bacteriophage lambda. We found that efficiencies of induction of prophages and their further development vary considerably in ..
  2. Parua P, Datta A, Parrack P. Specific hydrophobic residues in the alpha4 helix of lambdaCII are crucial for maintaining its tetrameric structure and directing the lysogenic choice. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:306-12 pubmed publisher
    The CII protein of the temperate bacteriophage lambda is the decision-making factor that determines the viral lytic/lysogenic choice...
  3. Beghetto E, Paolis F, Spadoni A, Del Porto P, Buffolano W, Gargano N. Molecular dissection of the human B cell response against cytomegalovirus infection by lambda display. J Virol Methods. 2008;151:7-14 pubmed publisher
  4. Wu D, Van Valen D, Hu Q, Phillips R. Ion-dependent dynamics of DNA ejections for bacteriophage lambda. Biophys J. 2010;99:1101-9 pubmed publisher
    We studied the control parameters that govern the dynamics of in vitro DNA ejection in bacteriophage lambda. Previous work demonstrated that bacteriophage DNA is highly pressurized, and this pressure has been hypothesized to help drive ..
  5. Clark J, Bartley K, Jepson C, Craik V, March J. Comparison of a bacteriophage-delivered DNA vaccine and a commercially available recombinant protein vaccine against hepatitis B. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;61:197-204 pubmed publisher
    A bacteriophage lambda DNA vaccine expressing the small surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B was compared with Engerix B, a commercially available vaccine based on the homologous recombinant protein (r-HBsAg)...
  6. Shao Y, Wang I. Effect of late promoter activity on bacteriophage lambda fitness. Genetics. 2009;181:1467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The expected phage burst size and fitness curve were predicted from these models. Evolution of the late promoter activity was discussed in the context of phage life history trait evolution. ..
  7. Łoś J, Łoś M, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Role of the bacteriophage lambda exo-xis region in the virus development. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2008;53:443-50 pubmed publisher
    Various processes of bacteriophage lambda development in Escherichia coli cells bearing either the whole lambda exo-xis region (with truncated, thus nonfunctional, exo and xis genes) or particular genes from this region were investigated...
  8. Singh A, Weinberger L. Stochastic gene expression as a molecular switch for viral latency. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that an appreciation of noise in gene expression may shed light on the mystery of animal virus latency and that strategies to manipulate noise may have impact on anti-viral therapeutics...
  9. Fujimoto D, Higginbotham R, Sterba K, Maleki S, Segall A, Smeltzer M, et al. Staphylococcus aureus SarA is a regulatory protein responsive to redox and pH that can support bacteriophage lambda integrase-mediated excision/recombination. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1445-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that SarA binds to the bacteriophage lambda (lambda) attachment site, attL, producing SarA-DNA complexes similar to intasomes, which consist of ..
  10. Rajagopala S, Casjens S, Uetz P. The protein interaction map of bacteriophage lambda. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:213 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage lambda is a model phage for most other dsDNA phages and has been studied for over 60 years...
  11. Rothenberg E, Sepúlveda L, Skinner S, Zeng L, Selvin P, Golding I. Single-virus tracking reveals a spatial receptor-dependent search mechanism. Biophys J. 2011;100:2875-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the possible implications of our findings for the process of viral receptor-finding in higher systems...
  12. Pearl S, Gabay C, Kishony R, Oppenheim A, Balaban N. Nongenetic individuality in the host-phage interaction. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e120 pubmed publisher
  13. Anderson L, Yang H. DNA looping can enhance lysogenic CI transcription in phage lambda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5827-32 pubmed publisher
    The lysogenic state of bacteriophage lambda is maintained by CI repressor, which negatively regulates two promoters to block lytic gene expression...
  14. Lander G, Evilevitch A, Jeembaeva M, Potter C, Carragher B, Johnson J. Bacteriophage lambda stabilization by auxiliary protein gpD: timing, location, and mechanism of attachment determined by cryo-EM. Structure. 2008;16:1399-406 pubmed publisher
    We report the cryo-EM structure of bacteriophage lambda and the mechanism for stabilizing the 20-A-thick capsid containing the dsDNA genome...
  15. Wang H, Finzi L, Lewis D, Dunlap D. AFM studies of lambda repressor oligomers securing DNA loops. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2009;10:494-501 pubmed
    ..Some loops appeared to be sealed by oligomers of 6-8, most by oligomers of 10-12, and a few by oligomers of 14-16...
  16. Nurmemmedov E, Castelnovo M, Medina E, Catalano C, Evilevitch A. Challenging packaging limits and infectivity of phage ?. J Mol Biol. 2012;415:263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we demonstrated that the phage production rate is modulated by the presence of multivalent ionic species. The biological consequences of these findings are discussed...
  17. Otto O, Steinbock L, Wong D, Gornall J, Keyser U. Note: Direct force and ionic-current measurements on DNA in a nanocapillary. Rev Sci Instrum. 2011;82:086102 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the first electrophoretic force and simultaneous ionic-current measurements of a single DNA molecule inside the orifice of a nanocapillary...
  18. Pell L, Gasmi Seabrook G, MORAIS M, Neudecker P, Kanelis V, Bona D, et al. The solution structure of the C-terminal Ig-like domain of the bacteriophage ? tail tube protein. J Mol Biol. 2010;403:468-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioinformatics analyses have identified two conserved clusters of residues on the surface of gpV(C) that may be important in mediating the function of this domain...
  19. Roberts J, Shankar S, Filter J. RNA polymerase elongation factors. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2008;62:211-33 pubmed publisher
  20. Angeli E, Manneschi C, Repetto L, Firpo G, Valbusa U. DNA manipulation with elastomeric nanostructures fabricated by soft-moulding of a FIB-patterned stamp. Lab Chip. 2011;11:2625-9 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA stretching and single molecule manipulation capabilities of these platforms have been successfully demonstrated...
  21. Lim S, Min B, Jung G. Lagging strand-biased initiation of red recombination by linear double-stranded DNAs. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:1098-105 pubmed publisher
  22. Pell L, Kanelis V, Donaldson L, Howell P, Davidson A. The phage lambda major tail protein structure reveals a common evolution for long-tailed phages and the type VI bacterial secretion system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Hcp1 as a model, we propose a polymerization mechanism for gpV involving several disorder-to-order transitions...
  23. Liu X, Jiang H, Gu Z, Roberts J. High-resolution view of bacteriophage lambda gene expression by ribosome profiling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11928-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage lambda is one of the most extensively studied organisms and has been a primary model for understanding basic modes of genetic regulation...
  24. St Pierre F, Endy D. Determination of cell fate selection during phage lambda infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20705-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage lambda infection of Escherichia coli can result in distinct cell fate outcomes. For example, some cells lyse whereas others survive as lysogens...
  25. Pedersen M, Hammer K. The role of MOR and the CI operator sites on the genetic switch of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:577-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that in the anti-immune state, repression of the lysogenic promoter is independent of the known CI operator sites but requires the presence of both CI and MOR...
  26. Medina E, Andrews B, Nakatani E, Catalano C. The bacteriophage lambda gpNu3 scaffolding protein is an intrinsically disordered and biologically functional procapsid assembly catalyst. J Mol Biol. 2011;412:723-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the solution-based biophysical and functional characterization of the bacteriophage lambda (?) scaffolding protein gpNu3...
  27. Tay Y, Ho C, Droge P, Ghadessy F. Selection of bacteriophage lambda integrases with altered recombination specificity by in vitro compartmentalization. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:e25 pubmed publisher
    In vitro compartmentalization (IVC) was employed for the first time to select for novel bacteriophage lambda integrase variants displaying significantly enhanced recombination activity on a non-cognate target DNA sequence...
  28. Zeng L, Skinner S, Zong C, Sippy J, Feiss M, Golding I. Decision making at a subcellular level determines the outcome of bacteriophage infection. Cell. 2010;141:682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We follow the postinfection decision in bacteriophage lambda at single-virus resolution, and show that a choice between lysis and lysogeny is first made at the level of ..
  29. Wegrzyn G, Licznerska K, Wegrzyn A. Phage ?--new insights into regulatory circuits. Adv Virus Res. 2012;82:155-78 pubmed publisher
  30. Kwan J, Smirnova E, Khazai S, Evanics F, Maxwell K, Donaldson L. The solution structures of two prophage homologues of the bacteriophage ? Ea8.5 protein reveal a newly discovered hybrid homeodomain/zinc-finger fold. Biochemistry. 2013;52:3612-4 pubmed publisher
    ..While these folds are both associated with a nucleic acid binding function, the amino acid composition suggests otherwise, leading to the possibility that Ea8.5 associates with other viral and host proteins. ..
  31. Ghosh D, Roy K, Williamson K, Srinivasiah S, Wommack K, Radosevich M. Acyl-homoserine lactones can induce virus production in lysogenic bacteria: an alternative paradigm for prophage induction. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:7142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings relate viral reproduction to chemical signals associated with high host cell abundance, suggesting an alternative paradigm for prophage induction...
  32. Brouns S, Jore M, Lundgren M, Westra E, Slijkhuis R, Snijders A, et al. Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes. Science. 2008;321:960-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that the formation of mature guide RNAs by the CRISPR RNA endonuclease subunit of Cascade is a mechanistic requirement for antiviral defense...
  33. Fadeev E, Sam M, Clubb R. NMR structure of the amino-terminal domain of the lambda integrase protein in complex with DNA: immobilization of a flexible tail facilitates beta-sheet recognition of the major groove. J Mol Biol. 2009;388:682-90 pubmed publisher
    The integrase protein (Int) from bacteriophage lambda is the archetypal member of the tyrosine recombinase family, a large group of enzymes that rearrange DNA in all domains of life...
  34. Bonthuis D, Meyer C, Stein D, Dekker C. Conformation and dynamics of DNA confined in slitlike nanofluidic channels. Phys Rev Lett. 2008;101:108303 pubmed
    ..The radius of gyration remains constant in the Odijk regime. Additionally, we report the first measurements of the effect of confinement on the shape anisotropy...
  35. Shao Y, Wang I. Bacteriophage adsorption rate and optimal lysis time. Genetics. 2008;180:471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Competition between high- and low-adsorption strains also showed that, under current conditions and phenotype configurations, the adsorption rate has a much larger impact on phage relative fitness than the lysis time...
  36. Yang Q, Maluf N, Catalano C. Packaging of a unit-length viral genome: the role of nucleotides and the gpD decoration protein in stable nucleocapsid assembly in bacteriophage lambda. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:1037-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we describe biochemical studies on genome packaging using bacteriophage lambda as a model system...
  37. Golding I. Decision making in living cells: lessons from a simple system. Annu Rev Biophys. 2011;40:63-80 pubmed publisher
    The life cycle of bacteriophage lambda serves as a simplified paradigm for cell-fate decisions. The ongoing quantitative, high-resolution experimental investigation of this life cycle has produced some important insights in recent years...
  38. Pell L, Liu A, Edmonds L, Donaldson L, Howell P, Davidson A. The X-ray crystal structure of the phage lambda tail terminator protein reveals the biologically relevant hexameric ring structure and demonstrates a conserved mechanism of tail termination among diverse long-tailed phages. J Mol Biol. 2009;389:938-51 pubmed publisher
  39. Cao Y, Lu H, Liang J. Probability landscape of heritable and robust epigenetic state of lysogeny in phage lambda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The landscape approach computed from dCME is general and can be applied to study broad issues in systems biology...
  40. van Mameren J, Modesti M, Kanaar R, Wyman C, Peterman E, Wuite G. Counting RAD51 proteins disassembling from nucleoprotein filaments under tension. Nature. 2009;457:745-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This integrative single-molecule approach allowed us to dissect the mechanism of this principal homologous recombination reaction step, which in turn clarifies how disassembly can be influenced by accessory proteins...
  41. Dewey J, Savva C, White R, Vitha S, Holzenburg A, Young R. Micron-scale holes terminate the phage infection cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Cryotomographic analysis of the holes revealed that they were irregular in shape and showed no evidence of membrane invagination. The unexpected scale of these holes has implications for models of holin function...
  42. Prasch S, Jurk M, Washburn R, Gottesman M, Wohrl B, Rosch P. RNA-binding specificity of E. coli NusA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4736-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences may explain why lambda requires an additional protein, lambda N, to suppress termination. Knowledge of the different affinities now describes the assembly of the anti-termination complex in quantitative terms...
  43. Weitz J, Mileyko Y, Joh R, Voit E. Collective decision making in bacterial viruses. Biophys J. 2008;95:2673-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of a parameterized version of the model with molecular studies of the decision structure in the temperate bacteriophage lambda are consistent with our conclusions...
  44. Bandyopadhyay K, Parua P, Datta A, Parrack P. Escherichia coli HflK and HflC can individually inhibit the HflB (FtsH)-mediated proteolysis of lambdaCII in vitro. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;501:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..coli sigma(32) by HflB. We show that at low concentrations each protein is dimeric, based on which we propose a scheme for the mutual interactions of HflB, HflK and HflC in a supramolecular HflBKC protease complex...
  45. Krupovic M, Bamford D. Holin of bacteriophage lambda: structural insights into a membrane lesion. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:781-3 pubmed publisher
    ..in this issue of Molecular Microbiology invites us to take a closer look at this membrane lesion. For the first time, a structural characterization of large-diameter rings formed by these peculiar membrane proteins is presented...
  46. Palmer A, Ahlgren Berg A, Egan J, Dodd I, Shearwin K. Potent transcriptional interference by pausing of RNA polymerases over a downstream promoter. Mol Cell. 2009;34:545-55 pubmed publisher
    ..cannot produce the strong asymmetric interference observed between a natural face-to-face promoter pair in bacteriophage lambda. Pausing of elongating polymerases over the RNAP-binding site of the downstream promoter is demonstrated in ..
  47. Stayrook S, Jaru Ampornpan P, Ni J, Hochschild A, Lewis M. Crystal structure of the lambda repressor and a model for pairwise cooperative operator binding. Nature. 2008;452:1022-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage lambda has for many years been a model system for understanding mechanisms of gene regulation...
  48. Szambowska A, Pierechod M, Wegrzyn G, Glinkowska M. Coupling of transcription and replication machineries in ? DNA replication initiation: evidence for direct interaction of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the ?O protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:168-77 pubmed publisher
  49. VOLCY K, Dewhurst S. Proteasome inhibitors enhance bacteriophage lambda (lambda) mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells. Virology. 2009;384:77-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage lambda vectors can transfer their genomes into mammalian cells, resulting in expression of phage-encoded genes. However, this process is inefficient...
  50. Visnapuu M, Greene E. Single-molecule imaging of DNA curtains reveals intrinsic energy landscapes for nucleosome deposition. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:1056-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the nonhistone protein Scm3 alters the intrinsic landscape of CenH3-containing nucleosomes, enabling them to overcome the otherwise exclusionary effects of poly(dA-dT) tracts, which are enriched in centromeric DNA...
  51. Hayes S, Horbay M, Hayes C. A CI-independent form of replicative inhibition: turn off of early replication of bacteriophage lambda. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36498 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results for plasmid based IP suggest the hypothesis that there is a natural mechanism for silencing early theta-mode replication initiation, i.e. the buildup of ? genomes with oop(+)ori?(+) sequence...
  52. Mosberg J, Lajoie M, Church G. Lambda red recombineering in Escherichia coli occurs through a fully single-stranded intermediate. Genetics. 2010;186:791-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanistic insights revealed by this work may facilitate further improvements to the versatility of lambda Red recombination...
  53. Łyzeń R, Kochanowska M, Wegrzyn G, Szalewska Palasz A. Transcription from bacteriophage lambda pR promoter is regulated independently and antagonistically by DksA and ppGpp. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bacteriophage lambda major lytic promoter, pR, is down-regulated by the stringent response and ppGpp...
  54. Lyzeń R, Kochanowska M, Wegrzyn G, Szalewska Pałasz A. IHF- and SeqA-binding sites, present in plasmid cloning vectors, may significantly influence activities of promoters. Plasmid. 2008;60:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This may have a significant impact on experiments employing recombinant genes cloned in plasmids and on choosing appropriate plasmid vectors...
  55. Cardinale C, Washburn R, Tadigotla V, Brown L, Gottesman M, Nudler E. Termination factor Rho and its cofactors NusA and NusG silence foreign DNA in E. coli. Science. 2008;320:935-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of the cryptic rac prophage in wild-type E. coli increases bicyclomycin resistance and permits deletion of nusG. Thus, Rho termination, supported by NusA and NusG, is required to suppress the toxic activity of foreign genes...
  56. Singer A, Wanunu M, Morrison W, Kuhn H, Frank Kamenetskii M, Meller A. Nanopore based sequence specific detection of duplex DNA for genomic profiling. Nano Lett. 2010;10:738-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This opens up a wide range of possibilities in human genomics as well as in pathogen detection for fighting infectious diseases...
  57. Blasche S, Wuchty S, Rajagopala S, Uetz P. The protein interaction network of bacteriophage lambda with its host, Escherichia coli. J Virol. 2013;87:12745-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Lambda appears to dramatically differ from other phages, such as T7, because of its unusually large number of modified and processed proteins, which reduces the number of host-virus interactions detectable by yeast two-hybrid screens. ..
  58. Maresca M, Erler A, Fu J, Friedrich A, Zhang Y, Stewart A. Single-stranded heteroduplex intermediates in lambda Red homologous recombination. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:54 pubmed publisher
    ..The Red proteins of lambda phage mediate probably the simplest and most efficient homologous recombination reactions yet described. However the mechanism of dsDNA recombination remains undefined...
  59. Westra E, Pul U, Heidrich N, Jore M, Lundgren M, Stratmann T, et al. H-NS-mediated repression of CRISPR-based immunity in Escherichia coli K12 can be relieved by the transcription activator LeuO. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:1380-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of LeuO in E. coli K12 containing an anti-Lambda CRISPR leads to an enhanced protection against phage infection. This study demonstrates that in E. coli H-NS and LeuO are antagonistic regulators of CRISPR-based immunity...
  60. Maynard N, Birch E, Sanghvi J, Chen L, Gutschow M, Covert M. A forward-genetic screen and dynamic analysis of lambda phage host-dependencies reveals an extensive interaction network and a new anti-viral strategy. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001017 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a genome-scale forward-genetics screen for host-dependencies of the latently-infecting bacteriophage lambda. This screen identified 57 Escherichia coli (E...
  61. Fogg P, Allison H, Saunders J, McCarthy A. Bacteriophage lambda: a paradigm revisited. J Virol. 2010;84:6876-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage lambda has an archetypal immunity system, which prevents the superinfection of its Escherichia coli lysogens...
  62. Gallet R, Shao Y, Wang I. High adsorption rate is detrimental to bacteriophage fitness in a biofilm-like environment. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:241 pubmed publisher
  63. Berry J, Summer E, Struck D, Young R. The final step in the phage infection cycle: the Rz and Rz1 lysis proteins link the inner and outer membranes. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:341-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage lambda has four adjacent genes -S, R, Rz and Rz1- dedicated to host cell lysis...
  64. Martinsohn J, Radman M, Petit M. The lambda red proteins promote efficient recombination between diverged sequences: implications for bacteriophage genome mosaicism. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000065 pubmed publisher
  65. Parua P, Mondal A, Parrack P. HflD, an Escherichia coli protein involved in the lambda lysis-lysogeny switch, impairs transcription activation by lambdaCII. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;493:175-83 pubmed publisher
    The CII protein of bacteriophage lambda is the key regulator for the lytic-lysogenic choice of the viral lifecycle...
  66. Morelli M, ten Wolde P, Allen R. DNA looping provides stability and robustness to the bacteriophage lambda switch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8101-6 pubmed publisher
    The bistable gene regulatory switch controlling the transition from lysogeny to lysis in bacteriophage lambda presents a unique challenge to quantitative modeling...
  67. Poteete A. Involvement of DNA replication in phage lambda Red-mediated homologous recombination. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:66-74 pubmed publisher
    Crosses between a non-replicating linear bacteriophage lambda chromosome and a replicating plasmid bearing a short cloned segment of lambda DNA were monitored by extracting DNA from infected cells, and analysing it via restriction ..
  68. Hazelbaker D, Azaro M, Landy A. A biotin interference assay highlights two different asymmetric interaction profiles for lambda integrase arm-type binding sites in integrative versus excisive recombination. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12402-14 pubmed publisher
    The site-specific recombinase integrase encoded by bacteriophage lambda promotes integration and excision of the viral chromosome into and out of its Escherichia coli host chromosome through a Holliday junction recombination intermediate...