subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

Summary

Summary: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)

Top Publications

  1. Mgone C, Mgone J, Takasu T, Miki K, Kawanishi R, Asuo P, et al. Clinical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Papua New Guinea. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:219-27 pubmed
    ..a period of 3 years and 9 months between February 1997 and November 2000 were confirmed to have subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)...
  2. Vieker S, Schmitt J, Behrens C, Weissbrich B, Hartmann H. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two brothers. Neuropediatrics. 2003;34:326-9 pubmed
    We report the occurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in two brothers two years after measles infection...
  3. Garg R. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Neurol. 2008;255:1861-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a subacute encephalopathy of childhood and young adolescence. Infrequently, SSPE can occur in adults and pregnant women. It is caused by an aberrant measles virus, known as the SSPE virus...
  4. Ayata M, Takeuchi K, Takeda M, Ohgimoto S, Kato S, Sharma L, et al. The F gene of the Osaka-2 strain of measles virus derived from a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a major determinant of neurovirulence. J Virol. 2010;84:11189-99 pubmed publisher
    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent for acute measles and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)...
  5. Ip P, Chung B, Wong V, Chan K. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children: prevalence in South China. Pediatr Neurol. 2004;31:46-51 pubmed
    This investigation reports the prevalence and clinical profile of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two developed cities of southern China...
  6. Tomoda A, Nomura K, Shiraishi S, Hamada A, Ohmura T, Hosoya M, et al. Trial of intraventricular ribavirin therapy for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Japan. Brain Dev. 2003;25:514-7 pubmed
    ..Although effectiveness varied among cases, they were all treated safely with intraventricular ribavirin. This study suggests that treatment is safe and well-tolerated. ..
  7. Rima B, Duprex W. Molecular mechanisms of measles virus persistence. Virus Res. 2005;111:132-47 pubmed
    As measles virus causes subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and measles inclusion body encephalitis due to its ability to establish human persistent infection, without symptoms for the time between the acute infection and the onset of ..
  8. Gascon G, Yamani S, Crowell J, Stigsby B, Nester M, Kanaan I, et al. Combined oral isoprinosine-intraventricular alpha-interferon therapy for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Brain Dev. 1993;15:346-55 pubmed
    Eighteen patients, 16 boys and 2 girls, aged 5-14 years, with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated with oral isoprinosine (100 mg/kg/day) and intraventricular alpha-interferon 2b (Intron A, Schering Corp...
  9. Miller C, Andrews N, Rush M, Munro H, Jin L, Miller E. The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in England and Wales 1990-2002. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89:1145-8 pubmed
    To assess the impact of measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine on the epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in England and Wales...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Campbell C, Levin S, Humphreys P, Walop W, Brannan R. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: results of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program and review of the literature. BMC Pediatr. 2005;5:47 pubmed
    b>Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is so rare in developed countries with measles immunization programs that national active surveillance is now needed to capture sufficient number of cases for meaningful analysis of data...
  2. Pipo Deveza J, Kusuhara K, Silao C, Lukban M, Salonga A, Sanchez B, et al. Analysis of MxA, IL-4, and IRF-1 genes in Filipino patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neuropediatrics. 2006;37:222-8 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic and debilitating disease of the central nervous system caused by a latent measles virus infection...
  3. Duman O, Balta G, Metinsoy M, Haspolat S. Unusual manifestation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: case with intracranial high-pressure symptoms. J Child Neurol. 2004;19:552-5 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can show variations in clinical course, and some ophthalmologic abnormalities can be seen as cortical blindness and optic atrophy...
  4. Manning L, Laman M, Edoni H, Mueller I, Karunajeewa H, Smith D, et al. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e932 pubmed publisher
    b>subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection...
  5. Anlar B, Yalaz K, Kose G, Saygi S. Beta-interferon plus inosiplex in the treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 1998;13:557-9 pubmed
    We treated seven patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with beta-interferon and oral inosiplex for 2 to 15 months. Stabilization or improvement was observed in three patients...
  6. Gutierrez J, Issacson R, Koppel B. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an update. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52:901-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus...
  7. Ozturk A, Gurses C, Baykan B, Gokyigit A, Eraksoy M. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of 36 patients. J Child Neurol. 2002;17:25-9 pubmed
    We studied 36 patients (24 males, 12 females), all of whom had definite subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with typical periodic complexes in their electroencephalograms and increased titers of measles antibody in serum and ..
  8. Bellini W, Rota J, Lowe L, Katz R, Dyken P, Zaki S, et al. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: more cases of this fatal disease are prevented by measles immunization than was previously recognized. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1686-93 pubmed
    The most severe sequela of measles virus infection is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a fatal disease of the central nervous system that generally develops 7-10 years after infection...
  9. Dimova P, Bojinova V. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with atypical onset: clinical, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging correlations. J Child Neurol. 2000;15:258-60 pubmed
    Clinical, computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with an atypical onset are presented in three children...
  10. Miki K, Komase K, Mgone C, Kawanishi R, Iijima M, Mgone J, et al. Molecular analysis of measles virus genome derived from SSPE and acute measles patients in Papua, New Guinea. J Med Virol. 2002;68:105-12 pubmed
    A very high annual incidence of 56 per million population below the age of 20 years for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has been reported from Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
  11. Honarmand S, Glaser C, Chow E, Sejvar J, Preas C, Cosentino G, et al. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis. Neurology. 2004;63:1489-93 pubmed
    The authors describe five cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) identified through the California Encephalitis Project that emphasize the importance of considering SSPE in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis, ..
  12. Teksam M, Cakir B, Agildere A. Proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of early-stage subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2006;12:61-3 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence...
  13. Hirano A, Wang A, Gombart A, Wong T. The matrix proteins of neurovirulent subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus and its acute measles virus progenitor are functionally different. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:8745-9 pubmed
    Persistence of measles virus in the brains of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is accompanied by changes in the viral matrix (M) protein...
  14. Kusuhara K. [Genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases: immunogenetical approaches to mycobacterial infections and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]. J UOEH. 2010;32:177-94 pubmed
    ..have conducted studies on host genetic factors for the development of mycobacterial infections and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in the past decade...
  15. Reuter D, Schneider Schaulies J. Measles virus infection of the CNS: human disease, animal models, and approaches to therapy. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2010;199:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..occur early (acute postinfectious measles encephalitis, APME) or after years of viral persistence (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, SSPE)...
  16. Anlar B, Yalaz K, Oktem F, Kose G. Long-term follow-up of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis treated with intraventricular alpha-interferon. Neurology. 1997;48:526-8 pubmed
    We treated 22 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with intraventricular alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) and oral inosiplex between 1986 and 1991...
  17. Sharma V, Gupta V, Eisenhut M. Familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with short latency. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;38:215-7 pubmed publisher
    The familial recurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is rare. The study of such cases and a comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed light on important pathogenetic factors...
  18. Yilmaz V, Demirbilek V, Gurses C, Yentür S, Uysal S, Yapici Z, et al. Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, interferon-gamma gene polymorphisms in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:410-5 pubmed
    Mutated measles virus variants have been claimed as the causing agent for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) developing several years after the recovery from measles infection...
  19. Aydin K, Tatli B, Ozkan M, Ciftci K, Unal Z, Sani S, et al. Quantification of neurometabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis by 1H-MRS. Neurology. 2006;67:911-3 pubmed
    The authors studied 20 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) to investigate the correlations between MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and clinical status. MRI findings did not correlate with clinical status...
  20. Hayashi M, Arai N, Satoh J, Suzuki H, Katayama K, Tamagawa K, et al. Neurodegenerative mechanisms in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2002;17:725-30 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by persistent brain infection of mutated measles virus, showing inflammation, neuronal loss, and demyelination...
  21. Campbell H, Andrews N, Brown K, Miller E. Review of the effect of measles vaccination on the epidemiology of SSPE. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:1334-48 pubmed
    When measles vaccines were widely introduced in the 1970s, there were concerns that they might cause subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): a very rare, late-onset, neurological complication of natural measles infection...
  22. Akdal G, Baklan B, Cakmakci H, Kovanlikaya A. MRI follow-up of basal ganglia involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Pediatr Neurol. 2001;24:393-5 pubmed
    A 12-year-old male with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is presented. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed basal ganglia involvement without white matter changes for several months...
  23. Takasu T, Mgone J, Mgone C, Miki K, Komase K, Namae H, et al. A continuing high incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;131:887-98 pubmed
    The aims of this descriptive study were to confirm the high incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) previously reported from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to relate SSPE to previous measles vaccination and measles illness...
  24. McQuaid S, Cosby S. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of the measles virus receptors, CD46 and SLAM, in normal human tissues and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Lab Invest. 2002;82:403-9 pubmed
    ..in a range of normal peripheral tissues (known to be infected by MV) as well as in normal and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) brain...
  25. Hosoya M, Mori S, Tomoda A, Mori K, Sawaishi Y, Kimura H, et al. Pharmacokinetics and effects of ribavirin following intraventricular administration for treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4631-5 pubmed
    ..Five patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated with ribavirin by intraventricular administration...
  26. Marjanovic B, Stojanov L, Zamurović D, Pasić S, Kravljanac R, Djordjevi M. Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis:two cases with atypical presentation. Pediatr Neurol. 2003;29:63-5 pubmed
    From 1972 to 2002, we diagnosed and treated 22 cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We report on two pediatric patients with fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis who had atypical clinical manifestations...
  27. Prashanth L, Taly A, Ravi V, Sinha S, Rao S. Long term survival in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an enigma. Brain Dev. 2006;28:447-52 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) usually has a progressive stereotypic downhill course and results in premature death. Long-term stabilization or remission is exceptional.
  28. Dyken P. Neuroprogressive disease of post-infectious origin: a review of a resurging subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2001;7:217-25 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, essentially untreatable, disease of the nervous system...
  29. Garg R. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78:63-70 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence. It is caused by persistent defective measles virus...
  30. Oguz K, Celebi A, Anlar B. MR imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy findings in acute rapidly progressive subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Brain Dev. 2007;29:306-11 pubmed
    We are presenting two cases with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis of acute and rapid form, which were initially diagnosed as acute viral encephalitis...
  31. Shimizu T, Matsuishi T, Iwamoto R, Handa K, Yoshioka H, Kato H, et al. Elevated levels of anti-CD9 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1346-50 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressive and highly lethal disease of the central nervous system...
  32. Owens G, Ritchie A, Gilden D, Burgoon M, Becker D, Bennett J. Measles virus-specific plasma cells are prominent in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis CSF. Neurology. 2007;68:1815-9 pubmed
    To demonstrate the specificity of expanded CD138(+) plasma cell clones recovered from the CSF of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) for measles virus (MV).
  33. Gungor S, Anlar B, Turan N, Yilmaz H, Helps C, Harbour D. Antibodies to borna disease virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:833-4 pubmed
    Mechanisms causing persistence and reactivation of measles virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) are unknown. Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently causes latent or persistent infection in the nervous system...
  34. Abe Y, Hashimoto K, Watanabe M, Ohara S, Sato M, Kawasaki Y, et al. Characteristics of viruses derived from nude mice with persistent measles virus infection. J Virol. 2013;87:4170-5 pubmed publisher
    Measles virus (MV) isolates from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) differ from wild-type MV virologically. However, few animal models have reported viruses with characteristics of the SSPE virus...
  35. Bojinova V, Dimova P, Belopitova L, Mihailov A, Gatcheva N, Mihneva Z, et al. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Bulgaria (1978-2002). Neuroepidemiology. 2004;23:254-7 pubmed
    The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has changed substantially since the introduction of measles vaccine...
  36. Gürer Y, Kukner S, Sarica B. Intravenous gamma-globulin treatment in a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Pediatr Neurol. 1996;14:72-4 pubmed
    A 10-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was treated with intravenous gamma-globulin and inosiplex and followed for 18 months...
  37. Gascon G. Randomized treatment study of inosiplex versus combined inosiplex and intraventricular interferon-alpha in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): international multicenter study. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:819-27 pubmed
    ..Isoprinosine) and intraventricular interferon-alpha2b (Intron A) (group B) in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was compared...
  38. Berker N, Batman C, Guven A, Ozalp S, Aslan O, Zilelioglu O. Optic atrophy and macular degeneration as initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:879-81 pubmed
    To report a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in which the initial clinical presentations were optic atrophy and macular degeneration.
  39. Inoue T, Kira R, Nakao F, Ihara K, Bassuny W, Kusuhara K, et al. Contribution of the interleukin 4 gene to susceptibility to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:822-7 pubmed
    Although the exact pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be determined, both viral and host factors seem to be involved.
  40. Burgoon M, Keays K, Owens G, Ritchie A, Rai P, Cool C, et al. Laser-capture microdissection of plasma cells from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain reveals intrathecal disease-relevant antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7245-50 pubmed
    ..microdissection was used to isolate individual CD38+ plasma cells from the brain of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and single-cell RT-PCR was used to analyze individual IgG heavy and light chains expressed by each ..
  41. Sharma P, Singh D, Singh M, Garg R, Kohli N. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neurol India. 2011;59:273-5 pubmed publisher
    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved...
  42. Oldstone M. Modeling subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a transgenic mouse system: uncoding pathogenesis of disease and illuminating components of immune control. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;330:31-54 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that afflicts eight to 20 individuals per one million of those who become infected with measles virus (MV)...
  43. Yilmaz C, Caksen H, Yilmaz N, Güven A, Bayram I. Two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with brainstem involvement. J Trop Pediatr. 2007;53:280-3 pubmed
    The most commonly involved areas in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) are periventricular and subcortical white matter. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, spinal cord and corpus callosum are less commonly involved...
  44. Jin L, Beard S, Hunjan R, Brown D, Miller E. Characterization of measles virus strains causing SSPE: a study of 11 cases. J Neurovirol. 2002;8:335-44 pubmed
    Eleven subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) cases diagnosed in the UK between 1965 and 2000 were investigated...
  45. Prashanth L, Taly A, Sinha S, Ravi V. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): an insight into the diagnostic errors from a tertiary care university hospital. J Child Neurol. 2007;22:683-8 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive disease caused by wild-type measles virus leading to premature death. Early diagnosis may help in medical interventions and counseling...
  46. Fukuya H, Ohfu M, Tomoda Y, Nibu K, Ichiki S, Mitsudome A. [A case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developing 8 years after immunosuppressive treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia]. No To Hattatsu. 1992;24:60-4 pubmed
    A 13-year-old girl developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with atypical absence attacks as an initial symptom...
  47. Becker D, Patel A, Abou Khalil B, Pina Garza J. Successful treatment of encephalopathy and myoclonus with levetiracetam in a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:763-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a devastating progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system presumably caused by a persistent measles virus. Patients commonly present with myoclonia or encephalopathy...
  48. Sener R. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis findings at MR imaging, diffusion MR imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:892-4 pubmed
    A case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 2-year-old boy is reported...
  49. Ozyurek H, Degerliyurt A, Turanli G. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with hemiparesis in childhood: case report. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:363-5 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a chronic and fatal disease of the central nervous system. Most patients present with progressive psychointellectual disturbances...
  50. Jacobi C, Lange P, Reiber H. Quantitation of intrathecal antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, herpes simplex encephalitis and multiple sclerosis: discrimination between microorganism-driven and polyspecific immune response. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;187:139-46 pubmed
    ..9%) or subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (mean measles-F(S)=18.8%) compared to the polyspecific immune response against these antigens e.g...
  51. Ondo W, Verma A. Physiological assessment of paroxysmal dystonia secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Mov Disord. 2002;17:154-7 pubmed
    We report on a 26-year-old woman with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) who presented with frequent paroxysmal dystonic posturing...
  52. Gokcil Z, Odabasi Z, Demirkaya S, Eroglu E, Vural O. Alpha-interferon and isoprinosine in adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Neurol Sci. 1999;162:62-4 pubmed
    We report eight patients with adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), of which, four were treated with oral isoprinosine and four with intraventricular alpha-interferon plus oral isoprinosine...
  53. Oldstone M, Dales S, Tishon A, Lewicki H, Martin L. A role for dual viral hits in causation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Exp Med. 2005;202:1185-90 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with persistent infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by measles virus (MV), biased hypermutations of the viral genome ..
  54. Seki F, Yamada K, Nakatsu Y, Okamura K, Yanagi Y, Nakayama T, et al. The SI strain of measles virus derived from a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis possesses typical genome alterations and unique amino acid changes that modulate receptor specificity and reduce membrane fusion activity. J Virol. 2011;85:11871-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV)...
  55. Salehi H, Delgado E, Wolf S, McGoldrick P, Moshe S. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with atypical features. Pediatr Neurol. 2005;33:280-2 pubmed
    The incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may be rising...
  56. Ishizaki Y, Takemoto M, Kira R, Kusuhara K, Torisu H, Sakai Y, et al. Association of toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphism with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether genes encoding these molecules contributed to the development of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in Japanese individuals...
  57. Alkan A, Sarac K, Kutlu R, Yakinci C, Sigirci A, Aslan M, et al. Early- and late-state subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: chemical shift imaging and single-voxel MR spectroscopy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:501-6 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, inflammatory neurodegenerative disease...
  58. Fukuyama Y, Nihei K, Matsumoto S, Ebina T, Kamoshita S, Sato T, et al. Clinical effects of MND-19 (Inosiplex) on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis--a multi-institutional collaborative study--The Inosiplex-SSPE Research Committee. Brain Dev. 1987;9:270-82 pubmed
    A total of 151 cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), comprising 89 cases treated with MND-19 (Inosiplex) and 62 untreated cases, were retrospectively investigated as to background characteristics, survival rate and ..
  59. Yalaz K, Anlar B, Oktem F, Aysun S, Ustacelebi S, Gurcay O, et al. Intraventricular interferon and oral inosiplex in the treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neurology. 1992;42:488-91 pubmed
    We treated 22 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with intraventricular alpha-interferon (IFN) and inosiplex PO and followed them for 2 to 54 months. Three deaths occurred...
  60. Sobczyk W, Kulczycki J, Piłkowska E, Iwinska B, Milewska D, Szmigielski S. [Comparison of the results of the treatment of patients with SSPE using various immunomodulating preparations]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1991;25:626-33 pubmed
    ..The final evaluation of the results requires further observations of these patients...
  61. Torisu H, Kusuhara K, Kira R, Bassuny W, Sakai Y, Sanefuji M, et al. Functional MxA promoter polymorphism associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neurology. 2004;62:457-60 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated whether the MxA gene contributed to the development of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in Japanese individuals.
  62. Gascon G. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 1996;3:260-9 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a persistent "slow virus infection" with a mutated measles virus, is endemic in much of the developing world...
  63. Ishizaki Y, Yukaya N, Kusuhara K, Kira R, Torisu H, Ihara K, et al. PD1 as a common candidate susceptibility gene of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Hum Genet. 2010;127:411-9 pubmed publisher
    Although the exact pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be determined, our previous data suggested a genetic contribution to the host susceptibility to SSPE...
  64. Cathomen T, Mrkic B, Spehner D, Drillien R, Naef R, Pavlovic J, et al. A matrix-less measles virus is infectious and elicits extensive cell fusion: consequences for propagation in the brain. EMBO J. 1998;17:3899-908 pubmed
    Measles viruses (MV) can be isolated from the brains of deceased subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients only in a cell-associated form...
  65. Bonthius D, Stanek N, Grose C. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a measles complication, in an internationally adopted child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:377-81 pubmed
    ..years of his life in an orphanage in Thailand before adoption by an American couple became ill with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and died several months later. The boy had most likely contracted wild-type measles in Thailand...
  66. Anlar B, Kose G, Gurer Y, Altunbasak S, Haspolat S, Okan M. Changing epidemiological features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Infection. 2001;29:192-5 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic central nervous (CNS) system infection caused by measles virus...
  67. Aydin O, Senbil N, Gurer Y. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus on electroencephalography in a case with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:256-60 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a neurodegenerative disease with a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 5 1/2-year-old boy who had emotional lability, cognitive difficulties, and myoclonia after a mild closed head injury...
  68. Patterson J, Cornu T, Redwine J, Dales S, Lewicki H, Holz A, et al. Evidence that the hypermutated M protein of a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis measles virus actively contributes to the chronic progressive CNS disease. Virology. 2001;291:215-25 pubmed
    b>Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain uniformly leading to death...