caudovirales

Summary

Summary: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Ackermann H. Tailed bacteriophages: the order caudovirales. Adv Virus Res. 1998;51:135-201 pubmed
    Tailed bacteriophages have a common origin and constitute an order with three families, named Caudovirales. Their structured tail is unique...
  2. Christie G, Dokland T. Pirates of the Caudovirales. Virology. 2012;434:210-21 pubmed publisher
    ..into phage-like transducing particles assembled from proteins supplied by a helper phage that belongs to the Caudovirales order of viruses (tailed, dsDNA bacteriophages)...
  3. Segobola J, Adriaenssens E, Tsekoa T, Rashamuse K, Cowan D. Exploring Viral Diversity in a Unique South African Soil Habitat. Sci Rep. 2018;8:111 pubmed publisher
    ..Taxonomic composition revealed members of the order Caudovirales, in particular the family Siphoviridae, as prevalent in the soil samples and other compared viromes...
  4. Cruz Flores R, Cáceres Martínez J, Muñoz Flores M, Vásquez Yeomans R, Hernández Rodriguez M, Ángel Del Río Portilla M, et al. Hyperparasitism by the bacteriophage (Caudovirales) infecting Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales-like prokaryote) parasite of wild abalone Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata from the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. J Invertebr Pathol. 2016;140:58-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, this data constitutes the first record of a bacteriophage in blue abalone. ..
  5. Colombo S, Arioli S, Guglielmetti S, Lunelli F, Mora D. Virome-associated antibiotic-resistance genes in an experimental aquaculture facility. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2016;92: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Caudovirales had the largest representation within the sample, with over 50% of the total taxonomic abundance, whereas ..
  6. Cruz Flores R, Cáceres Martínez J. The hyperparasite of the rickettsiales-like prokaryote, Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis has morphological characteristics of a Siphoviridae (Caudovirales). J Invertebr Pathol. 2016;133:8-11 pubmed publisher
    ..tail, this morphological characteristic tentatively place this virus in the Family Siphoviridae from the order Caudovirales. TEM images also showed the bacteriophage in different stages of assembly in the cytoplasm of CXc, ..
  7. Garcia Doval C, Castón J, Luque D, Granell M, Otero J, Llamas Saiz A, et al. Structure of the Receptor-Binding Carboxy-Terminal Domain of the Bacteriophage T5 L-Shaped Tail Fibre with and without Its Intra-Molecular Chaperone. Viruses. 2015;7:6424-40 pubmed publisher
    Bacteriophage T5, a Siphovirus belonging to the order Caudovirales, has a flexible, three-fold symmetric tail, to which three L-shaped fibres are attached...
  8. Gu X, Tay Q, Te S, Saeidi N, Goh S, Kushmaro A, et al. Geospatial distribution of viromes in tropical freshwater ecosystems. Water Res. 2018;137:220-232 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the majority (65.5%) of the annotated virome belonged to bacteriophages. The percentage of Caudovirales was higher in reservoirs whereas the percentages of Dicistroviridae, Microviridae and Circoviridae were higher ..
  9. Zablocki O, van Zyl L, Kirby B, Trindade M. Diversity of dsDNA Viruses in a South African Hot Spring Assessed by Metagenomics and Microscopy. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Microscopy analysis revealed a mixture of regular- and 'jumbo'-sized tailed morphotypes (Caudovirales), lemon-shaped virions (Fuselloviridae-like; salterprovirus-like) and pleiomorphic virus-like ..

More Information

Publications66

  1. Castro Mejía J, Muhammed M, Kot W, Neve H, Franz C, Hansen L, et al. Optimizing protocols for extraction of bacteriophages prior to metagenomic analyses of phage communities in the human gut. Microbiome. 2015;3:64 pubmed publisher
    ..TFF- and PEG-derived metaviromes showed 10% increase in relative abundance of Caudovirales and unclassified phages infecting gut-associated bacteria (>92% for TFF and PEG, 82.4% for LIT)...
  2. Cai L, Zhang R, He Y, Feng X, Jiao N. Metagenomic Analysis of Virioplankton of the Subtropical Jiulong River Estuary, China. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..For the major viral group (Caudovirales) detected in the sample, Podoviridae (44.88%) were the most abundant family, followed by Siphoviridae (32...
  3. Carstens A, Kot W, Lametsch R, Neve H, Hansen L. Characterisation of a novel enterobacteria phage, CAjan, isolated from rat faeces. Arch Virol. 2016;161:2219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This phage belongs to the order Caudovirales and the family Siphoviridae...
  4. O Brien E, Munir M, Marsh T, Heran M, Lesage G, Tarabara V, et al. Diversity of DNA viruses in effluents of membrane bioreactors in Traverse City, MI (USA) and La Grande Motte (France). Water Res. 2017;111:338-345 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacteriophage order Caudovirales comprises the majority of DNA virus sequences in the effluent of all utilities...
  5. Leigh B, Djurhuus A, Breitbart M, Dishaw L. The gut virome of the protochordate model organism, Ciona intestinalis subtype A. Virus Res. 2018;244:137-146 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ciona gut viromes were dominated by double-stranded DNA tailed phages (Order Caudovirales) and sequence assembly yielded a number of complete circular phage genomes, most of which were highly divergent ..
  6. Parmar K, Dafale N, Tikariha H, Purohit H. Genomic characterization of key bacteriophages to formulate the potential biocontrol agent to combat enteric pathogenic bacteria. Arch Microbiol. 2018;200:611-622 pubmed publisher
    ..Klebsiella phage (KNP2), Enterobacter phage (KNP3), Serratia phage (KNP4), and belonged to Myoviridae family of Caudovirales except for the unclassified KNP4 phage...
  7. Iranzo J, Koonin E, Prangishvili D, Krupovic M. Bipartite Network Analysis of the Archaeal Virosphere: Evolutionary Connections between Viruses and Capsidless Mobile Elements. J Virol. 2016;90:11043-11055 pubmed
    ..With the exception of the tailed viruses related to bacteriophages of the order Caudovirales and the families Turriviridae and Sphaerolipoviridae that are linked to a distinct supermodule of eukaryotic ..
  8. Subirats J, Sànchez Melsió A, Borrego C, Balcázar J, Simonet P. Metagenomic analysis reveals that bacteriophages are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016;48:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Metagenomic analysis showed that most phage sequences affiliated to the order Caudovirales, comprising the tailed phage families Podoviridae, Siphoviridae and Myoviridae...
  9. Liu H, Liu X, Yi X, Liu R, Huang J. The complete genome sequence of PE3-1, a novel E. coli O153 phage. Arch Virol. 2016;161:3291-4 pubmed publisher
    ..icosahedral head and a short tail, which revealed that it was a member of the family Podoviridae of the order Caudovirales. The complete PE3-1 genome consisted of 39,093 bp and was a linear double-stranded DNA with an average GC ..
  10. Weynberg K, Laffy P, Wood Charlson E, Turaev D, Rattei T, Webster N, et al. Coral-associated viral communities show high levels of diversity and host auxiliary functions. Peerj. 2017;5:e4054 pubmed publisher
    ..coral species from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), demonstrating that tailed bacteriophages of the Caudovirales dominate across all species examined, and ssDNA viruses, notably the Microviridae, are also ..
  11. Chen Y, Sun E, Song J, Yang L, Wu B. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel T7-Like Bacteriophage from a Pasteurella multocida Capsular Type A Isolate. Curr Microbiol. 2018;75:574-579 pubmed publisher
    ..structure of phage PHB02 resemble those of T7-like phages belonging to the family Podoviridae, of the order Caudovirales. Phage PHB02 was stable over a wide range of temperatures (4-50 °C) and pH values (5.0-9...
  12. El Haddad L, Roy J, Khalil G, St Gelais D, Champagne C, Labrie S, et al. Efficacy of two Staphylococcus aureus phage cocktails in cheese production. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;217:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Six selected phages belonging to the three Caudovirales families (Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae) were strictly lytic, had a broad host range, and did not carry ..
  13. Toussaint A, Van Gijsegem F. Extension of the transposable bacterial virus family: two genomic organisations among phages and prophages with a Tn552-related transposase. Res Microbiol. 2018;169:495-499 pubmed publisher
    ..further illustrate the previously reported mosaicism existing in the proposed "Saltoviridae" family of Caudovirales, and further support the proposal to move morphology criteria (contractile vs. flexible or short tail, i.e...
  14. Muhammed M, Kot W, Neve H, Mahony J, Castro Mejía J, Krych L, et al. Metagenomic Analysis of Dairy Bacteriophages: Extraction Method and Pilot Study on Whey Samples Derived from Using Undefined and Defined Mesophilic Starter Cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017;83: pubmed publisher
    ..lactis 936 phages (order Caudovirales, family Siphoviridae) in dairies using undefined DL starter cultures and Lc...
  15. Zhang X, Niu J, Liang Y, Liu X, Yin H. Metagenome-scale analysis yields insights into the structure and function of microbial communities in a copper bioleaching heap. BMC Genet. 2016;17:21 pubmed publisher
    ..ferrivorans-like and A. ferrooxidans-like groups. In addition, Caudovirales were the dominant viral type observed in this extremely environment...
  16. Voronina O, Kunda M, Aksenova E, Semenov A, Ryzhova N, Lunin V, et al. Mosaic structure of Mycobacterium bovis BCG genomes as a representation of phage sequences' mobility. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:1009 pubmed publisher
    ..Several prophages common to all BCG genomes included ORFs which were homologues to Caudovirales. Surprisingly very different prophage profiles characterized BCG Tice and BCG Montreal genomes...
  17. Thierry E, Brennich M, Round A, Buisson M, Burmeister W, Hutin S. Production and characterisation of Epstein-Barr virus helicase-primase complex and its accessory protein BBLF2/3. Virus Genes. 2015;51:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..the archaeo-eukaryotic primase family, whereas the helicase BBLF4 has been related either to Dda helicases of caudovirales or to Pif1 helicases...
  18. Atanasova N, Bamford D, Oksanen H. Haloarchaeal virus morphotypes. Biochimie. 2015;118:333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..shown to have the same major capsid protein fold (HK97-fold) with tailed bacteriophages belonging to the order Caudovirales and with eukaryotic herpes viruses...
  19. Kaliniene L, Šimoliūnas E, Truncaitė L, Zajančkauskaitė A, Nainys J, Kaupinis A, et al. Molecular Analysis of Arthrobacter Myovirus vB_ArtM-ArV1: We Blame It on the Tail. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..help to advance our understanding of genetic diversity and evolution of phages that constitute the order CaudoviralesIMPORTANCE Bacteriophages, which likely originated in the early Precambrian Era, represent the most ..
  20. Alič Š, Naglič T, Tusek Znidaric M, Ravnikar M, Racki N, Peterka M, et al. Newly Isolated Bacteriophages from the Podoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Myoviridae Families Have Variable Effects on Putative Novel Dickeya spp. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1870 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on bacteriophage morphology, all isolated bacteriophages were classified as being in the order Caudovirales, belonging to three different families, Podoviridae, Myoviridae, and Siphoviridae...
  21. Chen M, Xu J, Yao H, Lu C, Zhang W. Isolation, genome sequencing and functional analysis of two T7-like coliphages of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Gene. 2016;582:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed that both P483 and P694 belong to T7-like virus which is a member of the Podoviridae family of the Caudovirales order...
  22. Antunes A, Alam I, Simões M, Daniels C, Ferreira A, Siam R, et al. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2015;13:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample...
  23. Pell L, Kanelis V, Donaldson L, Howell P, Davidson A. The phage lambda major tail protein structure reveals a common evolution for long-tailed phages and the type VI bacterial secretion system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Hcp1 as a model, we propose a polymerization mechanism for gpV involving several disorder-to-order transitions...
  24. Ackermann H. Bacteriophage observations and evolution. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:245-51 pubmed
    ..At least 4950 phages (96%) are tailed. They constitute the order Caudovirales and three families. Siphoviridae or phages with long, noncontractile tails predominate (61% of tailed phages)...
  25. Letellier L, Boulanger P, Plançon L, Jacquot P, Santamaria M. Main features on tailed phage, host recognition and DNA uptake. Front Biosci. 2004;9:1228-339 pubmed
    ..Part of the review is devoted to recent in vitro data which have allowed to partly decipher the mechanism of phage T5 DNA transport...
  26. Clapper B, Tu A, Elgavish A, Dybvig K. The vir gene of bacteriophage MAV1 confers resistance to phage infection on Mycoplasma arthritidis. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5715-20 pubmed
    ..Vir had no effect on MAV1 adsorption. We conclude that Vir is not a virulence factor but functions to exclude superinfecting phage, possibly by blocking the injection of phage DNA into the bacterial cytoplasm...
  27. Nguyen H, Yoon S, Kim M, Kim Y, Yoon M, Cho Y, et al. Characterization of bacteriophage ?Pto-bp6g, a novel phage that lyses Pseudomonas tolaasii causing brown blotch disease in mushrooms. J Microbiol Methods. 2012;91:514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since there is no identified gene encoding integrase and toxins in phage genome, phage ?Pto-bp6g could be potentially applicable as a safe biological control reagent against brown blotch disease in mushroom cultivation...
  28. Baker M, Jiang W, Rixon F, Chiu W. Common ancestry of herpesviruses and tailed DNA bacteriophages. J Virol. 2005;79:14967-70 pubmed
    ..the eukaryote-infecting herpesviruses (Herpesviridae) and the prokaryote-infecting tailed DNA bacteriophages (Caudovirales) revealed a characteristic fold that is restricted to these two virus lineages and is indicative of common ..
  29. Wichels A, Biel S, Gelderblom H, Brinkhoff T, Muyzer G, Schutt C. Bacteriophage diversity in the North Sea. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64:4128-33 pubmed
    ..The 16S rRNA sequences of the bacteria exhibited high levels of similarity (98 to 99%) with the sequences of organisms belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas, which belongs to the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria...
  30. Brooks J, Watson A. The Enteric Virome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology. 2015;149:1120-1 pubmed publisher
  31. Muniesa M, Lucena F, Jofre J. Study of the potential relationship between the morphology of infectious somatic coliphages and their persistence in the environment. J Appl Microbiol. 1999;87:402-9 pubmed
    ..In all cases, Siphoviridae, especially those with flexible and curled tails, became more abundant to the detriment of Myoviridae...
  32. R ske K, Calcutt M, Wise K. The Mycoplasma fermentans prophage phiMFV1: genome organization, mobility and variable expression of an encoded surface protein. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:1703-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Retention of these labile prophage elements in organisms with such drastically reduced genome sizes implies a significant role in adaptation and survival...
  33. Casjens S. Comparative genomics and evolution of the tailed-bacteriophages. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005;8:451-8 pubmed
    ..Recent molecular studies of phages other than these model system phages have made it clear that much remains to be learnt about the variety of lifestyle strategies utilized by the tailed-phage...
  34. Sullivan M, Lindell D, Lee J, Thompson L, Bielawski J, Chisholm S. Prevalence and evolution of core photosystem II genes in marine cyanobacterial viruses and their hosts. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e234 pubmed
    ..This generates genetic diversity among the phage, which serves as a reservoir for their hosts, and in turn influences photosystem evolution...
  35. Fraser J, Maxwell K, Davidson A. Immunoglobulin-like domains on bacteriophage: weapons of modest damage?. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:382-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Ig-like domains appear to be one of a number of conserved domains displayed on phage surfaces that serve to increase infectivity by binding to or degrading polysaccharides...
  36. Mazaheri Nezhad Fard R, Barton M, Heuzenroeder M. Novel Bacteriophages in Enterococcus spp. Curr Microbiol. 2010;60:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The pleomorphic phages were droplet- or lemon-shaped in morphology. This study is the first report on polyhedral phages in Enterococcus spp. of animal origin and also the first report of filamentous and pleomorphic phages in enterococci...
  37. Park E, Kim K, Abell G, Kim M, Roh S, Bae J. Metagenomic analysis of the viral communities in fermented foods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These communities were dominated by bacteriophages belonging to the viral order Caudovirales (i.e., Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae)...
  38. Williamson K, Helton R, Wommack K. Bias in bacteriophage morphological classification by transmission electron microscopy due to breakage or loss of tail structures. Microsc Res Tech. 2012;75:452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..characterize biases in virus morphological diversity due to tail loss, six phage strains representing the order Caudovirales were inoculated into sterile sediments and soils. Phage particles were then extracted using standard methods...
  39. Jakubowska Deredas M, Jurczak Kurek A, Richert M, Łoś M, Narajczyk M, Wrobel B. Diversity of tailed phages in Baltic Sea sediment: large number of siphoviruses with extremely long tails. Res Microbiol. 2012;163:292-6 pubmed publisher
    ..19% of siphoviruses had prolate heads. Interestingly, 11% of siphoviral particles had tails longer than 300 nm, and 6% longer than 600 nm...
  40. Veesler D, Spinelli S, Mahony J, Lichière J, Blangy S, Bricogne G, et al. Structure of the phage TP901-1 1.8 MDa baseplate suggests an alternative host adhesion mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8954-8 pubmed publisher
    Phages of the Caudovirales order possess a tail that recognizes the host and ensures genome delivery upon infection. The X-ray structure of the approximately 1...
  41. Petrovski S, Tillett D, Seviour R. Isolation and complete genome sequence of a bacteriophage lysing Tetrasphaera jenkinsii, a filamentous bacteria responsible for bulking in activated sludge. Virus Genes. 2012;45:380-8 pubmed
    ..This lytic phage is a member of the Caudovirales specific for T. jenkinsii...
  42. Deghorain M, Van Melderen L. The Staphylococci phages family: an overview. Viruses. 2012;4:3316-35 pubmed
    ..At the morphological level, all these phages characterized so far belong to the Caudovirales order and are mainly temperate Siphoviridae...
  43. Jin J, Li Z, Wang S, Wang S, Huang D, Li Y, et al. Isolation and characterization of ZZ1, a novel lytic phage that infects Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:156 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, one lytic bacteriophage, ZZ1, which infects A. baumannii and has a broad host range, was selected for characterization...
  44. Sekaninová G, Hofer M, Rychlik I, Pillich J, Kolarova M, Zajícová V, et al. A new phage typing scheme for Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains. 1. Morphological analysis. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1994;39:381-6 pubmed
    ..They were classified into the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. From the set, 19 phages had double-stranded DNA and 3 were single-stranded DNA phages...
  45. Roux S, Enault F, Ravet V, Colombet J, Bettarel Y, Auguet J, et al. Analysis of metagenomic data reveals common features of halophilic viral communities across continents. Environ Microbiol. 2016;18:889-903 pubmed publisher
    ..For the major viral group detected in all samples (Caudovirales), only a limited number of halophilic Caudovirales clades were highlighted...
  46. Prestel E, Regeard C, Salamitou S, Neveu J, DuBow M. The bacteria and bacteriophages from a Mesquite Flats site of the Death Valley desert. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013;103:1329-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitomycin-C treatment of the cultivable bacteria demonstrated that the vast majority (84 %) contained at least one SOS-inducible prophage...
  47. Davies R, Lee I. Diversity of temperate bacteriophages induced in bovine and ovine Mannheimia haemolytica isolates and identification of a new P2-like phage. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;260:162-70 pubmed
    ..1), representative of the RE type A phages, was identified from the incomplete M. haemolytica genome sequence. The phiPHL213.1 genome contains previously unidentified genes and represents a new member of the P2 phage family...
  48. Leiman P, Basler M, Ramagopal U, Bonanno J, Sauder J, Pukatzki S, et al. Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells...
  49. Uchiyama J, Maeda Y, Takemura I, Chess Williams R, Wakiguchi H, Matsuzaki S. Blood kinetics of four intraperitoneally administered therapeutic candidate bacteriophages in healthy and neutropenic mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:301-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed a two- to three-day rapid phage clearance, which fits a two-compartment model...
  50. Millard A, Zwirglmaier K, Downey M, Mann N, Scanlan D. Comparative genomics of marine cyanomyoviruses reveals the widespread occurrence of Synechococcus host genes localized to a hyperplastic region: implications for mechanisms of cyanophage evolution. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:2370-87 pubmed publisher
  51. Young R, Gill J. MICROBIOLOGY. Phage therapy redux--What is to be done?. Science. 2015;350:1163-4 pubmed publisher
  52. Maura D, Morello E, du Merle L, Bomme P, Le Bouguenec C, Debarbieux L. Intestinal colonization by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli supports long-term bacteriophage replication in mice. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:1844-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This model of stable and continuous viral replication provides opportunities for studying the long-term coevolution of virulent bacteriophages with their hosts within a mammalian polymicrobial ecosystem...
  53. Song Q, Zhang X. Characterization of a novel non-specific nuclease from thermophilic bacteriophage GBSV1. BMC Biotechnol. 2008;8:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thermostable enzymes from thermophiles have attracted extensive studies. In this investigation, a nuclease-encoding gene (designated as GBSV1-NSN) was obtained from a thermophilic bacteriophage GBSV1 for the first time...
  54. Li S, Fan H, An X, Fan H, Jiang H, Mi Z, et al. [Utility of high throughput sequencing technology in analyzing the terminal sequence of caudovirales bacteriophage genome]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:39-43 pubmed
    ..The high throughput sequencing technique was convenient and practical to be used to simultaneously detect the terminal sequence and the complete sequence of bacteriophage genome...
  55. Comeau A, Short S, Suttle C. The use of degenerate-primed random amplification of polymorphic DNA (DP-RAPD) for strain-typing and inferring the genetic similarity among closely related viruses. J Virol Methods. 2004;118:95-100 pubmed
    ..These findings describe a rapid, PCR-based tool for strain-typing viral isolates that allows inferences to be made on genetic relatedness within groups of closely related viruses...
  56. Hendrix R, Hatfull G, Smith M. Bacteriophages with tails: chasing their origins and evolution. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:253-7 pubmed
    ..Extrapolation of these processes back in evolutionary time leads to a speculative model for the origins and early evolution of phages...
  57. Nale J, Shan J, Hickenbotham P, Fawley W, Wilcox M, Clokie M. Diverse temperate bacteriophage carriage in Clostridium difficile 027 strains. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37263 pubmed publisher
    ..This study combined physiological studies, electron microscopy analysis and molecular biology to determine the potential role of temperate bacteriophages in disease and diversity of C. difficile 027...