coliphages

Summary

Summary: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.

Top Publications

  1. Luther K, Fujioka R. Usefulness of monitoring tropical streams for male-specific RNA coliphages. J Water Health. 2004;2:171-81 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of monitoring streams in Hawaii for FRNA coliphages as a reliable indicator of sewage contamination...
  2. Mandilara G, Smeti E, Mavridou A, Lambiri M, Vatopoulos A, Rigas F. Correlation between bacterial indicators and bacteriophages in sewage and sludge. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;263:119-26 pubmed
    ..of the number of bacterial indicators and the presence of three groups of bacteriophages, namely somatic coliphages (SOMCPH), F-RNA-specific phages (FRNAPH) and phages of Bacteroides fragilis (BFRPH), in raw and treated ..
  3. O Flynn G, Ross R, Fitzgerald G, Coffey A. Evaluation of a cocktail of three bacteriophages for biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:3417-24 pubmed
  4. Kirs M, Smith D. Multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for F+-specific RNA coliphages: a method for use in microbial source tracking. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:808-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the source of the contamination is quantification of the ratio of the four subgroups of F+-specific RNA coliphages (family Leviviridae) in impacted water samples...
  5. Karlsson F, Borrebaeck C, Nilsson N, Malmborg Hager A. The mechanism of bacterial infection by filamentous phages involves molecular interactions between TolA and phage protein 3 domains. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2628-34 pubmed
    ..The multiple roles for each of the separate g3p and TolA domains imply a delicate interaction network during the phage infection process and a model for the infection mechanism is hypothesized...
  6. Duran A, Muniesa M, Moce Llivina L, Campos C, Jofre J, Lucena F. Usefulness of different groups of bacteriophages as model micro-organisms for evaluating chlorination. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95:29-37 pubmed
    ..To assess the usefulness of bacterial and viral indicators in chlorination processes and to collect quantitative information necessary for risk assessment analysis in water disinfection processes based on chlorination...
  7. Sato T, Shimizu T, Watarai M, Kobayashi M, Kano S, Hamabata T, et al. Genome analysis of a novel Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1)-converting phage which is closely related to Stx2-converting phages but not to other Stx1-converting phages. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3966-71 pubmed
    ..Comparing these phages to other known Stx-converting phages, we concluded that Stx1 phi is a novel Stx1-converting phage closely related to Stx2-converting phages so far reported...
  8. Muniesa M, De Simón M, Prats G, Ferrer D, Pañella H, Jofre J. Shiga toxin 2-converting bacteriophages associated with clonal variability in Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains of human origin isolated from a single outbreak. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4554-62 pubmed
  9. Napolitano M, Almagro Moreno S, Boyd E. Dichotomy in the evolution of pathogenicity island and bacteriophage encoded integrases from pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..coli PAIs. Overall this work is the first to demonstrate a dichotomy in the evolution of integrases encoded on PAIs and phages from pathogenic E. coli suggesting that PAIs are an evolutionary distinct genetic element...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Livny J, Friedman D. Characterizing spontaneous induction of Stx encoding phages using a selectable reporter system. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:1691-704 pubmed
    ..iv) Only a small fraction of the lysogens in a culture spontaneously induce and when the lysogen carries two lambdoid prophages with different repressor/operators, 933W and H-19B, usually both prophages in the same cell are induced...
  2. Pinkett H, Shearwin K, Stayrook S, Dodd I, Burr T, Hochschild A, et al. The structural basis of cooperative regulation at an alternate genetic switch. Mol Cell. 2006;21:605-15 pubmed
    ..Whereas the overall fold of the 186 and lambda repressor monomers is remarkably similar, the way the two repressors cooperatively assemble is quite different and explains in part the differences in their regulatory activity...
  3. Abuladze T, Li M, Menetrez M, Dean T, Senecal A, Sulakvelidze A. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that naturally occurring bacteriophages may be useful for reducing contamination of various hard surfaces, fruits, vegetables, and ground beef by E. coli O157:H7...
  4. Vinje J, Oudejans S, Stewart J, Sobsey M, Long S. Molecular detection and genotyping of male-specific coliphages by reverse transcription-PCR and reverse line blot hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:5996-6004 pubmed
    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of male-specific or F+ coliphages as indicators of microbial inputs to source waters...
  5. Ansaldi M, Theraulaz L, Mejean V. TorI, a response regulator inhibitor of phage origin in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9423-8 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, TorI did not impede TorR DNA binding, and we propose that it may prevent RNA polymerase recruitment to the torC promoter. This study thus reveals a previously uncharacterized class of response regulator inhibitors...
  6. Leiman P, Molineux I. Evolution of a new enzyme activity from the same motif fold. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:287-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The substrate-binding site is intrasubunit in P22 and HK620 tailspikes, but intersubunit in Sf6, demonstrating how phages can adapt the same protein fold to recognize different substrates...
  7. de Sablet T, Bertin Y, Vareille M, Girardeau J, Garrivier A, Gobert A, et al. Differential expression of stx2 variants in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli belonging to seropathotypes A and C. Microbiology. 2008;154:176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of strains of seropathotype C shows the same characteristics and could be a high risk to human health...
  8. Love D, Vinje J, Khalil S, Murphy J, Lovelace G, Sobsey M. Evaluation of RT-PCR and reverse line blot hybridization for detection and genotyping F+ RNA coliphages from estuarine waters and molluscan shellfish. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1203-12 pubmed
    To evaluate a PCR-based detection and typing method for faecal indicator viruses (F+ RNA coliphages) in water and shellfish, and apply the method for better understanding of the ecology and microbial source tracking potential of these ..
  9. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn G. Bacteriophages carrying Shiga toxin genes: genomic variations, detection and potential treatment of pathogenic bacteria. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:909-24 pubmed publisher
  10. Guzmán C, Jofre J, Blanch A, Lucena F. Development of a feasible method to extract somatic coliphages from sludge, soil and treated biowaste. J Virol Methods. 2007;144:41-8 pubmed
    ..occurring matrixes, raw sludge, digested and dewatered sludge and compost, containing high numbers of somatic coliphages, and soils contaminated with wastewater or raw sludge were used in the extraction assays...
  11. Oot R, Raya R, Callaway T, Edrington T, Kutter E, Brabban A. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7-infecting bacteriophages in feedlot cattle feces. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;45:445-53 pubmed
    ..To estimate the distribution and prevalence of both Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7-infecting bacteriophages within a 50,000 head commercial beef feedlot...
  12. Bull J, Vimr E, Molineux I. A tale of tails: Sialidase is key to success in a model of phage therapy against K1-capsulated Escherichia coli. Virology. 2010;398:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the benefit of sialidase is specific to K1-capsulated bacteria, this study may provide a scientific rationale for selecting phages for therapeutic use in many systemic infections...
  13. Ahlgren Berg A, Henriksson Peltola P, Sehlén W, Haggård Ljungquist E. A comparison of the DNA binding and bending capacities and the oligomeric states of the immunity repressors of heteroimmune coliphages P2 and WPhi. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:3167-80 pubmed
    ..However, the protein-DNA complexes formed differ, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift experiments. A difference in spontaneous phage production is observed in isogenic lysogens...
  14. Niu Y, McAllister T, Xu Y, Johnson R, Stephens T, Stanford K. Prevalence and impact of bacteriophages on the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle and their environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:1271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..coli O157:H7. Phage were more prevalent in manure slurry than other environmental sources. The likelihood of fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced if cattle in the pen harbored phage...
  15. Oliveira A, Sereno R, Nicolau A, Azeredo J. The influence of the mode of administration in the dissemination of three coliphages in chickens. Poult Sci. 2009;88:728-33 pubmed publisher
    ..work aims at evaluating the effect of the route of administration and the dosage in the dissemination of 3 coliphages in the chicken's organs. In vivo trials were conducted by infecting chickens orally, spray, and i.m...
  16. Wiedenmann A, Krüger P, Dietz K, López Pila J, Szewzyk R, Botzenhart K. A randomized controlled trial assessing infectious disease risks from bathing in fresh recreational waters in relation to the concentration of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and somatic coliphages. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:228-36 pubmed
    ..guide values for water quality are suggested: 100 Escherichia coli, 25 intestinal enterococci, 10 somatic coliphages, or 10 Clostridium perfringens per 100 mL...
  17. Gibbons C, Rodriguez R, Tallon L, Sobsey M. Evaluation of positively charged alumina nanofibre cartridge filters for the primary concentration of noroviruses, adenoviruses and male-specific coliphages from seawater. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:635-41 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the electropositive, alumina nanofibre (NanoCeram) cartridge filter as a primary concentration method for recovering adenovirus, norovirus and male-specific coliphages from natural seawater.
  18. Allison H, Sergeant M, James C, Saunders J, Smith D, Sharp R, et al. Immunity profiles of wild-type and recombinant shiga-like toxin-encoding bacteriophages and characterization of novel double lysogens. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3409-18 pubmed
    ..coli serotypes...
  19. Laing C, Zhang Y, Gilmour M, Allen V, Johnson R, Thomas J, et al. A comparison of Shiga-toxin 2 bacteriophage from classical enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotypes and the German E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37362 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to determine whether the elevated Stx2-production levels are due to bacteriophage or E. coli O104:H4 host related factors...
  20. Shimizu T, Ohta Y, Noda M. Shiga toxin 2 is specifically released from bacterial cells by two different mechanisms. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2813-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we present evidence that specific Stx2 release from bacterial cells is involved in both the Stx2-encoding phage induction system and another Stx2 release system...
  21. Guan D, Kniel K, Calci K, Hicks D, Pivarnik L, Hoover D. Response of four types of coliphages to high hydrostatic pressure. Food Microbiol. 2006;23:546-51 pubmed
    Pressure inactivation of four types of coliphages, varphiX 174 (ssDNA virus), MS2 (ssRNA virus), lambda imm434 (dsDNA virus) and T4 (dsDNA virus), was studied to evaluate their potential as human enteric viral surrogates for use in ..
  22. Muniesa M, Jofre J. Factors influencing the replication of somatic coliphages in the water environment. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2004;86:65-76 pubmed
    The potential replication of somatic coliphages in the environment has been considered a drawback for their use as viral indicators, although the extent to which this affects their numbers in environmental samples has not been assessed...
  23. Callaway T, Edrington T, Brabban A, Anderson R, Rossman M, Engler M, et al. Bacteriophage isolated from feedlot cattle can reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminant gastrointestinal tracts. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008;5:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..10) in any of the studies due to relatively low inoculated E. coli O157:H7 ruminal populations. Our results demonstrate that phage can be used as a preharvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme...
  24. Cole D, Long S, Sobsey M. Evaluation of F+ RNA and DNA coliphages as source-specific indicators of fecal contamination in surface waters. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:6507-14 pubmed
    Male-specific (F+) coliphages have been investigated as viral indicators of fecal contamination that may provide source-specific information for impacted environmental waters...
  25. Goodridge L, Gallaccio A, Griffiths M. Morphological, host range, and genetic characterization of two coliphages. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:5364-71 pubmed
    Two coliphages, AR1 and LG1, were characterized based on their morphological, host range, and genetic properties...
  26. Jebri S, Jofre J, Barkallah I, Saidi M, Hmaied F. Presence and fate of coliphages and enteric viruses in three wastewater treatment plants effluents and activated sludge from Tunisia. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:2195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteric viruses can survive and persist for a long time in water, maintaining infectivity in many instances. This suggests the need to include virus detection in the evaluation of the microbiological quality of waters...
  27. Jamalludeen N, Johnson R, Friendship R, Kropinski A, Lingohr E, Gyles C. Isolation and characterization of nine bacteriophages that lyse O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:47-57 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the nine phages are suitable candidates for prophylaxis and therapy of porcine post-weaning diarrhea due to O149 ETEC...
  28. Espinosa A, Arias C, Sánchez Colón S, Mazari Hiriart M. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system. Environ Health. 2009;8:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied...
  29. Tsuei A, Carey Smith G, Hudson J, Billington C, Heinemann J. Prevalence and numbers of coliphages and Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages in New Zealand foods. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;116:121-5 pubmed
    Vegetable samples were tested for the presence of coliphages. None of the 55 samples contained these phages at concentrations greater than 10 g(-1) (the limit of detection)...
  30. Fogg P, Rigden D, Saunders J, McCarthy A, Allison H. Characterization of the relationship between integrase, excisionase and antirepressor activities associated with a superinfecting Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2116-29 pubmed publisher
  31. Waldor M, Friedman D. Phage regulatory circuits and virulence gene expression. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005;8:459-65 pubmed
    ..In the CTXphi prophage, binding of LexA, the bacterial regulator of SOS, in addition to binding of the repressor is involved in repression; the repressor has only limited control over CTX production and has no influence on its release...
  32. Endley S, Lu L, Vega E, Hume M, Pillai S. Male-specific coliphages as an additional fecal contamination indicator for screening fresh carrots. J Food Prot. 2003;66:88-93 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of male-specific (F+) coliphages as a fecal-contamination indicator for fresh carrots...
  33. Skraber S, Gassilloud B, Schwartzbrod L, Gantzer C. Survival of infectious Poliovirus-1 in river water compared to the persistence of somatic coliphages, thermotolerant coliforms and Poliovirus-1 genome. Water Res. 2004;38:2927-33 pubmed
    ..of, on the one hand, thermotolerant coliforms commonly used as indicators and on the other hand, to somatic coliphages and Poliovirus-1 genome considered as potential indicators...
  34. Long S, Sobsey M. A comparison of the survival of F+RNA and F+DNA coliphages in lake water microcosms. J Water Health. 2004;2:15-22 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that differences in F+ phage survival may influence their prevalence in environmental waters and the ability to attribute their prevalence to specific human and animal sources of faecal contamination...
  35. Stewart J, Vinje J, Oudejans S, Scott G, Sobsey M. Sequence variation among group III F-specific RNA coliphages from water samples and swine lagoons. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1226-30 pubmed
    Typing of F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphages has been proposed as a useful method for distinguishing human from animal fecal contamination in environmental samples...
  36. Dafale N, Lakhe S, Yadav K, Purohit H, Chakrabarti T. Concentration and recovery of coliphages from water with bituminous coal. Water Environ Res. 2008;80:282-8 pubmed
    b>Coliphages represent a process indicator for fecal pollution. The coal bed concentration method prepared for enterovirus was refined for a concentration of coliphages. A bed made from 1...
  37. Karama M, Gyles C. Characterization of verotoxin-encoding phages from Escherichia coli O103:H2 strains of bovine and human origins. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:5153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the VTEC O103:H2 strains of human origin were more readily inducible than those of bovine origin and that the genotypic profiles of verotoxin-encoding phages were highly diverse, as revealed by their RFLP profiles...
  38. Cui T, Moro oka N, Ohsumi K, Kodama K, Ohshima T, Ogasawara N, et al. Escherichia coli with a linear genome. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:181-7 pubmed
    ..When tos - the cis-element required for linearization - was inserted into different chromosomal sites, those strains with the genome termini that were more remote from dif showed greater growth deficiencies...
  39. Golomidova A, Kulikov E, Isaeva A, Manykin A, Letarov A. The diversity of coliphages and coliforms in horse feces reveals a complex pattern of ecological interactions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5975-81 pubmed
    The diversity of coliphages and indigenous coliform strains (ICSs) simultaneously present in horse feces was investigated by culture-based and molecular methods...
  40. Muniesa M, Moce Llivina L, Katayama H, Jofre J. Bacterial host strains that support replication of somatic coliphages. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2003;83:305-15 pubmed
    Somatic coliphages detected by Escherichia coli strain WG5 have been proposed as potential indicators of water quality. Their potential replication in the water environment is considered a drawback for their use as indicators...
  41. Kulikov E, Kropinski A, Golomidova A, Lingohr E, Govorun V, Serebryakova M, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel indigenous intestinal N4-related coliphage vB_EcoP_G7C. Virology. 2012;426:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural proteome analysis confirmed all the predicted subunits of the viral particle. Unlike N4 itself, phage G7C did not exhibit a lysis-inhibited phenotype...
  42. Tanji Y, Mizoguchi K, Yoichi M, Morita M, Kijima N, Kator H, et al. Seasonal change and fate of coliphages infected to Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a wastewater treatment plant. Water Res. 2003;37:1136-42 pubmed
    ..However, addition of 0.02 mg/l chlorine, in conformance with the required concentration of the plant, did not affect the viability of T4 and 933 W phages. On the other hand, 1mg/l chlorine inactivated the 933 W phage significantly...
  43. Garc a Aljaro C, Muniesa M, Jofre J, Blanch A. Newly identified bacteriophages carrying the stx2g Shiga toxin gene isolated from Escherichia coli strains in polluted waters. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;258:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This first description of stx2g-carrying bacteriophages enlarges the list of stx-carrying bacteriophages involved in horizontal transmission of stx genes in the environment...
  44. Nejman B, Los J, Łoś M, Wegrzyn G, Wegrzyn A. Plasmids derived from lambdoid bacteriophages as models for studying replication of mobile genetic elements responsible for the production of Shiga toxins by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes encoding Shiga toxins in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, STEC) are located on lambdoid prophages. However, studies on the replication of these phages were not reported to date...
  45. Nuanualsuwan S, Mariam T, Himathongkham S, Cliver D. Ultraviolet inactivation of feline calicivirus, human enteric viruses and coliphages. Photochem Photobiol. 2002;76:406-10 pubmed
    ..units/mL) of UV-inactivated FCV, hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus type 1 (PV1) and two small, round coliphages were plotted as a function of UV dose and analyzed by regression analysis and analysis of variance...
  46. Muniesa M, Blanco J, De Simón M, Serra Moreno R, Blanch A, Jofre J. Diversity of stx2 converting bacteriophages induced from Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from cattle. Microbiology. 2004;150:2959-71 pubmed
    ..The results show that inducible stx(2) phages are common among STEC of animal origin and that they may enhance the spread of stx(2)...
  47. Zhang K, Farahbakhsh K. Removal of native coliphages and coliform bacteria from municipal wastewater by various wastewater treatment processes: implications to water reuse. Water Res. 2007;41:2816-24 pubmed
    ..Total and fecal coliforms and somatic and F-specific coliphages were used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Up to 5.7 logs removal of coliforms and 5...
  48. Nejman Falenczyk B, Golec P, Maciag M, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Inhibition of development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages by either treatment with citrate or amino acid starvation. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored which factors or conditions could inhibit development of these phages, potentially decreasing virulence of STEC...
  49. Burbano Rosero E, Ueda Ito M, Kisielius J, Nagasse Sugahara T, Almeida B, Souza C, et al. Diversity of somatic coliphages in coastal regions with different levels of anthropogenic activity in São Paulo State, Brazil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Somatic coliphages (SC) have been reported to be good indicators of fecal pollution in seawater...
  50. Viscardi M, Perugini A, Auriemma C, Capuano F, Morabito S, Kim K, et al. Isolation and characterisation of two novel coliphages with high potential to control antibiotic-resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC). Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;31:152-7 pubmed
    Two newly isolated virulent coliphages (MVBS and MVSS) showed ability to lyse (form plaque on) a high percentage of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains of various serotypes and origins (292/310; 94...
  51. Kaliniene L, Klausa V, Truncaite L. Low-temperature T4-like coliphages vB_EcoM-VR5, vB_EcoM-VR7 and vB_EcoM-VR20. Arch Virol. 2010;155:871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis of diagnostic g23 PCR products revealed that g23 of vB_EcoM-VR5, vB_EcoM-VR7 and vB_EcoM-VR20 differed from the corresponding T4 g23 DNA sequence by 21, 21 and 20%, respectively...
  52. Dini C, De Urraza P. Isolation and selection of coliphages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (EHEC and STEC) in cattle. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:873-87 pubmed publisher
    ..To isolate, characterize and select phages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (EHEC and STEC) in cattle...
  53. Nolan J, Petrov V, Bertrand C, Krisch H, Karam J. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages. Virol J. 2006;3:30 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank...
  54. Sheng H, Knecht H, Kudva I, Hovde C. Application of bacteriophages to control intestinal Escherichia coli O157:H7 levels in ruminants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5359-66 pubmed
    ..This phage therapy reduced the average number of E. coli O157:H7 CFU among phage-treated steers compared to control steers (P < 0.05); however, it did not eliminate the bacteria from the majority of steers...
  55. Bair C, Black L. A type IV modification dependent restriction nuclease that targets glucosylated hydroxymethyl cytosine modified DNAs. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:768-78 pubmed
    ..IPI* thus represents a third generation bacteriophage defense against restriction nucleases of the Gmr type...