bacteriophage t4


Summary: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.

Top Publications

  1. Malys N, Nivinskas R. Non-canonical RNA arrangement in T4-even phages: accommodated ribosome binding site at the gene 26-25 intercistronic junction. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:1115-27 pubmed publisher
    Translational initiation region of bacteriophage T4 gene 25 contains three potential Shine and Dalgarno sequences: SD1, SD2 and SD3...
  2. Durand S, Richard G, Bontems F, Uzan M. Bacteriophage T4 polynucleotide kinase triggers degradation of mRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7073-8 pubmed publisher
    The bacteriophage T4-encoded RegB endoribonuclease is produced during the early stage of phage development and targets mostly (but not exclusively) the Shine-Dalgarno sequences of early genes...
  3. Alam T, Rao V. The ATPase domain of the large terminase protein, gp17, from bacteriophage T4 binds DNA: implications to the DNA packaging mechanism. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:1272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The small terminase protein, gp16, inhibited DNA binding, which was further accentuated by ATP. The presence of a DNA binding site in the ATPase domain and its binding properties implicate a role in the DNA packaging mechanism. ..
  4. Bartual S, Otero J, Garcia Doval C, Llamas Saiz A, Kahn R, Fox G, et al. Structure of the bacteriophage T4 long tail fiber receptor-binding tip. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the crystal structure of the receptor-binding tip of the bacteriophage T4 long tail fiber, which is highly homologous to the tip of the bacteriophage lambda side tail fibers...
  5. Otsuka Y, Yonesaki T. Dmd of bacteriophage T4 functions as an antitoxin against Escherichia coli LsoA and RnlA toxins. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:669-81 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, T4 phage Dmd suppressed the toxicities of both RnlA and LsoA by direct interaction, the first example of a phage with an antitoxin against multiple toxins...
  6. Zhang Z, Kottadiel V, Vafabakhsh R, Dai L, Chemla Y, Ha T, et al. A promiscuous DNA packaging machine from bacteriophage T4. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000592 pubmed publisher
    ..These features probably led to the evolution of viral genomes that fit capsid volume, a strikingly common phenomenon in double-stranded DNA viruses, and will potentially allow design of a novel class of nanocapsid delivery vehicles. ..
  7. Baase W, Liu L, Tronrud D, Matthews B. Lessons from the lysozyme of phage T4. Protein Sci. 2010;19:631-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the 43 space groups, P2(1)2(1)2(1) and P2(1) were observed most frequently, consistent with the prediction of Wukovitz and Yeates. ..
  8. Hegde S, Padilla Sanchez V, Draper B, Rao V. Portal-large terminase interactions of the bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging machine implicate a molecular lever mechanism for coupling ATPase to DNA translocation. J Virol. 2012;86:4046-57 pubmed publisher
  9. Trojet S, Caumont Sarcos A, Perrody E, Comeau A, Krisch H. The gp38 adhesins of the T4 superfamily: a complex modular determinant of the phage's host specificity. Genome Biol Evol. 2011;3:674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolutionary advantages of the modular design of the adhesin involving both conserved structural elements and multiple independent and easily interchanged specificity determinants are discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Ray K, Oram M, Ma J, Black L. Portal control of viral prohead expansion and DNA packaging. Virology. 2009;391:44-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage T4 terminase packages DNA in vitro into empty small or large proheads (esps or elps). In vivo maturation of esps yields the more stable and voluminous elps required to contain the 170 kb T4 genome...
  2. Krisch H, Comeau A. The immense journey of bacteriophage T4--from d'Hérelle to Delbrück and then to Darwin and beyond. Res Microbiol. 2008;159:314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report on some recent studies with the T4 phage superfamily that shed some new light on these topics. ..
  3. Golec P, Wiczk A, Majchrzyk A, o J, W grzyn G, o M. A role for accessory genes rI.-1 and rI.1 in the regulation of lysis inhibition by bacteriophage T4. Virus Genes. 2010;41:459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we demonstrate the results of genetic experiments which suggest a synergistic action of two accessory proteins of bacteriophage T4, RI.-1, and RI.1 with RIII in the regulation of LIN.
  4. Akhter T, Zhao L, Kohda A, Mio K, Kanamaru S, Arisaka F. The neck of bacteriophage T4 is a ring-like structure formed by a hetero-oligomer of gp13 and gp14. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1036-43 pubmed
    After packaging of DNA into the head of bacteriophage T4 is completed, a neck is formed at the portal vertex of the head to be ready for the tail attachment...
  5. Robertson K, Furukawa Y, Underwood A, Black L, Liu J. Deletion of the Hoc and Soc capsid proteins affects the surface and cellular uptake properties of bacteriophage T4 derived nanoparticles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:537-40 pubmed publisher
  6. Lionnet T, Spiering M, Benkovic S, Bensimon D, Croquette V. Real-time observation of bacteriophage T4 gp41 helicase reveals an unwinding mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19790-5 pubmed
    Helicases are enzymes that couple ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of double-stranded (ds) nucleic acids. The bacteriophage T4 helicase (gp41) is a hexameric helicase that promotes DNA replication within a highly coordinated protein ..
  7. Peachman K, Li Q, Matyas G, Shivachandra S, Lovchik J, Lyons R, et al. Anthrax vaccine antigen-adjuvant formulations completely protect New Zealand white rabbits against challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain spores. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:11-6 pubmed publisher liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A, stable liposomal PA oil-in-water emulsion, PA displayed on bacteriophage T4 by the intramuscular route, and PA mixed with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin administered by the ..
  8. Calmat S, Hendriks J, van Heerikhuizen H, Schmidt C, van der Vies S, Peterman E. Dissociation kinetics of the GroEL-gp31 chaperonin complex studied with Förster resonance energy transfer. Biochemistry. 2009;48:11692-8 pubmed publisher
    Propagation of bacteriophage T4 in its host Escherichia coli involves the folding of the major capsid protein gp23, which is facilitated by a hybrid chaperone complex consisting of the bacterial chaperonin GroEL and the phage-encoded co-..
  9. Nelson S, Perumal S, Benkovic S. Processive and unidirectional translocation of monomeric UvsW helicase on single-stranded DNA. Biochemistry. 2009;48:1036-46 pubmed publisher
    UvsW protein from bacteriophage T4 controls the transition from origin-dependent to origin-independent initiation of replication through the unwinding of R-loops bound to the T4 origins of replication...
  10. Ren S, Ren Z, Zhao M, Wang X, Zuo S, Yu F. Antitumor activity of endogenous mFlt4 displayed on a T4 phage nanoparticle surface. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of an autoimmune response directed against tumor progression merits further study as a new strategy for immunotherapy in cancer. ..
  11. Ren Z, Tian C, Zhu Q, Zhao M, Xin A, Nie W, et al. Orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protomer vaccine displayed on T4 bacteriophage surface: 100% protection from potency challenge in mice. Vaccine. 2008;26:1471-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study represents a clear example of how FMD and other pathogenic disease vaccines can be prepared by a simple and efficient bacteriophage route. ..
  12. Wilson G, Edgell D. Phage T4 mobE promotes trans homing of the defunct homing endonuclease I-TevIII. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7110-23 pubmed publisher
  13. Sharma U, Chatterji D. Differential mechanisms of binding of anti-sigma factors Escherichia coli Rsd and bacteriophage T4 AsiA to E. coli RNA polymerase lead to diverse physiological consequences. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3434-43 pubmed publisher
    Anti-sigma factors Escherichia coli Rsd and bacteriophage T4 AsiA bind to the essential housekeeping sigma factor, sigma(70), of E. coli...
  14. Fokine A, Zhang Z, Kanamaru S, Bowman V, Aksyuk A, Arisaka F, et al. The molecular architecture of the bacteriophage T4 neck. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1731-44 pubmed publisher
    A hexamer of the bacteriophage T4 tail terminator protein, gp15, attaches to the top of the phage tail stabilizing the contractile sheath and forming the interface for binding of the independently assembled head...
  15. Nelson S, Kumar R, Benkovic S. RNA primer handoff in bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: the role of single-stranded DNA-binding protein and polymerase accessory proteins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The interplay between gp32, primase, clamp, and clamp loader dictates the rate and efficiency of primer synthesis, polymerase recycling, and primer transfer to the polymerase. ..
  16. Yap M, Mio K, Leiman P, Kanamaru S, Arisaka F. The baseplate wedges of bacteriophage T4 spontaneously assemble into hubless baseplate-like structure in vitro. J Mol Biol. 2010;395:349-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the methods described in this article suggest a novel methodology for future structural characterization of supramolecular protein assemblies. ..
  17. Uzan M. RNA processing and decay in bacteriophage T4. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2009;85:43-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage T4 is the archetype of virulent phage. It has evolved very efficient strategies to subvert host functions to its benefit and to impose the expression of its genome...
  18. Wang L, Shuman S. Mutational analysis of the 5'-OH oligonucleotide phosphate acceptor site of T4 polynucleotide kinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1304-11 pubmed publisher
  19. Geiduschek E, Kassavetis G. Transcription of the T4 late genes. Virol J. 2010;7:288 pubmed publisher
    This article reviews the current state of understanding of the regulated transcription of the bacteriophage T4 late genes, with a focus on the underlying biochemical mechanisms, which turn out to be unique to the T4-related family of ..
  20. Qin L, Fokine A, O Donnell E, Rao V, Rossmann M. Structure of the small outer capsid protein, Soc: a clamp for stabilizing capsids of T4-like phages. J Mol Biol. 2010;395:728-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The 9-kDa outer capsid protein (Soc) of bacteriophage T4, which stabilizes the virus, attaches to the capsid during the final stage of maturation...
  21. Draper B, Rao V. An ATP hydrolysis sensor in the DNA packaging motor from bacteriophage T4 suggests an inchworm-type translocation mechanism. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:79-94 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the C-motif is an ATP hydrolysis sensor, linking product release to mechanical motion. A novel terminase-driven mechanism is proposed for translocation of dsDNA in viruses...
  22. Li Q, Shivachandra S, Zhang Z, Rao V. Assembly of the small outer capsid protein, Soc, on bacteriophage T4: a novel system for high density display of multiple large anthrax toxins and foreign proteins on phage capsid. J Mol Biol. 2007;370:1006-19 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage T4 capsid is a prolate icosahedron composed of the major capsid protein gp23*, the vertex protein gp24*, and the portal protein gp20...
  23. Fokine A, Bowman V, Battisti A, Li Q, Chipman P, Rao V, et al. Cryo-electron microscopy study of bacteriophage T4 displaying anthrax toxin proteins. Virology. 2007;367:422-7 pubmed
    The bacteriophage T4 capsid contains two accessory surface proteins, the small outer capsid protein (Soc, 870 copies) and the highly antigenic outer capsid protein (Hoc, 155 copies)...
  24. Liu L, Quillin M, Matthews B. Use of experimental crystallographic phases to examine the hydration of polar and nonpolar cavities in T4 lysozyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14406-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are consistent with theoretical predictions that cavities in proteins that are strictly nonpolar will not contain solvent until the volume is large enough to permit mutually satisfying water-water hydrogen bonds...
  25. Gajewski S, Webb M, Galkin V, Egelman E, Kreuzer K, White S. Crystal structure of the phage T4 recombinase UvsX and its functional interaction with the T4 SF2 helicase UvsW. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:65-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination...
  26. Tao P, Mahalingam M, Marasa B, Zhang Z, Chopra A, Rao V. In vitro and in vivo delivery of genes and proteins using the bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging machine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5846-51 pubmed publisher
    The bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging machine consists of a molecular motor assembled at the portal vertex of an icosahedral head...
  27. Kreuzer K, Brister J. Initiation of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication and replication fork dynamics: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its relatives. Virol J. 2010;7:358 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage T4 initiates DNA replication from specialized structures that form in its genome...
  28. De la Rosa M, Nelson S. An interaction between the Walker A and D-loop motifs is critical to ATP hydrolysis and cooperativity in bacteriophage T4 Rad50. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluate the functional role of the D-loop using a bacteriophage T4 ABC protein, Rad50 (gp46)...
  29. Bonocora R, Caignan G, Woodrell C, Werner M, Hinton D. A basic/hydrophobic cleft of the T4 activator MotA interacts with the C-terminus of E.coli sigma70 to activate middle gene transcription. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..For activation of its middle genes, bacteriophage T4 appropriates Escherichia coli RNA polymerase through the action of two phage-encoded proteins, MotA and AsiA...
  30. Fuller D, Raymer D, Kottadiel V, Rao V, Smith D. Single phage T4 DNA packaging motors exhibit large force generation, high velocity, and dynamic variability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16868-73 pubmed
  31. Oślizło A, Miernikiewicz P, Piotrowicz A, Owczarek B, Kopciuch A, Figura G, et al. Purification of phage display-modified bacteriophage T4 by affinity chromatography. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:59 pubmed publisher
    ..The phage was propagated in bacteria expressing fusions of the phage protein Hoc with affinity tags from bacterial plasmids, independently from the phage expression system...
  32. Kelch B, Makino D, O Donnell M, Kuriyan J. How a DNA polymerase clamp loader opens a sliding clamp. Science. 2011;334:1675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We present structures for the ATP-bound state of the clamp loader complex from bacteriophage T4, bound to an open clamp and primer-template DNA...
  33. Cherepanov A, Doroshenko E, Matysik J, de Vries S, de Groot H. The associative nature of adenylyl transfer catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we report a single-turnover (31)P solid-state NMR study of adenylyl transfer catalyzed by DNA ligase from bacteriophage T4. Formation of a high-energy covalent ligase-nucleotide complex is triggered in situ by the photo release of ..
  34. Manosas M, Spiering M, Zhuang Z, Benkovic S, Croquette V. Coupling DNA unwinding activity with primer synthesis in the bacteriophage T4 primosome. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:904-12 pubmed publisher
    The unwinding and priming activities of the bacteriophage T4 primosome, which consists of a hexameric helicase (gp41) translocating 5' to 3' and an oligomeric primase (gp61) synthesizing primers 5' to 3', have been investigated on DNA ..
  35. Farb J, Morrical S. Role of allosteric switch residue histidine 195 in maintaining active-site asymmetry in presynaptic filaments of bacteriophage T4 UvsX recombinase. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:393-404 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of our findings for UvsX recombination functions, and for RecA functions in general, are discussed...
  36. Ogura T. Analyzing indirect secondary electron contrast of unstained bacteriophage T4 based on SEM images and Monte Carlo simulations. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:254-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ISEC condition is clearly able to detect unstained bacteriophage T4 under a thin carbon film (10-15 nm) by using high-resolution field emission (FE) SEM...
  37. Zajanckauskaite A, Truncaite L, Strazdaite Zieliene Z, Nivinskas R. Involvement of the Escherichia coli endoribonucleases G and E in the secondary processing of RegB-cleaved transcripts of bacteriophage T4. Virology. 2008;375:342-53 pubmed publisher
    Sequence-specific endoribonuclease RegB of bacteriophage T4 cleaves early phage mRNAs and facilitates the transition between early and subsequent phases of T4 gene expression...
  38. Twist K, Campbell E, Deighan P, Nechaev S, Jain V, Geiduschek E, et al. Crystal structure of the bacteriophage T4 late-transcription coactivator gp33 with the ?-subunit flap domain of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19961-6 pubmed publisher
    Activated transcription of the bacteriophage T4 late genes, which is coupled to concurrent DNA replication, is accomplished by an initiation complex containing the host RNA polymerase associated with two phage-encoded proteins, gp55 (the ..
  39. Li V, Hogg M, Reha Krantz L. Identification of a new motif in family B DNA polymerases by mutational analyses of the bacteriophage t4 DNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 2010;400:295-308 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of the motif for function of the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase was revealed by suppressor analysis...
  40. Black L, Rao V. Structure, assembly, and DNA packaging of the bacteriophage T4 head. Adv Virus Res. 2012;82:119-53 pubmed publisher
    The bacteriophage T4 head is an elongated icosahedron packed with 172 kb of linear double-stranded DNA and numerous proteins...
  41. Cherezov V, Rosenbaum D, Hanson M, Rasmussen S, Thian F, Kobilka T, et al. High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor. Science. 2007;318:1258-65 pubmed
  42. Peng Q, Li H. Atomic force microscopy reveals parallel mechanical unfolding pathways of T4 lysozyme: evidence for a kinetic partitioning mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1885-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that single-molecule atomic force microscopy is an ideal tool to investigate the folding/unfolding dynamics of complex multimodule proteins that are otherwise difficult to study using traditional methods...
  43. Nelson S, Benkovic S. Response of the bacteriophage T4 replisome to noncoding lesions and regression of a stalled replication fork. J Mol Biol. 2010;401:743-56 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of a noncoding DNA lesion in either leading strand template or lagging strand template on the bacteriophage T4 replisome...
  44. Long D, Kreuzer K. Regression supports two mechanisms of fork processing in phage T4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..reactivation, we used a model fork intermediate, the origin fork, which is formed during replication from the bacteriophage T4 origin, ori(34)...
  45. Spiering M, Nelson S, Benkovic S. Repetitive lagging strand DNA synthesis by the bacteriophage T4 replisome. Mol Biosyst. 2008;4:1070-4 pubmed publisher
  46. Kottadiel V, Rao V, Chemla Y. The dynamic pause-unpackaging state, an off-translocation recovery state of a DNA packaging motor from bacteriophage T4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacteriophage T4 motor, a pentamer of the large terminase protein (gp17) assembled at the portal vertex of the prohead, is the ..
  47. Cellitti J, Bernstein R, Marqusee S. Exploring subdomain cooperativity in T4 lysozyme II: uncovering the C-terminal subdomain as a hidden intermediate in the kinetic folding pathway. Protein Sci. 2007;16:852-62 pubmed
  48. Hinton D. Transcriptional control in the prereplicative phase of T4 development. Virol J. 2010;7:289 pubmed publisher
    Control of transcription is crucial for correct gene expression and orderly development. For many years, bacteriophage T4 has provided a simple model system to investigate mechanisms that regulate this process...
  49. Persson F, Westerlund F, Tegenfeldt J, Kristensen A. Local conformation of confined DNA studied using emission polarization anisotropy. Small. 2009;5:190-3 pubmed publisher
  50. Ranganathan R. Biochemistry. Signaling across the cell membrane. Science. 2007;318:1253-4 pubmed
  51. Liu Q, Dansereau J, Puttamadappa S, Shekhtman A, Derbyshire V, Belfort M. Role of the interdomain linker in distance determination for remote cleavage by homing endonuclease I-TevI. J Mol Biol. 2008;379:1094-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of this arginine to alanine abolished distance determination and disrupted the beta-strand, indicating that the structure of the DT linker region has a role in cleavage at a fixed distance...
  52. Lagerbäck P, Andersson E, Malmberg C, Carlson K. Bacteriophage T4 endonuclease II, a promiscuous GIY-YIG nuclease, binds as a tetramer to two DNA substrates. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6174-83 pubmed publisher
    The oligomerization state and mode of binding to DNA of the GIY-YIG endonuclease II (EndoII) from bacteriophage T4 was studied using gel filtration and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with a set of mutants previously found to have ..
  53. Otsuka Y, Koga M, Iwamoto A, Yonesaki T. A role of RnlA in the RNase LS activity from Escherichia coli. Genes Genet Syst. 2007;82:291-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli ribonuclease LS is a potential antagonist of bacteriophage T4. When the T4 dmd gene is defective, RNase LS cleaves T4 mRNAs and antagonizes T4 reproduction. Our previous work demonstrated that E...
  54. Sun S, Kondabagil K, Draper B, Alam T, Bowman V, Zhang Z, et al. The structure of the phage T4 DNA packaging motor suggests a mechanism dependent on electrostatic forces. Cell. 2008;135:1251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the crystal structure of the DNA packaging motor protein, gene product 17 (gp17), in bacteriophage T4. The structure consists of an N-terminal ATPase domain, which provides energy for compacting DNA, and a C-..
  55. Aksyuk A, Leiman P, Kurochkina L, Shneider M, Kostyuchenko V, Mesyanzhinov V, et al. The tail sheath structure of bacteriophage T4: a molecular machine for infecting bacteria. EMBO J. 2009;28:821-9 pubmed publisher
    The contractile tail of bacteriophage T4 is a molecular machine that facilitates very high viral infection efficiency. Its major component is a tail sheath, which contracts during infection to less than half of its initial length...
  56. Devos J, Tomanicek S, Jones C, Nossal N, Mueser T. Crystal structure of bacteriophage T4 5' nuclease in complex with a branched DNA reveals how flap endonuclease-1 family nucleases bind their substrates. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31713-24 pubmed
    b>Bacteriophage T4 RNase H, a flap endonuclease-1 family nuclease, removes RNA primers from lagging strand fragments. It has both 5' nuclease and flap endonuclease activities...
  57. Yuan A, Nickels B, Hochschild A. The bacteriophage T4 AsiA protein contacts the beta-flap domain of RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..The founding member of this family is the AsiA protein of bacteriophage T4. AsiA specifically targets the primary sigma factor in Escherichia coli, sigma(70), and inhibits ..
  58. Long D, Kreuzer K. Fork regression is an active helicase-driven pathway in bacteriophage T4. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:394-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the biological role of fork regression in bacteriophage T4, we tested several mechanistic models of regression: strand exchange-mediated extrusion, topology-driven fork ..
  59. Pietroni P, von Hippel P. Multiple ATP binding is required to stabilize the "activated" (clamp open) clamp loader of the T4 DNA replication complex. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:28338-53 pubmed publisher
  60. Cellitti J, Llinas M, Echols N, Shank E, Gillespie B, Kwon E, et al. Exploring subdomain cooperativity in T4 lysozyme I: structural and energetic studies of a circular permutant and protein fragment. Protein Sci. 2007;16:842-51 pubmed
    ..In sum, we conclude that the C-terminal subdomain dominates the energetics of T4 lysozyme folding, and the A-helix serves an important role in coupling the two subdomains...
  61. Lagerb ck P, Carlson K. Amino acid residues in the GIY-YIG endonuclease II of phage T4 affecting sequence recognition and binding as well as catalysis. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus suggest roles for the MR and residues conserved in GIY-YIG enzymes in recognizing and binding the substrate...
  62. Fleissner M, Cascio D, Hubbell W. Structural origin of weakly ordered nitroxide motion in spin-labeled proteins. Protein Sci. 2009;18:893-908 pubmed publisher
  63. Clokie M, Thalassinos K, Boulanger P, Slade S, Stoilova McPhie S, Cane M, et al. A proteomic approach to the identification of the major virion structural proteins of the marine cyanomyovirus S-PM2. Microbiology. 2008;154:1775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach has wide-ranging applicability and can be applied to any novel organism whose genome encodes ORFs with few detectable homologies in the public databases...
  64. Jia Z, Ishihara R, Nakajima Y, Asakawa S, Kimura M. Molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages in a rice field. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:1091-6 pubmed
  65. Nechaev S, Geiduschek E. Dissection of the bacteriophage T4 late promoter complex. J Mol Biol. 2008;379:402-13 pubmed publisher
    Activated transcription of the bacteriophage T4 late genes is generated by a mechanism that stands apart from the common modalities of transcriptional regulation: the activator is gp45, the viral replisome's sliding clamp; two sliding-..
  66. Fajer M, Li H, Yang W, Fajer P. Mapping electron paramagnetic resonance spin label conformations by the simulated scaling method. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:13840-6 pubmed
  67. Al Zahrani A, Kondabagil K, Gao S, Kelly N, Ghosh Kumar M, Rao V. The small terminase, gp16, of bacteriophage T4 is a regulator of the DNA packaging motor. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24490-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The gp16 regulator is essential to coordinate the gp17 motor ATPase, translocase, and nuclease activities, otherwise it could be suicidal to the virus...
  68. Sabanayagam C, Oram M, Lakowicz J, Black L. Viral DNA packaging studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Biophys J. 2007;93:L17-9 pubmed
    The DNA packaging machinery of bacteriophage T4 was studied in vitro using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...
  69. Mueser T, Hinerman J, Devos J, Boyer R, Williams K. Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its relatives. Virol J. 2010;7:359 pubmed publisher
    The bacteriophage T4 encodes 10 proteins, known collectively as the replisome, that are responsible for the replication of the phage genome...
  70. Zuber S, Ngom Bru C, Barretto C, Bruttin A, Brussow H, Denou E. Genome analysis of phage JS98 defines a fourth major subgroup of T4-like phages in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8206-14 pubmed
    ..No evidence for DNA exchange between JS98 phage and the E. coli host genome or coliphages other than T4 was observed. No undesired genes which could compromise its medical use were detected in the JS98 genome sequence...
  71. Rosenbaum D, Cherezov V, Hanson M, Rasmussen S, Thian F, Kobilka T, et al. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function. Science. 2007;318:1266-73 pubmed
    ..Amino acids known to regulate receptor function are linked through packing interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, suggesting a conformational pathway from the ligand-binding pocket to regions that interact with G proteins...
  72. Schultz G, Drake J. Templated mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4 involving imperfect direct or indirect sequence repeats. Genetics. 2008;178:661-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We also record an instance in which the mutation rates at two particular sites change concordantly with a distant sequence change, but in a manner that appears unrelated to templated mutagenesis...
  73. Alam T, Draper B, Kondabagil K, Rentas F, Ghosh Kumar M, Sun S, et al. The headful packaging nuclease of bacteriophage T4. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results lead to hypotheses concerning how phage headful nucleases cut the viral genomes before and after, but not during, DNA packaging...
  74. Wills N, O Connor M, Nelson C, Rettberg C, Huang W, Gesteland R, et al. Translational bypassing without peptidyl-tRNA anticodon scanning of coding gap mRNA. EMBO J. 2008;27:2533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Dissipation of this RNA structure, together with the contribution of 16S rRNA anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence pairing with GAG, facilitates peptidyl-tRNA re-pairing to mRNA...
  75. Bartual S, Garcia Doval C, Alonso J, Schoehn G, van Raaij M. Two-chaperone assisted soluble expression and purification of the bacteriophage T4 long tail fibre protein gp37. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;70:116-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacteriophage T4 recognises its host cells through its long tail fibre protein gene product (gp) 37...
  76. Comeau A, Krisch H. The capsid of the T4 phage superfamily: the evolution, diversity, and structure of some of the most prevalent proteins in the biosphere. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:1321-32 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 has served as a classic system in phage biology for more than 60 years...
  77. Webb M, Plank J, Long D, Hsieh T, Kreuzer K. The phage T4 protein UvsW drives Holliday junction branch migration. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34401-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results strongly support a role for UvsW in the branch migration of Holliday junctions that form during T4 recombination, replication, and repair...
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    b>Bacteriophage T4 is decorated with 155 copies of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc...
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    ..b>Bacteriophage T4 DNA translocation is driven by a two-component motor consisting of the procapsid portal docked with a ..
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    b>Bacteriophage T4 UvsW helicase contains both unwinding and annealing activities and displays some functional similarities to bacterial RecG and RecQ helicases...