bacteriophage p22

Summary

Summary: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.

Top Publications

  1. Steinbacher S, Baxa U, Miller S, Weintraub A, Seckler R, Huber R. Crystal structure of phage P22 tailspike protein complexed with Salmonella sp. O-antigen receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10584-8 pubmed
    ..Kinetics of binding and cleavage suggest a role of the receptor destroying endorhamnosidase activity primarily for detachment of newly assembled phages...
  2. Andres D, Hanke C, Baxa U, Seul A, Barbirz S, Seckler R. Tailspike interactions with lipopolysaccharide effect DNA ejection from phage P22 particles in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36768-75 pubmed publisher
    Initial attachment of bacteriophage P22 to the Salmonella host cell is known to be mediated by interactions between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the phage tailspike proteins (TSP), but the events that subsequently lead to DNA injection ..
  3. Patterson D, Prevelige P, Douglas T. Nanoreactors by programmed enzyme encapsulation inside the capsid of the bacteriophage P22. ACS Nano. 2012;6:5000-9 pubmed publisher
    The virus like particle (VLP) derived from bacteriophage P22 presents a unique platform for constructing catalytically functional nanomaterials by encapsulation of enzymes into its interior...
  4. Olia A, Casjens S, Cingolani G. Structural plasticity of the phage P22 tail needle gp26 probed with xenon gas. Protein Sci. 2009;18:537-48 pubmed publisher
    The tail needle, gp26, is a highly stable homo-trimeric fiber found in the tail apparatus of bacteriophage P22. In the mature virion, gp26 is responsible for plugging the DNA exit channel, and likely plays an important role in ..
  5. Olia A, Al Bassam J, Winn Stapley D, Joss L, Casjens S, Cingolani G. Binding-induced stabilization and assembly of the phage P22 tail accessory factor gp4. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:558-76 pubmed
    To infect and replicate, bacteriophage P22 injects its 43 kbp genome across the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
  6. Baxa U, Steinbacher S, Miller S, Weintraub A, Huber R, Seckler R. Interactions of phage P22 tails with their cellular receptor, Salmonella O-antigen polysaccharide. Biophys J. 1996;71:2040-8 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P22 binds to its cell surface receptor, the repetitive O-antigen structure in Salmonella lipopolysaccharide, by its six homotrimeric tailspikes...
  7. Müller J, Barbirz S, Heinle K, Freiberg A, Seckler R, Heinemann U. An intersubunit active site between supercoiled parallel beta helices in the trimeric tailspike endorhamnosidase of Shigella flexneri Phage Sf6. Structure. 2008;16:766-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Sf6 TSP may serve as an example for the evolution of different host specificities on a similar general architecture...
  8. Parker M, Brouillette C, Prevelige P. Kinetic and calorimetric evidence for two distinct scaffolding protein binding populations within the bacteriophage P22 procapsid. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8962-70 pubmed
    ..In the case of bacteriophage P22, a model in which the scaffolding protein selectively stabilizes on-pathway growing intermediates has been ..
  9. Salgado C, Zayas M, Villafane R. Homology between two different Salmonella phages: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage P22 and Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum var. 15 + phageepsilon34. Virus Genes. 2004;29:87-98 pubmed
    ..Significantly this report suggests a general structural motif for part of the TSP of phages and suggests that a more detailed comparative analysis of these TSPs is warranted...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Nemecek D, Gilcrease E, Kang S, Prevelige P, Casjens S, Thomas G. Subunit conformations and assembly states of a DNA-translocating motor: the terminase of bacteriophage P22. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:817-36 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P22, a podovirus infecting strains of Salmonella typhimurium, packages a 42-kbp genome using a headful mechanism...
  2. Bahadur R, Kannan S, Zacharias M. Binding of the bacteriophage P22 N-peptide to the boxB RNA motif studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Biophys J. 2009;97:3139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..It indicates that electrostatic interactions near RNA molecules can lead to a shift in the equilibrium toward the bound form of an interacting partner before it enters the binding pocket...
  3. Teschke C, Parent K. 'Let the phage do the work': using the phage P22 coat protein structures as a framework to understand its folding and assembly mutants. Virology. 2010;401:119-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we highlight the pseudo-atomic structures of phage P22 coat protein and rationalize several decades of data about P22 coat protein folding, assembly and maturation generated from a combination of genetics and biochemistry...
  4. Mooers B, Matthews B. Extension to 2268 atoms of direct methods in the ab initio determination of the unknown structure of bacteriophage P22 lysozyme. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006;62:165-76 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structure of the previously unknown bacteriophage P22 lysozyme, the product of gene 19, has been determined ab initio by direct methods using the program SIR2002...
  5. Kang S, Prevelige P. Domain study of bacteriophage p22 coat protein and characterization of the capsid lattice transformation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange. J Mol Biol. 2005;347:935-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The dsDNA bacteriophage P22 is used as a model system to study the assembly and maturation of icosahedral dsDNA viruses...
  6. Gilcrease E, Winn Stapley D, Hewitt F, Joss L, Casjens S. Nucleotide sequence of the head assembly gene cluster of bacteriophage L and decoration protein characterization. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2050-7 pubmed
    The temperate Salmonella enterica bacteriophage L is a close relative of the very well studied bacteriophage P22. In this study we show that the L procapsid assembly and DNA packaging genes, which encode terminase, portal, scaffold, and ..
  7. Bhardwaj A, Olia A, Walker Kopp N, Cingolani G. Domain organization and polarity of tail needle GP26 in the portal vertex structure of bacteriophage P22. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:374-87 pubmed
    ..We propose that domains III and IV of the tail needle form the tip utilized by the phage to penetrate the host cell wall...
  8. Cortines J, Weigele P, Gilcrease E, Casjens S, Teschke C. Decoding bacteriophage P22 assembly: identification of two charged residues in scaffolding protein responsible for coat protein interaction. Virology. 2011;421:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The 303 amino acid bacteriophage P22 scaffolding protein is mostly helical, and its C-terminal helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain binds to the coat ..
  9. Broadbent S, Davies M, van der Woude M. Phase variation controls expression of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide modification genes by a DNA methylation-dependent mechanism. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:337-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Most Salmonella gtr operons share the key regulatory elements that are identified here as essential for this epigenetic phase variation...
  10. Bhardwaj A, Walker Kopp N, Wilkens S, Cingolani G. Foldon-guided self-assembly of ultra-stable protein fibers. Protein Sci. 2008;17:1475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This engineered protein fiber was constructed on the molecular framework of bacteriophage P22 tail needle gp26, by fusing its helical core to the foldon domain of phage T4 fibritin...
  11. Steinbacher S, Seckler R, Miller S, Steipe B, Huber R, Reinemer P. Crystal structure of P22 tailspike protein: interdigitated subunits in a thermostable trimer. Science. 1994;265:383-6 pubmed
    ..The interdigitation of the polypeptide chains at the carboxyl termini is important to protrimer formation in the folding pathway and to thermostability of the mature protein...
  12. Olia A, Bhardwaj A, Joss L, Casjens S, Cingolani G. Role of gene 10 protein in the hierarchical assembly of the bacteriophage P22 portal vertex structure. Biochemistry. 2007;46:8776-84 pubmed
    ..The assembled portal vertex structure represents both a membrane-binding and penetrating device as well as a plug that retains the pressurized phage DNA inside the capsid...
  13. Casjens S, Thuman Commike P. Evolution of mosaically related tailed bacteriophage genomes seen through the lens of phage P22 virion assembly. Virology. 2011;411:393-415 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review and examine the mosaicism within fifty-seven clusters of virion assembly genes from bacteriophage P22 and its "close" relatives...
  14. Olia A, Casjens S, Cingolani G. Structure of phage P22 cell envelope–penetrating needle. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:1221-6 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope...
  15. Zheng H, Olia A, Gonen M, Andrews S, Cingolani G, Gonen T. A conformational switch in bacteriophage p22 portal protein primes genome injection. Mol Cell. 2008;29:376-83 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; We have used electron cryomicroscopy to determine the structure of bacteriophage P22 portal protein in both the procapsid and mature capsid conformations...
  16. Weigele P, Sampson L, Winn Stapley D, Casjens S. Molecular genetics of bacteriophage P22 scaffolding protein's functional domains. J Mol Biol. 2005;348:831-44 pubmed publisher
    The assembly intermediates of the Salmonella bacteriophage P22 are well defined but the molecular interactions between the subunits that participate in its assembly are not...
  17. Platt R, Reynolds D, Phillips G. Development of a novel method of lytic phage delivery by use of a bacteriophage P22 site-specific recombination system. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;223:259-65 pubmed
    ..accomplished by development of a plasmid-based system utilizing the site-specific recombination machinery of bacteriophage P22 to integrate DNA constructs into the host chromosome...
  18. Moore S, Prevelige P. Structural transformations accompanying the assembly of bacteriophage P22 portal protein rings in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:6779-88 pubmed
    The Salmonella typhimurium bacteriophage P22 assembles an icosahedral capsid precursor called a procapsid. The oligomeric portal protein ring, located at one vertex, comprises the conduit for DNA entry and exit...
  19. Suhanovsky M, Parent K, Dunn S, Baker T, Teschke C. Determinants of bacteriophage P22 polyhead formation: the role of coat protein flexibility in conformational switching. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:1568-82 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated determinants of polyhead formation in bacteriophage P22 in order to understand the molecular mechanism by which coat protein assembly goes astray...
  20. Lander G, Khayat R, Li R, Prevelige P, Potter C, Carragher B, et al. The P22 tail machine at subnanometer resolution reveals the architecture of an infection conduit. Structure. 2009;17:789-99 pubmed publisher
    The portal channel is a key component in the life cycle of bacteriophages and herpesviruses. The bacteriophage P22 portal is a 1 megadalton dodecameric oligomer of gp1 that plays key roles in capsid assembly, DNA packaging, assembly of ..
  21. Kamei D, King J, Wang D, Blankschtein D. Separating lysozyme from bacteriophage P22 in two-phase aqueous micellar systems. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002;80:233-6 pubmed
    ..net positively charged protein, lysozyme, in the micelle-rich phase from 75 to 95%, while still maintaining approximately the same yield of a model net negatively charged virus, bacteriophage P22, in the micelle-poor phase (97% vs. 98%).
  22. Kreisberg J, Betts S, Haase Pettingell C, King J. The interdigitated beta-helix domain of the P22 tailspike protein acts as a molecular clamp in trimer stabilization. Protein Sci. 2002;11:820-30 pubmed
    ..This interdigitated beta-helix appears to function as a molecular clamp insuring thermostable subunit association in the native trimer...
  23. Cho E, Nam C, Alcaraz R, Gardner J. Site-specific recombination of bacteriophage P22 does not require integration host factor. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:4245-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that nucleoprotein structures proficient for recombination can form in the absence of IHF or that another factor(s) can substitute for IHF in the formation of complexes...
  24. Gião M, Borges A, Guedes C, Hogg T, Pintado M, Malcata F. Determination of antioxidant capacity using the biological system bacteriophage P22/bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:22-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The P22/Salmonella typhimurium model system thus proved to be useful in the assessment of antioxidant capacity in vivo, at least using those two alternative model antioxidants...
  25. Lorenzen K, Olia A, Uetrecht C, Cingolani G, Heck A. Determination of stoichiometry and conformational changes in the first step of the P22 tail assembly. J Mol Biol. 2008;379:385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have investigated the stoichiometry of the in vitro-assembled portal protein of bacteriophage P22 and characterized its association with the tail factor gp4...
  26. Padilla Meier G, Teschke C. Conformational changes in bacteriophage P22 scaffolding protein induced by interaction with coat protein. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:226-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Assembly of the double-stranded DNA bacteriophage P22 procapsids requires the interaction of 415 molecules of coat protein and 60-300 molecules of scaffolding ..
  27. Cingolani G, Moore S, Prevelige P, Johnson J. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the bacteriophage P22 portal protein. J Struct Biol. 2002;139:46-54 pubmed
    ..We have studied the portal protein of bacteriophage P22, which is the largest connector characterized among the tailed bacteriophages...
  28. Johnson J, Chiu W. DNA packaging and delivery machines in tailed bacteriophages. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2007;17:237-43 pubmed
  29. Freiberg A, Morona R, Van den Bosch L, Jung C, Behlke J, Carlin N, et al. The tailspike protein of Shigella phage Sf6. A structural homolog of Salmonella phage P22 tailspike protein without sequence similarity in the beta-helix domain. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:1542-8 pubmed
    ..The observations strongly suggest that the tailspike of phage Sf6 is a trimeric parallel beta-helix protein with high structural similarity to its functional homolog from phage P22...
  30. Jiang W, Li Z, Zhang Z, Baker M, Prevelige P, Chiu W. Coat protein fold and maturation transition of bacteriophage P22 seen at subnanometer resolutions. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:131-5 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage P22 is a prototypical biological machine used for studying protein complex assembly and capsid maturation. Using cryo-EM, we solved the structures of P22 before and after the capsid maturation at 8.5 A and 9...
  31. Pedulla M, Ford M, Karthikeyan T, Houtz J, Hendrix R, Hatfull G, et al. Corrected sequence of the bacteriophage p22 genome. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1475-7 pubmed
    We report the first accurate genome sequence for bacteriophage P22, correcting a 0.14% error rate in previously determined sequences...
  32. Franklin N. Morphing molecular specificities between Arm-peptide and NUT-RNA in the antitermination complexes of bacteriophages lambda and P22. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:815-22 pubmed
    ..Intermediate sequences may show no function with either BOX-B, or weak function with both BOX-B(lambda) and BOX-B(22), the latter suggesting possible evolutionary paths for specificity shifts...
  33. Kang S, Hawkridge A, Johnson K, Muddiman D, Prevelige P. Identification of subunit-subunit interactions in bacteriophage P22 procapsids by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:370-7 pubmed
    ..The dsDNA bacteriophage P22 is used as a model system to study the assembly and maturation of icosahedral dsDNA viruses...
  34. Barbirz S, Müller J, Uetrecht C, Clark A, Heinemann U, Seckler R. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli phage HK620 tailspike: podoviral tailspike endoglycosidase modules are evolutionarily related. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:303-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the tailspike genes of P22, Sf6 and HK620 have a common precursor and are not mosaics of unrelated gene fragments...
  35. Villafane R, Zayas M, Gilcrease E, Kropinski A, Casjens S. Genomic analysis of bacteriophage epsilon 34 of Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum (15+). BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:227 pubmed publisher
  36. Nemecek D, Lander G, Johnson J, Casjens S, Thomas G. Assembly architecture and DNA binding of the bacteriophage P22 terminase small subunit. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:494-501 pubmed publisher
    Morphogenesis of bacteriophage P22 involves the packaging of double-stranded DNA into a preassembled procapsid...
  37. Andres D, Baxa U, Hanke C, Seckler R, Barbirz S. Carbohydrate binding of Salmonella phage P22 tailspike protein and its role during host cell infection. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:1386-9 pubmed publisher
    TSPs (tailspike proteins) are essential infection organelles of bacteriophage P22. Upon infection, P22TSP binds to and cleaves the O-antigen moiety of the LPS (lipopolysaccharide) of its Salmonella host...
  38. Mattis A, Gumport R, Gardner J. Purification and characterization of bacteriophage P22 Xis protein. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5781-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The similarity in alignments among the sites suggests that Xis-containing bacteriophage arms may form similar structures...
  39. Chang J, Weigele P, King J, Chiu W, Jiang W. Cryo-EM asymmetric reconstruction of bacteriophage P22 reveals organization of its DNA packaging and infecting machinery. Structure. 2006;14:1073-82 pubmed
    ..particle cryo-electron microscopy and asymmetric 3D reconstruction reveal the organization of the complete bacteriophage P22 virion, including the protein channel through which DNA is first packaged and later ejected...
  40. Padilla Meier G, Gilcrease E, Weigele P, Cortines J, Siegel M, Leavitt J, et al. Unraveling the role of the C-terminal helix turn helix of the coat-binding domain of bacteriophage P22 scaffolding protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33766-80 pubmed
    ..In bacteriophage P22, the association of scaffolding and coat proteins is mediated mainly by ionic interactions...
  41. Wu H, Sampson L, Parr R, Casjens S. The DNA site utilized by bacteriophage P22 for initiation of DNA packaging. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:1631-46 pubmed
    ..Viruses like bacteriophage P22, which have partially circularly permuted, double-stranded virion DNAs, encapsidate DNA through processive ..
  42. Clark A, Inwood W, Cloutier T, Dhillon T. Nucleotide sequence of coliphage HK620 and the evolution of lambdoid phages. J Mol Biol. 2001;311:657-79 pubmed
    ..We propose that these boundary sequences are foci of genetic recombination that serve to assort the modules and make the metabolic domain highly mosaic genetically...
  43. Tuma R, Tsuruta H, French K, Prevelige P. Detection of intermediates and kinetic control during assembly of bacteriophage P22 procapsid. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:1395-406 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage P22 serves as a model for the assembly and maturation of other icosahedral double-stranded DNA viruses...
  44. Steinbacher S, Miller S, Baxa U, Budisa N, Weintraub A, Seckler R, et al. Phage P22 tailspike protein: crystal structure of the head-binding domain at 2.3 A, fully refined structure of the endorhamnosidase at 1.56 A resolution, and the molecular basis of O-antigen recognition and cleavage. J Mol Biol. 1997;267:865-80 pubmed
    ..In the final step of bacteriophage P22 assembly six homotrimeric tailspike molecules are non-covalently attached to the DNA injection apparatus, ..
  45. Tang J, Lander G, Olia A, Olia A, Li R, Casjens S, et al. Peering down the barrel of a bacteriophage portal: the genome packaging and release valve in p22. Structure. 2011;19:496-502 pubmed publisher
  46. Andres D, Gohlke U, Broeker N, Schulze S, Rabsch W, Heinemann U, et al. An essential serotype recognition pocket on phage P22 tailspike protein forces Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-antigen fragments to bind as nonsolution conformers. Glycobiology. 2013;23:486-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage P22 recognizes O-antigen polysaccharides of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S.) with its tailspike protein (TSP). In the serovars S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S...
  47. Liébana S, Spricigo D, Cortés M, Barbe J, Llagostera M, Alegret S, et al. Phagomagnetic separation and electrochemical magneto-genosensing of pathogenic bacteria. Anal Chem. 2013;85:3079-86 pubmed publisher
  48. Servid A, Jordan P, O Neil A, Prevelige P, Douglas T. Location of the bacteriophage P22 coat protein C-terminus provides opportunities for the design of capsid-based materials. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:2989-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Existing cryo-electron microscopy-based models suggest that the C-terminus of the bacteriophage P22 coat protein (CP) extends toward the capsid exterior...
  49. Roy A, Bhardwaj A, Cingolani G. Crystallization of the nonameric small terminase subunit of bacteriophage P22. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2011;67:104-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the gene encoding bacteriophage P22 S-terminase in Escherichia coli has been overexpressed and the protein purified under native conditions...
  50. Kropinski A, Sulakvelidze A, Konczy P, Poppe C. Salmonella phages and prophages--genomics and practical aspects. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;394:133-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The only member of the T7-like group is SP6. The properties of each of these phages are discussed, along with their role as agents of genetic exchange and as therapeutic agents and their involvement in phage typing...
  51. Benton C, King J, Clark P. Characterization of the protrimer intermediate in the folding pathway of the interdigitated beta-helix tailspike protein. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5093-103 pubmed
    ..This late step may confer the detergent-resistance, protease-resistance, and thermostability of the native trimer. ..
  52. Evans M, Sander I, Clark P. Cotranslational folding promotes beta-helix formation and avoids aggregation in vivo. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:683-92 pubmed publisher
  53. Villafane R, Costa S, Ahmed R, Salgado C. Conservation of the N-terminus of some phage tail proteins. Arch Virol. 2005;150:2609-21 pubmed
    ..The data suggest a classification scheme in which the N-terminus of some tailspike proteins (head-binding region in some tail proteins) may play a critical element role in the classification of Salmonella viruses...
  54. Shen C, Phanikumar M, Fong T, Aslam I, McElmurry S, Molloy S, et al. Evaluating bacteriophage P22 as a tracer in a complex surface water system: the Grand River, Michigan. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:2426-31 pubmed
    ..study on a 40 km reach of the Grand River, the longest river in Michigan, and we examine the performance of bacteriophage P22 relative to a chemical tracer (Rhodamine WT)...
  55. Landström J, Nordmark E, Eklund R, Weintraub A, Seckler R, Widmalm G. Interaction of a Salmonella enteritidis O-antigen octasaccharide with the phage P22 tailspike protein by NMR spectroscopy and docking studies. Glycoconj J. 2008;25:137-43 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the crystal structure of the complex and a molecular dynamics simulation of the octasaccharide with explicit water molecules suggest that only minor conformational changes are needed upon binding to the tailspike protein...
  56. Parent K, Zlotnick A, Teschke C. Quantitative analysis of multi-component spherical virus assembly: scaffolding protein contributes to the global stability of phage P22 procapsids. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:1097-106 pubmed
    ..When the relative concentration is very high, too many nuclei form, leading to kinetically trapped assembly intermediates...
  57. Roy A, Bhardwaj A, Datta P, Lander G, Cingolani G. Small terminase couples viral DNA binding to genome-packaging ATPase activity. Structure. 2012;20:1403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the 1.75 Å crystal structure of the bacteriophage P22 S-terminase in a nonameric conformation...
  58. Austin R, Xia T, Ren J, Takahashi T, Roberts R. Differential modes of recognition in N peptide-boxB complexes. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14957-67 pubmed
    ..Amino acid coupling analysis supports a binding model where the Arg8 residue of lambda peptide acts as a conformational hot spot, anchoring the induced loop fold of its boxB hairpin target...
  59. Culpepper B, Morris D, Prevelige P, Bellis S. Engineering nanocages with polyglutamate domains for coupling to hydroxyapatite biomaterials and allograft bone. Biomaterials. 2013;34:2455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these results establish a new mechanism for the directed coupling of nanocage drug delivery systems to a variety of HA-containing materials commonly used in diverse bone therapies...
  60. Ranade K, Poteete A. Superinfection exclusion (sieB) genes of bacteriophages P22 and lambda. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:4712-8 pubmed
    ..The sieB promoter thus identified was inactivated by a 2-base substitution in its -10 hexamer. The sieB gene of coliphage lambda was also identified. The promoter for lambda sieB was identified by homology to that of P22 sieB...
  61. Leavitt J, Gogokhia L, Gilcrease E, Bhardwaj A, Cingolani G, Casjens S. The tip of the tail needle affects the rate of DNA delivery by bacteriophage P22. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70936 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the needle plays a role in phage P22 DNA delivery by controlling the kinetics of DNA ejection into the host. ..