Summary: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.

Top Publications

  1. Kadjo H, Ekaza E, Coulibaly D, Kouassi D, Nzussouo N, Kouakou B, et al. Sentinel surveillance for influenza and other respiratory viruses in Côte d'Ivoire, 2003-2010. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7:296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe 8 years of sentinel surveillance data and the contribution of influenza and other viruses to medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) in Côte d'Ivoire...
  2. Stoltz M, Sundström K, Hidmark Ã, Tolf C, Vene S, Ahlm C, et al. A model system for in vitro studies of bank vole borne viruses. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28992 pubmed publisher
    ..Myodes glareolus) is a common small mammal in Europe and a natural host for several important emerging zoonotic viruses, e.g. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)...
  3. Virgin H. The virome in mammalian physiology and disease. Cell. 2014;157:142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian virome is constituted of viruses that infect host cells, virus-derived elements in our chromosomes, and viruses that infect the broad array of ..
  4. Minot S, Bryson A, Chehoud C, Wu G, Lewis J, Bushman F. Rapid evolution of the human gut virome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12450-5 pubmed publisher
    Humans are colonized by immense populations of viruses, which metagenomic analysis shows are mostly unique to each individual...
  5. Chhabra P, Payne D, Szilagyi P, Edwards K, Staat M, Shirley S, et al. Etiology of viral gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in the United States, 2008-2009. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:790-800 pubmed publisher
    Although rotavirus and norovirus cause nearly 40% of severe endemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children <5 years of age in the United States, there are limited data on the etiologic role of other enteric viruses in this age group.
  6. Pulendran B, Oh J, Nakaya H, Ravindran R, Kazmin D. Immunity to viruses: learning from successful human vaccines. Immunol Rev. 2013;255:243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccines that have been proven to be of immense benefit in saving lives offer us a new fringe benefit: lessons in viral immunology. ..
  7. Phan T, Vo N, Boros A, Pankovics P, Reuter G, Li O, et al. The viruses of wild pigeon droppings. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72787 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food...
  8. Hata A, Katayama H, Kojima K, Sano S, Kasuga I, Kitajima M, et al. Effects of rainfall events on the occurrence and detection efficiency of viruses in river water impacted by combined sewer overflows. Sci Total Environ. 2014;468-469:757-63 pubmed publisher
    Rainfall events can introduce large amount of microbial contaminants including human enteric viruses into surface water by intermittent discharges from combined sewer overflows (CSOs)...
  9. Franz C, Renshaw H, Frezal L, Jiang Y, Felix M, Wang D. Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes. Virology. 2014;448:255-64 pubmed publisher
    The discoveries of Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses, three viruses infecting either Caenorhabditis elegans or its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae, enable the study of virus-host interactions using natural pathogens of these two well-..

More Information


  1. Temajo N, Howard N. The mosaic of environment involvement in autoimmunity: the abrogation of viral latency by stress, a non-infectious environmental agent, is an intrinsic prerequisite prelude before viruses can rank as infectious environmental agents that trigger autoi. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;13:635-40 pubmed publisher which the protective immune system normally schooled to recognize and destroy invading infectious agents (viruses, etc.) instead fails to distinguish self-antigens and proceeds to attack and destroy the host's organs...
  2. Rosenberg R, Johansson M, Powers A, Miller B. Search strategy has influenced the discovery rate of human viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13961-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed the rate of discovery of pathogenic viruses, the preeminent source of newly discovered causes of human disease, from 1897 through 2010...
  3. Neyt K, Lambrecht B. The role of lung dendritic cell subsets in immunity to respiratory viruses. Immunol Rev. 2013;255:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the activation of DCs and the function of lung DCs in the context of respiratory virus infection and highlights some cautionary points for interpreting older experiments. ..
  4. Sguazza G, Reynaldi F, Galosi C, Pecoraro M. Simultaneous detection of bee viruses by multiplex PCR. J Virol Methods. 2013;194:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..between environmental and beekeeping parameters added to the effect of different disease agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasitic mites may result in a sudden collapse of the colony...
  5. Cheon H, Holvey Bates E, Schoggins J, Forster S, Hertzog P, Imanaka N, et al. IFN?-dependent increases in STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9 mediate resistance to viruses and DNA damage. EMBO J. 2013;32:2751-63 pubmed publisher
  6. Miest T, Cattaneo R. New viruses for cancer therapy: meeting clinical needs. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014;12:23-34 pubmed publisher
    Early-stage clinical trials of oncolytic virotherapy have reported the safety of several virus platforms, and viruses from three families have progressed to advanced efficacy trials...
  7. Seguin J, Otten P, Baerlocher L, Farinelli L, Pooggin M. MISIS: a bioinformatics tool to view and analyze maps of small RNAs derived from viruses and genomic loci generating multiple small RNAs. J Virol Methods. 2014;195:120-2 pubmed publisher
    ..populations including miRNAs, siRNAs and piRNAs regulate gene expression and repress transposons, transgenes and viruses. Functional sRNAs are associated with effector proteins based on their size and nucleotide composition...
  8. Popgeorgiev N, Temmam S, Raoult D, Desnues C. Describing the silent human virome with an emphasis on giant viruses. Intervirology. 2013;56:395-412 pubmed publisher
    b>Viruses are the most abundant obligate intracellular entities in our body. Until recently, they were only considered to be pathogens that caused a broad array of pathologies, ranging from mild disease to deaths in the most severe cases...
  9. Hall R, Wang J, Todd A, Bissielo A, Yen S, Strydom H, et al. Evaluation of rapid and simple techniques for the enrichment of viruses prior to metagenomic virus discovery. J Virol Methods. 2014;195:194-204 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of new or divergent viruses using metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing has become more commonplace...
  10. Duerkop B, Hooper L. Resident viruses and their interactions with the immune system. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:654-9 pubmed publisher
    The human body is colonized with a diverse resident microflora that includes viruses. Recent studies of metagenomes have begun to characterize the composition of the human 'virobiota' and its associated genes (the 'virome'), and have ..
  11. Luchsinger V, Ruiz M, Zunino E, Martínez M, Machado C, Piedra P, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in Chile: the clinical relevance in the detection of viruses and atypical bacteria. Thorax. 2013;68:1000-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied conventional and molecular diagnostics to identify viruses and atypical bacteria associated with CAP in Chile.
  12. Yin J, Salkeld G, Lambert S, Dierig A, Heron L, Leask J, et al. Estimates and determinants of economic impacts from influenza-like illnesses caused by respiratory viruses in Australian children attending childcare: a cohort study. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7:1103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Influenza and other respiratory infections cause excess winter morbidity in children. This study assessed the economic impact of influenza-like illness (ILI) on families with children attending childcare using a societal perspective...
  13. Kim J, Moon B, Gong C, Kim N, Jang Y. Detection of respiratory viruses in adult patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;111:508-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The symptoms of allergic rhinitis may be worsened by a viral respiratory infection. However, there are few data on the presence of respiratory virus in patients with allergic rhinitis...
  14. Benkouiten S, Charrel R, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Salez N, Nougairede A, et al. Circulation of respiratory viruses among pilgrims during the 2012 Hajj pilgrimage. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:992-1000 pubmed publisher
    The Hajj is the oldest and largest annual mass gathering in the world and may increase the risk of spread of respiratory viruses.
  15. Forterre P, Prangishvili D. The major role of viruses in cellular evolution: facts and hypotheses. Curr Opin Virol. 2013;3:558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular genomes also harbour many integrated viruses whereas cellular genes are rare in viral genomes...
  16. Rossmann M. Structure of viruses: a short history. Q Rev Biophys. 2013;46:133-80 pubmed publisher
    ..At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures...
  17. Oude Munnink B, Jazaeri Farsani S, Deijs M, Jonkers J, Verhoeven J, Ieven M, et al. Autologous antibody capture to enrich immunogenic viruses for viral discovery. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78454 pubmed publisher
    Discovery of new viruses has been boosted by novel deep sequencing technologies. Currently, many viruses can be identified by sequencing without knowledge of the pathogenicity of the virus...
  18. Lin L, Chen T, Lin S, Chung C, Lin T, Wang G, et al. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:187 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this property, we evaluated their antiviral efficacy against several different viruses known to employ GAGs for host cell entry.
  19. Chen S, Cheng A, Wang M. Innate sensing of viruses by pattern recognition receptors in birds. Vet Res. 2013;44:82 pubmed publisher
    ..pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), while TLR15 and TLR21 are potential sensors that recognize both RNA viruses and bacteria. However, the agonist of TLR15 is still unknown...
  20. Salvetti A, Greco A. Viruses and the nucleolus: the fatal attraction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:840-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Viruses are small obligatory parasites and as a consequence, they have developed sophisticated strategies to exploit the host cell's functions to create an environment that favors their own replication...
  21. Yu C, Hernandez T, Zheng H, Yau S, Huang H, He R, et al. Real time classification of viruses in 12 dimensions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64328 pubmed publisher
    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. Thus far, the detailed classifications for all viruses are neither complete nor free from dispute...
  22. Huguenin A, Moutte L, Renois F, Leveque N, Talmud D, Abely M, et al. Broad respiratory virus detection in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis by use of a multiplex RT-PCR DNA microarray system. J Med Virol. 2012;84:979-85 pubmed publisher
    Newly available molecular tools allow a sensitive detection of a broad panel of viruses in respiratory tract specimens...
  23. Roux S, Enault F, Robin A, Ravet V, Personnic S, Theil S, et al. Assessing the diversity and specificity of two freshwater viral communities through metagenomics. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33641 pubmed publisher
    ..families of single-stranded (Microviridae, Circoviridae, Nanoviridae) and double-stranded (Caudovirales) DNA viruses. These phylogenetic analyses all spotlighted a very broad diversity and previously unknown clades undetectable by ..
  24. Belser J, Rota P, Tumpey T. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2013;77:144-56 pubmed publisher
    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure...
  25. Wernike K, Hoffmann B, Beer M. Single-tube multiplexed molecular detection of endemic porcine viruses in combination with background screening for transboundary diseases. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:938-44 pubmed publisher setup allows the simultaneous detection of two endemic porcine and four different selected transboundary viruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR systems for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ..
  26. Matthews R, Likos C. Influence of fluctuating membranes on self-assembly of patchy colloids. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;109:178302 pubmed
    ..In the less deformable regime, we observe no marked enhancement for cores, even for strong adhesion to the surface. For clathrinlike particles, we again observe the formation of buds, whose morphology depends on membrane flexibility. ..
  27. Meyniel Schicklin L, de Chassey B, Andre P, Lotteau V. Viruses and interactomes in translation. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.014738 pubmed publisher
    ..the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, ..
  28. Peng X, Garrett R, She Q. Archaeal viruses--novel, diverse and enigmatic. Sci China Life Sci. 2012;55:422-33 pubmed publisher
    Recent research has revealed a remarkable diversity of viruses in archaeal-rich environments where spindles, spheres, filaments and rods are common, together with other exceptional morphotypes never recorded previously...
  29. Goldsmith C, Ksiazek T, Rollin P, Comer J, Nicholson W, Peret T, et al. Cell culture and electron microscopy for identifying viruses in diseases of unknown cause. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:886-91 pubmed publisher
    ..respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Nipah, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, West Nile, Cache Valley, and Heartland viruses. These cases illustrate the importance of the techniques of cell culture and electron microscopy in pathogen ..
  30. Singanayagam A, Joshi P, Mallia P, Johnston S. Viruses exacerbating chronic pulmonary disease: the role of immune modulation. BMC Med. 2012;10:27 pubmed publisher
    ..Respiratory viruses are the most common cause of acute respiratory infections and it is increasingly recognized that respiratory ..
  31. Lin Y, Liao J, Yang M, Wu C. Target-size embracing dimension for sensitive detection of viruses with various sizes and influenza virus strains. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;35:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..diameter" (D(R)) was created by the convergence of three fibAu_h with respect to the dimension of the target viruses (D(T)), such as adenovirus (Adeno), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), influenza virus (H1N1) with different ..
  32. Everett R, Boutell C, Hale B. Interplay between viruses and host sumoylation pathways. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013;11:400-11 pubmed publisher
    ..As obligate parasites, viruses must engage with the host cell throughout their replication cycles, and it is therefore unsurprising that there ..
  33. Robert Tissot C, Rüegger V, Cattori V, Meli M, Riond B, Moore P, et al. Stimulation with a class A CpG oligonucleotide enhances resistance to infection with feline viruses from five different families. Vet Res. 2012;43:60 pubmed publisher
    ..antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene in these target cells, which also showed enhanced resistance to feline viruses from five distinct families, namely Coronaviridae, Herpesviridae, Caliciviridae, Parvoviridae, and Retroviridae...
  34. Narayanan K, Makino S. Interplay between viruses and host mRNA degradation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1829:732-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Naturally, viruses must successfully interface with the robust cellular RNA degradation machinery to achieve an optimal balance ..
  35. Nakoune E, Tricou V, Manirakiza A, Komoyo F, Selekon B, Gody J, et al. First introduction of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric patients in Central African Republic. Virol J. 2013;10:49 pubmed publisher
    ..agents and to improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. A prospective study was conducted in the Central African Republic (CAR) between January and December 2010 among ..
  36. Lester K, Hall M, Urquhart K, Gahlawat S, Collet B. Development of an in vitro system to measure the sensitivity to the antiviral Mx protein of fish viruses. J Virol Methods. 2012;182:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..IPNV and SAV viruses were highly sensitive to the presence of rbtMx1 in the cells whereas IHNV and EHNV showed partial resistance ..
  37. Duhaime M, Sullivan M. Ocean viruses: rigorously evaluating the metagenomic sample-to-sequence pipeline. Virology. 2012;434:181-6 pubmed publisher
    As new environments are studied, viruses consistently emerge as important and prominent players in natural and man-made ecosystems...
  38. Cho C, Chulten B, Lee C, Nam M, Yoon S, Lim C, et al. Evaluation of a novel real-time RT-PCR using TOCE technology compared with culture and Seeplex RV15 for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses. J Clin Virol. 2013;57:338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..kinds of commercial molecular systems have been developed for fast and more accurate detection of respiratory viruses. Anyplex™ II RV16 [RV16] was designed for simultaneous detection of 16 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR ..
  39. Gale P, Breed A. Horizon scanning for emergence of new viruses: from constructing complex scenarios to online games. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:472-4 pubmed publisher
    Horizon scanning techniques can be developed to identify novel routes and sources for the emergence of viruses in the medium to long term...
  40. Ueda K, Kawabata R, Irie T, Nakai Y, Tohya Y, Sakaguchi T. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a broad range of viruses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55343 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, ..
  41. Feng Y, Fu S, Zhang H, Li M, Zhou T, Wang J, et al. Distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses along the China-Myanmar border in Yunnan Province. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:215-21 pubmed
    ..Enzootic JEV transmission persists in this area and therefore, surveillance for human disease caused by JEV and GETV should be conducted in the region...
  42. Emerson J, Thomas B, Andrade K, Allen E, Heidelberg K, Banfield J. Dynamic viral populations in hypersaline systems as revealed by metagenomic assembly. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:6309-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Viruses of the Bacteria and Archaea play important roles in microbial evolution and ecology, and yet viral dynamics in natural systems remain poorly understood. Here, we created de novo assemblies from 6...
  43. Cho G, Moon B, Lee B, Gong C, Kim N, Kim Y, et al. High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in the nasal washes and mucosae of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of respiratory viral surveillance studies in CRS patients, and such studies could elucidate the potential role of viruses in promoting symptoms and aggravating mucosal inflammation...
  44. Koonin E, Wolf Y. Evolution of microbes and viruses: a paradigm shift in evolutionary biology?. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:119 pubmed
    ..the most fundamental of these being: (1) pervasive horizontal gene transfer (HGT), in large part mediated by viruses and plasmids, that shapes the genomes of archaea and bacteria and call for a radical revision (if not abandonment)..
  45. Rúa M, Pollina E, Power A, Mitchell C. The role of viruses in biological invasions: friend or foe?. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Across both plant and animal hosts, viruses can play diverse roles in biological invasions...
  46. Tan X, Lu Z, Gao G, Xu Q, Hu L, Fellmann C, et al. Tiling genomes of pathogenic viruses identifies potent antiviral shRNAs and reveals a role for secondary structure in shRNA efficacy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific shRNAs can interfere with the replication of pathogenic viruses and are currently being tested as antiviral therapies in clinical trials...
  47. Jamindar S, Polson S, Srinivasiah S, Waidner L, Wommack K. Evaluation of two approaches for assessing the genetic similarity of virioplankton populations as defined by genome size. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:8773-83 pubmed publisher
  48. Kreuzer S, Machnowska P, Asmus J, Sieber M, Pieper R, Schmidt M, et al. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs. Vet Res. 2012;43:58 pubmed publisher
    ..Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
  49. Maliogka V, Calvo M, Carbonell A, Garcia J, Valli A. Heterologous RNA-silencing suppressors from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses support plum pox virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1601-11 pubmed publisher
    HCPro, the RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS) of viruses belonging to the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae, is a multifunctional protein presumably involved in all essential steps of the viral infection cycle...
  50. Baker K, Leggett R, Bexfield N, Alston M, Daly G, Todd S, et al. Metagenomic study of the viruses of African straw-coloured fruit bats: detection of a chiropteran poxvirus and isolation of a novel adenovirus. Virology. 2013;441:95-106 pubmed publisher
    Viral emergence as a result of zoonotic transmission constitutes a continuous public health threat. Emerging viruses such as SARS coronavirus, hantaviruses and henipaviruses have wildlife reservoirs...
  51. Goka E, Vallely P, Mutton K, Klapper P. Influenza A viruses dual and multiple infections with other respiratory viruses and risk of hospitalisation and mortality. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7:1079-87 pubmed publisher
    Recent literature suggests that dual or multiple virus infections may affect disease severity. However, few studies have investigated the effect of co-infection with influenza A viruses.
  52. van den Bergh M, Biesbroek G, Rossen J, de Steenhuijsen Piters W, Bosch A, van Gils E, et al. Associations between pathogens in the upper respiratory tract of young children: interplay between viruses and bacteria. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47711 pubmed publisher
    High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children...
  53. Yu J, Li J, Ao Y, Duan Z. Detection of novel viruses in porcine fecal samples from China. Virol J. 2013;10:39 pubmed publisher
    Pigs are well known source of human infectious disease. To better understand the spectrum of viruses present in pigs, we utilized the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX high-throughput sequencing platform to sequence stool samples from healthy pigs.
  54. Law J, Jovel J, Patterson J, Ford G, O keefe S, Wang W, et al. Identification of hepatotropic viruses from plasma using deep sequencing: a next generation diagnostic tool. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60595 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatitis viruses were readily detected at high coverage in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C, but only a limited ..
  55. Kapusinszky B, Minor P, Delwart E. Nearly constant shedding of diverse enteric viruses by two healthy infants. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Four nonpolio enterovirus genotypes were also detected. An average of 1.8 distinct human viruses were found per time point...
  56. Sawyer S, Elde N. A cross-species view on viruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:561-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ways that virologists are leveraging experimental cross-species infections to study the interactions between viruses and hosts...
  57. Dabisch Ruthe M, Vollmer T, Adams O, Knabbe C, Dreier J. Comparison of three multiplex PCR assays for the detection of respiratory viral infections: evaluation of xTAG respiratory virus panel fast assay, RespiFinder 19 assay and RespiFinder SMART 22 assay. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:163 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the identification of the causative viruses and bacteria is only feasible using multiplex PCR or several monoplex PCR tests in parallel.
  58. Schoggins J, Rice C. Interferon-stimulated genes and their antiviral effector functions. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:519-25 pubmed publisher
    Many viruses trigger the type I interferon (IFN) system, leading to the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)...
  59. Schukfeh N, Al Gamrah A, Petersen C, Kuebler J. Detection of hepatotropic viruses has no impact on the prognosis after Kasai procedure. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:1828-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the presence of hepatotropic viruses in patients undergoing portoenterostomy contributes to the progression of the disease and negatively affect the ..
  60. Denizot M, Neal J, Gasque P. Encephalitis due to emerging viruses: CNS innate immunity and potential therapeutic targets. J Infect. 2012;65:1-16 pubmed publisher
    The emerging viruses represent a group of pathogens that are intimately connected to a diverse range of animal vectors...
  61. Lin Y, Chang C, Chang S, Chen P, Lin C, Wang Y. Temperature, nitrogen dioxide, circulating respiratory viruses and acute upper respiratory infections among children in Taipei, Taiwan: a population-based study. Environ Res. 2013;120:109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated whether outpatient visits of acute upper respiratory infections for children aged less than 15 years are associated with temperature, air pollutants and circulating respiratory viruses in Taipei, Taiwan, from 2003 to 2007.
  62. Daniels S, Gatignol A. The multiple functions of TRBP, at the hub of cell responses to viruses, stress, and cancer. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2012;76:652-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that TRBP is multifunctional and mediates cross talk between different pathways. Its activities at the molecular level impact the cellular function from normal development to cancer and the response to infections...
  63. Suzuki A, Lupisan S, Furuse Y, Fuji N, Saito M, Tamaki R, et al. Respiratory viruses from hospitalized children with severe pneumonia in the Philippines. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:267 pubmed publisher
    Pneumonia remains a leading cause of child death in developing countries. The viruses in severe pneumonia remain poorly defined.
  64. Wang L, Walker P, Poon L. Mass extinctions, biodiversity and mitochondrial function: are bats 'special' as reservoirs for emerging viruses?. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:649-57 pubmed publisher
    For the past 10-15 years, bats have attracted growing attention as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. This has been due to a combination of factors including the emergence of highly virulent zoonotic pathogens, such as Hendra, ..
  65. Krepstakies M, Lucifora J, Nagel C, Zeisel M, Holstermann B, Hohenberg H, et al. A new class of synthetic peptide inhibitors blocks attachment and entry of human pathogenic viruses. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1654-64 pubmed publisher
    Many enveloped viruses, including herpes viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the most important human pathogens and are often responsible for coinfections ..
  66. Smith I, Wang L. Bats and their virome: an important source of emerging viruses capable of infecting humans. Curr Opin Virol. 2013;3:84-91 pubmed publisher
    Bats are being increasingly recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses of different families, including SARS coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and Ebola virus...
  67. Duggal N, Emerman M. Evolutionary conflicts between viruses and restriction factors shape immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;12:687-95 pubmed publisher
    ..However, viruses have evolved mechanisms that antagonize restriction factors...
  68. Wylie K, Mihindukulasuriya K, Sodergren E, Weinstock G, Storch G. Sequence analysis of the human virome in febrile and afebrile children. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e27735 pubmed publisher
    ..Although virus infection is suspected to be the cause of most of these fevers, a comprehensive analysis of viruses in samples from children with fever and healthy controls is important for establishing a relationship between ..
  69. Mo M, Shahar S, Fleming S, Mercer A. How viruses affect the cell cycle through manipulation of the APC/C. Trends Microbiol. 2012;20:440-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Viruses frequently exploit host cell cycle machineries for their own benefit, often by targeting 'master switches' of cell cycle regulation. By doing so, they achieve maximum effect from minimal input...
  70. Babady N, Mead P, Stiles J, Brennan C, Li H, Shuptar S, et al. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast assay and the Idaho Technology FilmArray RP assay for detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric patients at a cancer hospital. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2282-8 pubmed publisher
    Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as serious causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients...
  71. Backovic M, Rey F. Virus entry: old viruses, new receptors. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:4-13 pubmed publisher
    The long-sought entry receptors for rubella, sindbis and respiratory syncytial viruses (RV, SV and RSV), together with the missing measles virus (MV) receptor for infection of epithelial cells, were identified in 2011...
  72. Kim H, Oh S, Yun K, Sung H, Kim M. Comparison of Anyplex II RV16 with the xTAG respiratory viral panel and Seeplex RV15 for detection of respiratory viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..For specimens with discrepant results, monoplex PCR and sequencing of the target viruses were performed. In total, 300 virus-positive specimens yielded 386 viruses...
  73. Woolhouse M, Scott F, Hudson Z, Howey R, Chase Topping M. Human viruses: discovery and emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012;367:2864-71 pubmed publisher
    ..More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds...
  74. Swain S, McKinstry K, Strutt T. Expanding roles for CD4? T cells in immunity to viruses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;12:136-48 pubmed publisher
    ..other lymphocytes, and have described previously unappreciated functions for memory CD4(+) T cells in immunity to viruses. Here, we review the full range of antiviral functions of CD4(+) T cells, discussing the activities of these ..
  75. Costa L, Faustino M, Neves M, Cunha A, Almeida A. Photodynamic inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages. Viruses. 2012;4:1034-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last ..
  76. Chen Y, Yao H, Thompson E, Tannir N, Weinstein J, Su X. VirusSeq: software to identify viruses and their integration sites using next-generation sequencing of human cancer tissue. Bioinformatics. 2013;29:266-7 pubmed publisher
    We developed a new algorithmic method, VirusSeq, for detecting known viruses and their integration sites in the human genome using next-generation sequencing data...
  77. Huang J, Bishop Hurley S, Cooper M. Development of anti-infectives using phage display: biological agents against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4569-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances in screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies now mean that phage display can make a significant contribution in the fight against clinically important pathogens...