progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Summary

Summary: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)

Top Publications

  1. Major E. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients on immunomodulatory therapies. Annu Rev Med. 2010;61:35-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the white matter of the human brain caused by lytic infection of oligodendrocytes with the human polyomavirus JCV...
  2. Bernal Cano F, Joseph J, Koralnik I. Spinal cord lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:474-6 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. This disease is caused by a reactivation of the polyomavirus JC (JCV)...
  3. Delbue S, Branchetti E, Bertolacci S, Tavazzi E, Marchioni E, Maserati R, et al. JC virus VP1 loop-specific polymorphisms are associated with favorable prognosis for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:51-6 pubmed publisher
    JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease that mainly affects immunocompromised subjects...
  4. Langer Gould A, Atlas S, Green A, Bollen A, Pelletier D. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient treated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:375-81 pubmed
    We describe the clinical course of a patient with multiple sclerosis in whom progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system, developed during treatment with interferon beta-..
  5. Delbue S, Branchetti E, Boldorini R, Vago L, Zerbi P, Veggiani C, et al. Presence and expression of JCV early gene large T Antigen in the brains of immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. J Med Virol. 2008;80:2147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of host immunodeficiency, it can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system...
  6. Marzocchetti A, Tompkins T, Clifford D, Gandhi R, Kesari S, Berger J, et al. Determinants of survival in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Neurology. 2009;73:1551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of immunologic, virologic, and radiologic determinants of survival in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
  7. Van Assche G, Van Ranst M, Sciot R, Dubois B, Vermeire S, Noman M, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after natalizumab therapy for Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:362-8 pubmed
    ..a monoclonal antibody against alpha4 integrins, was reclassified as JC virus-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
  8. Wuthrich C, Cheng Y, Joseph J, Kesari S, Beckwith C, Stopa E, et al. Frequent infection of cerebellar granule cell neurons by polyomavirus JC in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009;68:15-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurs most often in immunosuppressed individuals...
  9. Kastrup O, Wanke I, Esser S, Maschke M. Evolution of purely infratentorial PML under HAART--negative outcome under rapid immune reconstitution. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005;107:509-13 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the polyomavirus JC is a well-recognised complication of AIDS. Purely infratentorial manifestations are rare...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Yousry T, Major E, Ryschkewitsch C, Fahle G, Fischer S, Hou J, et al. Evaluation of patients treated with natalizumab for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:924-33 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was reported to have developed in three patients treated with natalizumab. We conducted an evaluation to determine whether PML had developed in any other treated patients...
  2. Lanzafame M, Ferrari S, Lattuada E, Corsini F, Deganello R, Vento S, et al. Mirtazapine in an HIV-1 infected patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Infez Med. 2009;17:35-7 pubmed
    We describe the clinical course of an HIV-infected patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy who took mirtazapine for his depression...
  3. Zheng H, Ikegaya H, Takasaka T, Matsushima Ohno T, Sakurai M, Kanazawa I, et al. Characterization of the VP1 loop mutations widespread among JC polyomavirus isolates associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:996-1002 pubmed
    Recently, we found that JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) frequently undergoes amino acid substitutions (designated VP1 loop mutations) in the outer loops of the major capsid protein, ..
  4. Kharfan Dabaja M, Ayala E, Greene J, Rojiani A, Murtagh F, Anasetti C. Two cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and a review of the literature. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39:101-7 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare subacute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the DNA JC human polyomavirus...
  5. Tan C, Koralnik I. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other disorders caused by JC virus: clinical features and pathogenesis. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:425-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but often fatal brain disease caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC...
  6. Bossolasco S, Calori G, Moretti F, Boschini A, Bertelli D, Mena M, et al. Prognostic significance of JC virus DNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:738-44 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) remains a frequent and life-threatening complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  7. Sunyaev S, Lugovskoy A, Simon K, Gorelik L. Adaptive mutations in the JC virus protein capsid are associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that a more virulent PML causing phenotype of JC virus is acquired via adaptive evolution that changes viral specificity for its cellular receptor(s). ..
  8. Nived O, Bengtsson A, Jonsen A, Sturfelt G. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy - the importance of early diagnosis illustrated in four cases. Lupus. 2008;17:1036-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, deadly demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which is caused by a reactivation of the DNA polyomavirus JC and occurs in immunosuppressed individuals...
  9. Moll N, Rietsch A, Ransohoff A, Cossoy M, Huang D, Eichler F, et al. Cortical demyelination in PML and MS: Similarities and differences. Neurology. 2008;70:336-43 pubmed
    To characterize pathologic changes in the cerebral cortex of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).
  10. Kleinschmidt DeMasters B, Tyler K. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy complicating treatment with natalizumab and interferon beta-1a for multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:369-74 pubmed
    A 46-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis died from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after having received 37 doses of natalizumab (300 mg every four weeks) as part of a clinical trial of natalizumab ..
  11. Yang W, Beaudoin E, Lu L, Du Pasquier R, Kuroda M, Willemsen R, et al. Chimeric immune receptors (CIRs) specific to JC virus for immunotherapy in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Int Immunol. 2007;19:1083-93 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly brain disease caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV)...
  12. Clifford D, De Luca A, Deluca A, Simpson D, Arendt G, Giovannoni G, et al. Natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with multiple sclerosis: lessons from 28 cases. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:438-46 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of multiple sclerosis with natalizumab is complicated by rare occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
  13. Co J, Verma S, Gurjav U, Sumibcay L, Nerurkar V. Interferon- alpha and - beta restrict polyomavirus JC replication in primary human fetal glial cells: implications for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy therapy. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:712-8 pubmed
    ..is its inability to inhibit the replication of polyomavirus JC (JCV), the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness...
  14. De Raedt S, Lacor P, Michotte A, Flamez A, Ebinger G. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as first manifestation of sarcoidosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:186-9 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating neurologic disorder caused by a polyomavirus, called JC virus. PML affects mainly immunocompromised hosts...
  15. Molloy E, Calabrese L. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a national estimate of frequency in systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:3761-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, typically fatal, central nervous system demyelinating disease that results from reactivation of the JC virus, which generally occurs in immunosuppressed hosts...
  16. Schröder A, Lee D, Hellwig K, Lukas C, Linker R, Gold R. Successful management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and immune reconstitution syndrome in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:1391-4 pubmed publisher
    To describe a case of successful clinical management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
  17. Shah I, Chudgar P. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) presenting as intractable dystonia in an HIV-infected child. J Trop Pediatr. 2005;51:380-2 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has been described in adult immunocompromised patients and has a progressive downhill course...
  18. Langer Gould A, Steinman L. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and multiple sclerosis: lessons from natalizumab. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006;6:253-8 pubmed
    Three patients have developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy while being treated with natalizumab for their autoimmune diseases...
  19. Cinque P, Koralnik I, Gerevini S, Miro J, Price R. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-1 infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9:625-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by the JC polyomavirus (JCV) and is one of the most feared complications of HIV-1 infection...
  20. Wuthrich C, Dang X, Westmoreland S, McKay J, Maheshwari A, Anderson M, et al. Fulminant JC virus encephalopathy with productive infection of cortical pyramidal neurons. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:742-8 pubmed publisher
    The polyomavirus JC (JCV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and of JCV granule cell neuronopathy...
  21. Eng P, Turnbull B, Cook S, Davidson J, Kurth T, Seeger J. Characteristics and antecedents of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an insured population. Neurology. 2006;67:884-6 pubmed
    Based on health insurance claims from a large U.S. health insurer, the authors identified 44 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) cases from 2002 through 2004 and described their characteristics, including antecedent diagnoses ..
  22. Shitrit D, Lev N, Bar Gil Shitrit A, Kramer M. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in transplant recipients. Transpl Int. 2005;17:658-65 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating infection caused by the JC virus. It is an emerging disease in transplant recipients; however, it remains poorly defined...
  23. Bonavita S, Conforti R, Russo A, Sacco R, Tessitore A, Gallo A, et al. Infratentorial progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient treated with fludarabine and rituximab. Neurol Sci. 2008;29:37-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the JC papovavirus, and is a well known complication in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) during ..
  24. Roberts M. AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy : current management strategies. CNS Drugs. 2005;19:671-82 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, opportunistic infection of the CNS by the ubiquitous JC virus (JCV)...
  25. Marzocchetti A, Sanguinetti M, Giambenedetto S, Cingolani A, Fadda G, Cauda R, et al. Characterization of JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid from HIV-1 infected patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: insights into viral pathogenesis and disease prognosis. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:338-46 pubmed
    ..To analyze virological and immunological features of AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencepalophathy (PML) and their association to disease prognosis...
  26. Perez Liz G, Del Valle L, Gentilella A, Croul S, Khalili K. Detection of JC virus DNA fragments but not proteins in normal brain tissue. Ann Neurol. 2008;64:379-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the white matter affecting immunocompromised patients that results from the cytolytic destruction of glial cells by the human neurotropic JC virus (JCV)...
  27. Fink M, de Oliveira A, Romano C, Vidal J, Urbano P, Tateno A, et al. Molecular characterization of human polyomavirus JC in Brazilian AIDS patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:6-10 pubmed publisher
    JC virus (JCV), the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is classified in 8 different genotypes. Previous reports have suggested a positive association between specific genotypes and PML.
  28. Shishido Hara Y. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies: a review of clinical, neuropathological, and virological aspects of JC virus-induced demyelinating disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:403-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a fatal viral-induced demyelinating disease that was once rare but has become more prevalent today...
  29. Lima M, Bernal Cano F, Clifford D, Gandhi R, Koralnik I. Clinical outcome of long-term survivors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:1288-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV) in immunosuppressed people...
  30. Marshall L, Major E. Molecular regulation of JC virus tropism: insights into potential therapeutic targets for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:404-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a growing concern for patients undergoing immune modulatory therapies for treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis...
  31. Boster A, Hreha S, Berger J, Bao F, Penmesta R, Tselis A, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a comparative study. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:593-9 pubmed publisher
    To identify clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that distinguish progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
  32. Berger J. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2007;7:461-9 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was a rare disease until the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic...
  33. Kuker W, Mader I, Nagele T, Uhl M, Adolph C, Klose U, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: value of diffusion-weighted and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and treatment control. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:819-26 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by the replication of JC virus in oligodendrocytes of immunocompromised patients...
  34. Berger J, Houff S. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: lessons from AIDS and natalizumab. Neurol Res. 2006;28:299-305 pubmed
    The dramatic increase in the incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) that occurred as a consequence of the AIDS pandemic and the recent association of PML with the administration of natalizumab, a monoclonal antibody ..
  35. Altschuler E, Kast R. The atypical antipsychotic agents ziprasidone [correction of zisprasidone], risperdone and olanzapine as treatment for and prophylaxis against progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65:585-6 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an unremitting, advancing disease of central nervous system white matter...
  36. Zheng H, Takasaka T, Noda K, Kanazawa A, Mori H, Kabuki T, et al. New sequence polymorphisms in the outer loops of the JC polyomavirus major capsid protein (VP1) possibly associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2035-45 pubmed
    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with decreased immune competence...
  37. Völker H, Kraft K, Arnold E, Steinhoff S, Kolios G, Sommer S. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy developing in advanced pulmonal sarcoidosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007;109:624-30 pubmed
    Coincidence of pulmonal sarcoidosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) rarely occurs. So far an entire course has been recorded in only very few cases...
  38. Shah R, Bag A, Chapman P, Cure J. Imaging manifestations of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Clin Radiol. 2010;65:431-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease caused by reactivation of JC virus in immunosuppressed patients...
  39. Pina Oviedo S, Urbanska K, Radhakrishnan S, Sweet T, Reiss K, Khalili K, et al. Effects of JC virus infection on anti-apoptotic protein survivin in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1291-304 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system resulting from the productive infection of oligodendrocytes by the opportunistic polyomavirus JC virus (JCV)...
  40. Berger J, Koralnik I. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and natalizumab--unforeseen consequences. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:414-6 pubmed
  41. Carson K, Evens A, Richey E, Habermann T, Focosi D, Seymour J, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after rituximab therapy in HIV-negative patients: a report of 57 cases from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports project. Blood. 2009;113:4834-40 pubmed publisher
    ..2 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 1 with rheumatoid arthritis who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after rituximab treatment...
  42. Engsig F, Hansen A, Omland L, Kronborg G, Gerstoft J, Laursen A, et al. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-infected patients during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a nationwide cohort study. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:77-83 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection predisposes to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
  43. Shishido Hara Y, Higuchi K, Ohara S, Duyckaerts C, Hauw J, Uchihara T. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies provide a scaffold for human polyomavirus JC replication and are disrupted after development of viral inclusions in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008;67:299-308 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a fatal demyelinating disorder due to human polyomavirus JC infection in which there are viral inclusions in enlarged nuclei of infected oligodendrocytes...
  44. Pöhlmann C, Hochauf K, Rollig C, Schetelig J, Wunderlich O, Bandt D, et al. Chlorpromazine combined with cidofovir for treatment of a patient suffering from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Intervirology. 2007;50:412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and detection of JC virus genome ..
  45. Bienaime A, Colson P, Moreau J, Zandotti C, Pellissier J, Brouqui P. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-2-infected patient. AIDS. 2006;20:1342-3 pubmed
  46. Vendrely A, Bienvenu B, Gasnault J, Thiebault J, Salmon D, Gray F. Fulminant inflammatory leukoencephalopathy associated with HAART-induced immune restoration in AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;109:449-55 pubmed
    HAART-induced immune restoration is beneficial for patients with AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
  47. Phillips T, Jacobs R, Ellis E. Polyoma nephropathy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a renal transplant recipient. J Child Neurol. 2004;19:301-4 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a progressive and ultimately fatal white-matter disease of the brain that is associated with polyomavirus infection...
  48. Wenning W, Haghikia A, Laubenberger J, Clifford D, Behrens P, Chan A, et al. Treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical and therapeutic course of a 52-year-old patient with multiple sclerosis in whom progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) developed after 12 months of therapy with natalizumab...
  49. Ryschkewitsch C, Jensen P, Monaco M, Major E. JC virus persistence following progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:384-91 pubmed publisher
    ..JCV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides the laboratory confirmatory diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients whose clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings are consistent ..
  50. Enam S, Sweet T, Amini S, Khalili K, Del Valle L. Evidence for involvement of transforming growth factor beta1 signaling pathway in activation of JC virus in human immunodeficiency virus 1-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:282-91 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system frequently seen in patients with impaired immune systems, particularly acquired immunodeficiency syndrome...
  51. Vaklavas C, Sotelo Rafiq E, Lovy J, Escobar M, Tsimberidou A. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient without apparent immunosuppression. Virol J. 2010;7:256 pubmed publisher
    An 80-year-old man with no history of an immune-compromising disorder was diagnosed with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
  52. Wang Y, Kirby J, Qian Q. Effective use of JC virus PCR for diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:253-5 pubmed publisher
    In a retrospective review of data from 168 patients with suspected progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) between 1996 and 2006, JC virus (JCV) PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples was positive only in human immunodeficiency ..
  53. Lima M, Drislane F, Koralnik I. Seizures and their outcome in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Neurology. 2006;66:262-4 pubmed
    Seizures are not expected in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a condition considered to be restricted to the white matter...
  54. Molloy E, Calabrese L. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with rheumatic diseases: are patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at particular risk?. Autoimmun Rev. 2008;8:144-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, frequently fatal, infectious complication occurring in immunocompromised patients...
  55. Boren E, Cheema G, Naguwa S, Ansari A, Gershwin M. The emergence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in rheumatic diseases. J Autoimmun. 2008;30:90-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and devastating neurological disease with areas of demyelination in the central nervous system classically associated with profound imunosuppression...
  56. Delobel P, Brassat D, Delisle M, Scaravilli F, Clanet M. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an HIV patient with normal CD4 T-cell count and magnetic resonance imaging. AIDS. 2004;18:702-4 pubmed
  57. Delbue S, Sotgiu G, Fumagalli D, Valli M, Borghi E, Mancuso R, et al. A case of a progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patient with four different JC virus transcriptional control region rearrangements in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, serum, and urine. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:51-7 pubmed
    JC virus (JCV) is the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  58. Diller R, Thompson K. Visual loss secondary to acquired immunodeficiency virus-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy demonstrating clinical improvement with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Optometry. 2007;78:63-70 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating brain disease caused by the JC papovavirus. This disease afflicts the immunocompromised, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  59. Focosi D, Kast R, Maggi F, Ceccherini Nelli L, Petrini M. Risperidone-induced reduction in JC viruria as a surrogate marker for efficacy against progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. J Clin Virol. 2007;39:63-4 pubmed
  60. Calabrese L, Molloy E, Huang D, Ransohoff R. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rheumatic diseases: evolving clinical and pathologic patterns of disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:2116-28 pubmed
  61. Liptai Z, Papp E, Barsi P, Mihály I, Szalai E, Csomor J, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an HIV-infected child. Neuropediatrics. 2007;38:32-5 pubmed
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is an infection of the immunosuppressed, especially of AIDS, patients. The disease is caused by the JC virus and is exceptionally rare in children...
  62. Kranick S, Mowry E, Rosenfeld M. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after rituximab in a case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Neurology. 2007;69:704-6 pubmed
  63. Kraemer C, Evers S, Nolting T, Arendt G, Husstedt I. Cidofovir in combination with HAART and survival in AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurol. 2008;255:526-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a demyelinating disease with a high mortality caused by the JC virus and occurs in about 5% of HIV-infected patients...
  64. Chen Y, Trofe J, Gordon J, Autissier P, Woodle E, Koralnik I. BKV and JCV large T antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response in HLA A*0201+ kidney transplant recipients with polyomavirus nephropathy and patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Clin Virol. 2008;42:198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..kidney transplant recipients (KTx), has 75% homology with JC virus (JCV), the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
  65. Yagi T, Hattori H, Ohira M, Nakamichi K, Takayama Ito M, Saijo M, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy developed in incomplete Heerfordt syndrome, a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis, without steroid therapy responding to cidofovir. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:153-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the JC virus; the mortality rate is high and it is usually refractory to treatment...
  66. Verbeeck J, Van Assche G, Ryding J, Wollants E, Rans K, Vermeire S, et al. JC viral loads in patients with Crohn's disease treated with immunosuppression: can we screen for elevated risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy?. Gut. 2008;57:1393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in refractory Crohn's disease and in multiple sclerosis, but carries an estimated 1/1000 risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by reactivation of latent JC virus infection...
  67. Cettomai D, McArthur J. Mirtazapine use in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:255-8 pubmed publisher
    An efficacious treatment is needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).
  68. Koralnik I. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy revisited: Has the disease outgrown its name?. Ann Neurol. 2006;60:162-73 pubmed
    ..This is what happened when natalizumab (Tysabri) was associated with a few cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease patients, caused by the reactivation of the ..
  69. Warnke C, Menge T, Hartung H, Racke M, Cravens P, Bennett J, et al. Natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: what are the causal factors and can it be avoided?. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:923-30 pubmed publisher
    ..in combination with other immunoregulatory and immunosuppressive agents were diagnosed with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
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    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) use may be associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
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    We investigated the incidence and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals before and after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in 1996...