viral pneumonia

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.

Top Publications

  1. Ison M, Fishman J. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant recipients. Clin Chest Med. 2005;26:691-705, viii pubmed
    ..Invasive procedures are often required for the optimal management of such infections. The use of sensitive and quantitative assays have greatly improved the outcomes of CMV infection...
  2. Don M, Korppi M, Valent F, Vainionpaa R, Canciani M. Human metapneumovirus pneumonia in children: results of an Italian study and mini-review. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The figure was about 5% in the present and in the only earlier paediatric CAP study. Thus, hMPV is a real but rare cause of paediatric CAP, although seroconversion to hMPV in most children takes place in early childhood...
  3. Hasan K, Jolly P, Marquis G, Roy E, Podder G, Alam K, et al. Viral etiology of pneumonia in a cohort of newborns till 24 months of age in Rural Mirzapur, Bangladesh. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:690-5 pubmed
    ..Children living in a one-room house were 3 times more likely to develop viral pneumonia (odds ratio (OR) = 3.67, CI 1.05-12.83) than children living in a larger house...
  4. Wang H, Peters N, Laza Stanca V, Nawroly N, Johnston S, Schwarze J. Local CD11c+ MHC class II- precursors generate lung dendritic cells during respiratory viral infection, but are depleted in the process. J Immunol. 2006;177:2536-42 pubmed
    ..This depletion of local DC precursors in respiratory viral infections may be important in explaining complex interactions between multiple and intercurrent pulmonary infections...
  5. Luke T, Kilbane E, Jackson J, Hoffman S. Meta-analysis: convalescent blood products for Spanish influenza pneumonia: a future H5N1 treatment?. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:599-609 pubmed
    ..Treatments for H5N1 influenza are unsatisfactory, and convalescent human plasma containing H5N1 antibodies could be an effective therapy during outbreaks and pandemics...
  6. Kanne J, Godwin J, Franquet T, Escuissato D, Muller N. Viral pneumonia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: high-resolution CT findings. J Thorac Imaging. 2007;22:292-9 pubmed
    ..Findings of viral pneumonia on HRCT include small poorly defined centrilobular nodules and patchy, often bilateral, areas of ..
  7. Rello J, Pop Vicas A. Clinical review: primary influenza viral pneumonia. Crit Care. 2009;13:235 pubmed publisher
    ..Ensuring an appropriate oxygenation and ventilation strategy, as well as prompt initiation of antiviral therapy, is essential in management...
  8. Louie J, Acosta M, Winter K, Jean C, Gavali S, Schechter R, et al. Factors associated with death or hospitalization due to pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection in California. JAMA. 2009;302:1896-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) emerged rapidly in California in April 2009. Preliminary comparisons with seasonal influenza suggest that pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) disproportionately affects younger ages and causes generally mild disease...
  9. Falsey A, Walsh E. Viral pneumonia in older adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:518-24 pubmed
    ..A H3N2 and respiratory syncytial virus are the most commonly identified viral pathogens in older adults with viral pneumonia. As diagnostic tests such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction become more widely used, the ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Perez Padilla R, de la Rosa Zamboni D, Ponce de Leon S, Hernandez M, Quiñones Falconi F, Bautista E, et al. Pneumonia and respiratory failure from swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:680-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Yang Y, Wang S, Bai W, Li R, Ai J. Evaluation by survival analysis on effect of traditional Chinese medicine in treating children with respiratory syncytial viral pneumonia of phlegm-heat blocking Fei syndrome. Chin J Integr Med. 2009;15:95-100 pubmed publisher
    To objectively evaluate the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine in treating children's respiratory syncytial viral pneumonia (RSVP) of phlegm-heat blocking Fei syndrome (PHBFS).
  3. van Riel D, Munster V, de Wit E, Rimmelzwaan G, Fouchier R, Osterhaus A, et al. H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract. Science. 2006;312:399 pubmed
    ..These findings may explain, at least in part, the localization and severity of H5N1 viral pneumonia in humans. They also identify the cat and the ferret as suitable experimental animals based on this criterion.
  4. Abdel Ghafar A, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Hayden F, Nguyen D, de Jong M, et al. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:261-73 pubmed publisher
  5. Don M, Fasoli L, Paldanius M, Vainionpaa R, Kleemola M, Räty R, et al. Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: serological results of a paediatric survey. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37:806-12 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae at >2 y of age and emphasize the emerging role of hMPV. The high proportion of mixed viral-bacterial infections highlights the need to treat all children with CAP with antibiotics...
  6. Yoon K, Cooper V, Schwartz K, Harmon K, Kim W, Janke B, et al. Influenza virus infection in racing greyhounds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1974-6 pubmed
  7. Englund J, Boeckh M, Kuypers J, Nichols W, Hackman R, Morrow R, et al. Brief communication: fatal human metapneumovirus infection in stem-cell transplant recipients. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:344-9 pubmed
    ..Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a recently discovered respiratory virus, is associated with clinical disease in young and elderly persons...
  8. Grayson M, Ramos M, Rohlfing M, Kitchens R, Wang H, Gould A, et al. Controls for lung dendritic cell maturation and migration during respiratory viral infection. J Immunol. 2007;179:1438-48 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that pDCs and cDCs respond distinctly to respiratory paramyxoviral infection with patterns of movement that should serve to coordinate the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively...
  9. Dare R, Fry A, Chittaganpitch M, Sawanpanyalert P, Olsen S, Erdman D. Human coronavirus infections in rural Thailand: a comprehensive study using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1321-8 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine whether infections with human coronaviruses (HCoVs) 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63 are associated with pneumonia and to define the epidemiology of HCoV infection in rural Thailand...
  10. Rothberg M, Haessler S, Brown R. Complications of viral influenza. Am J Med. 2008;121:258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..During influenza season, treatment of pneumonia should include empiric coverage for this pathogen. Neuromuscular and cardiac complications are unusual but may manifest in persons of any age...
  11. Korppi M, Don M, Valent F, Canciani M. The value of clinical features in differentiating between viral, pneumococcal and atypical bacterial pneumonia in children. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:943-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the value of clinical features in differentiating between viral, pneumococcal and atypical bacterial pneumonia in children...
  12. Figueiredo L. Viral pneumonia: epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects. J Bras Pneumol. 2009;35:899-906 pubmed
    ..These types of pneumonia are commonly caused by influenza A and B; parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3; respiratory syncytial virus; or adenovirus. We also address the types of pneumonia caused by hantaviruses, metapneumoviruses and rhinoviruses...
  13. Lee J, Chun J, Kim D, Park Y, Choi J, Kim H. Identification of adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus by two kinds of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a shell vial culture in pediatric patients with viral pneumonia. Yonsei Med J. 2010;51:761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Two kinds of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a commercial shell vial viral culture were performed to identify causative agents in pediatric patients...
  14. Marcos M, Esperatti M, Torres A. Viral pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present article is to review several issues of viral infection in CAP in light of recent studies that included exhaustive evaluation of viruses...
  15. Moreno L, Krishnan J, Duran P, Ferrero F. Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006;41:331-7 pubmed
    Distinguishing bacterial from viral pneumonia on admission to the hospital could guide the decision of whether or not to use antibiotics...
  16. Masia M, Gutierrez F, Shum C, Padilla S, Navarro J, Flores E, et al. Usefulness of procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia according to the patients outcome research team pneumonia severity index. Chest. 2005;128:2223-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of procalcitonin serum levels as a predictor of etiology and prognosis in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) when they are stratified according to severity...
  17. De Roux A, Marcos M, Garcia E, Mensa J, Ewig S, Lode H, et al. Viral community-acquired pneumonia in nonimmunocompromised adults. Chest. 2004;125:1343-51 pubmed
    ..Viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been poorly studied and clinically characterized. Using strict criteria for inclusion, we studied this type of infection in a large series of hospitalized adults with CAP...
  18. Akaike T, Okamoto S, Sawa T, Yoshitake J, Tamura F, Ichimori K, et al. 8-nitroguanosine formation in viral pneumonia and its implication for pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:685-90 pubmed
    ..The present data constitute a demonstration of 8-nitroguanosine formation in vivo and suggest a potential role for NO-induced nitrative stress in viral pathogenesis...
  19. Cheng V, Tang B, Wu A, Chu C, Yuen K. Medical treatment of viral pneumonia including SARS in immunocompetent adult. J Infect. 2004;49:262-73 pubmed
    Since no randomized controlled trials have been conducted on the treatment of viral pneumonia by antivirals or immunomodulators in immunocompetent adults, a review of such anecdotal experience are needed for the more rational use of such ..
  20. Virkki R, Juven T, Rikalainen H, Svedstrom E, Mertsola J, Ruuskanen O. Differentiation of bacterial and viral pneumonia in children. Thorax. 2002;57:438-41 pubmed
  21. Toikka P, Irjala K, Juven T, Virkki R, Mertsola J, Leinonen M, et al. Serum procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 for distinguishing bacterial and viral pneumonia in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:598-602 pubmed
    ..IL-6) concentrations were measured in 126 children hospitalized for community-acquired, radiologically confirmed pneumonia to assess whether these host response values could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.
  22. Juven T, Mertsola J, Waris M, Leinonen M, Ruuskanen O. Clinical response to antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. Eur J Pediatr. 2004;163:140-4 pubmed
    ..Patients with mixed viral-bacterial infection became afebrile more slowly than those with either sole viral or sole bacterial infections...
  23. Papazian L, Thomas P, Bregeon F, Garbe L, Zandotti C, Saux P, et al. Open-lung biopsy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology. 1998;88:935-44 pubmed
    ..The aim of this observational case series was to evaluate the safety and utility of open-lung biopsy (OLB) performed in patients receiving ventilatory support who had persistent ARDS despite negative bacterial cultures...
  24. Nokes D, Okiro E, Ngama M, White L, Ochola R, Scott P, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus epidemiology in a birth cohort from Kilifi district, Kenya: infection during the first year of life. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1828-32 pubmed
    ..RSV contributed significantly to total LRTI disease in this vaccine-target group...
  25. Hohenthal U, Sipilä J, Vainionpaa R, Meurman O, Rantakokko Jalava K, Nikoskelainen J, et al. Diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in community-acquired pneumonia in a routine setting: a study on patients treated in a Finnish university hospital. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36:198-203 pubmed
    ..In a subgroup of slowly responding pneumonia, the procedure was of some usefulness even after commencement of antimicrobial treatment...
  26. Smith D, Letendre S. Viral pneumonia as a serious complication of etanercept therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:174 pubmed
  27. Ottolini M, Curtis S, Porter D, Mathews A, Richardson J, Hemming V, et al. Comparison of corticosteroids for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and pneumonia in cotton rats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2299-302 pubmed
    ..Triamcinolone and methylprednisolone proved to be more effective than dexamethasone in reducing lung pathology. No recurrence of viral replication or pulmonary pathology followed the cessation of therapy...
  28. Tsolia M, Psarras S, Bossios A, Audi H, Paldanius M, Gourgiotis D, et al. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized school-age children: evidence for high prevalence of viral infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:681-6 pubmed
    ..Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in young children is most commonly associated with viral infections; however, the role of viruses in CAP of school-age children is still inconclusive...
  29. Korppi M, Remes S, Heiskanen Kosma T. Serum procalcitonin concentrations in bacterial pneumonia in children: a negative result in primary healthcare settings. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003;35:56-61 pubmed
    ..viral infection). We conclude that serum PCT measurements have no role in the diagnosis of bacterial CAP in children in primary healthcare settings...
  30. Camps K, Jorens P, Demey H, Pattyn S, Ieven M. Clinical significance of herpes simplex virus in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21:758-9 pubmed
  31. Korppi M. Mixed microbial aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children. APMIS. 2002;110:515-22 pubmed
    ..Current guidelines recommend antibiotic therapy for all community-acquired pneumonia cases in children...
  32. Korppi M. Non-specific host response markers in the differentiation between pneumococcal and viral pneumonia: what is the most accurate combination?. Pediatr Int. 2004;46:545-50 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present paper was to determine if there is a combination of these four host response markers and chest radiograph findings suitable for differentiating pneumococcal from viral etiology of pneumonia...
  33. Van Elden L, van Kraaij M, Nijhuis M, Hendriksen K, Dekker A, Rozenberg Arska M, et al. Polymerase chain reaction is more sensitive than viral culture and antigen testing for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with hematological cancer and pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:177-83 pubmed
  34. Ebi K, Exuzides K, Lau E, Kelsh M, Barnston A. Association of normal weather periods and El Niño events with hospitalization for viral pneumonia in females: California, 1983-1998. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1200-8 pubmed
    This study examined associations between weather and hospitalizations of females for viral pneumonia during normal weather periods and El Niño events in the California counties of Sacramento and Yolo, San Francisco and San Mateo, and ..
  35. Morton S, Mathai M, Byrd R, Fields C, Roy T. Influenza A pneumonia with rhabdomyolysis. South Med J. 2001;94:67-9 pubmed
  36. Madhi S, Klugman K. A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia. Nat Med. 2004;10:811-3 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the pneumococcus has a major role in the development of pneumonia associated with these viruses and that viruses contribute to the pathogenesis of bacterial pneumonia...
  37. Barnes P, Adcock I, Ito K. Histone acetylation and deacetylation: importance in inflammatory lung diseases. Eur Respir J. 2005;25:552-63 pubmed
    ..The reduction in histone deacetylase activity can be restored by theophylline, which may be able to reverse steroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other inflammatory diseases...
  38. Michelow I, Olsen K, Lozano J, Rollins N, Duffy L, Ziegler T, et al. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children. Pediatrics. 2004;113:701-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to determine as precisely as possible the epidemiology and morbidity of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children...
  39. Sinaniotis C. Viral pneumoniae in children: incidence and aetiology. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2004;5 Suppl A:S197-200 pubmed
    ..Viral pneumonias frequently are complicated by bacterial infections and mixed infections are identified in 30% of the cases. The precise role of viruses and bacteria in these cases, remains to be clarified...
  40. Moulin F, Raymond J, Lorrot M, Marc E, Coste J, Iniguez J, et al. Procalcitonin in children admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84:332-6 pubmed
    ..To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of procalcitonin (PCT) in differentiating bacterial and viral causes of pneumonia...
  41. Djelantik I, Gessner B, Soewignjo S, Steinhoff M, Sutanto A, Widjaya A, et al. Incidence and clinical features of hospitalization because of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory illness among children less than two years of age in a rural Asian setting. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:150-7 pubmed
    ..Despite this few reports on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory illness disease burden exist from rural areas of the developing world, and none exist for Indonesia...
  42. Crotty M, Meyers S, Hampton N, Bledsoe S, Ritchie D, Buller R, et al. Impact of antibacterials on subsequent resistance and clinical outcomes in adult patients with viral pneumonia: an opportunity for stewardship. Crit Care. 2015;19:404 pubmed publisher
    ..This was a single-center retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of antibacterials in viral pneumonia on clinical outcomes and subsequent multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections/colonization...
  43. Tremolieres F. [Current epidemiology of microbial low respiratory tract infections]. Med Mal Infect. 2006;36:546-54 pubmed
    ..Nothing really new has come out on the epidemiology of acute bronchitis, while in bacterial exacerbation of COPD, attention focused on the colonizing or infective role of H. influenzae in the genesis of bronchus inflammation. ..
  44. Rosenberg H, Dyer K, Domachowske J. Eosinophils and their interactions with respiratory virus pathogens. Immunol Res. 2009;43:128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, PVM replicates in eosinophils and promotes cytokine release. The molecular basis of virus infection in eosinophils and its relationship to disease outcome is currently under study. ..
  45. Benhamou D, Carrie A. [Bronchopulmonary infections in the infants, child and adult]. Rev Prat. 2006;56:1489-97; quiz 1498 pubmed
  46. Waters V, Peterson K, LaRussa P. Live viral vaccines in a DiGeorge syndrome patient. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:519-20 pubmed
    ..Although live viral vaccines have been used safely in some children with DiGeorge syndrome, there are insufficient data to recommend their routine use in those with severe immunodeficiency. ..
  47. Singleton R, Wirsing E, Haberling D, Christensen K, Paddock C, Hilinski J, et al. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection death among infants in the United States, 1999-2004. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e768-76 pubmed publisher
  48. Malfroot A, Adam G, Ciofu O, Doring G, Knoop C, Lang A, et al. Immunisation in the current management of cystic fibrosis patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2005;4:77-87 pubmed
    ..More studies are needed to complete recommendations especially for CF adults and transplant candidates. ..
  49. Astegiano S, Costa C, Terlizzi M, Sidoti F, Gambarino S, Mantovani S, et al. Detection of human herpesvirus-7 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage. Intervirology. 2010;53:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation of HHV-7 DNA in BAL may be useful to investigate its potential role in lower respiratory tract infection, alone or in association with other viral and/or non-viral pathogens and to distinguish latency from reactivation. ..
  50. Siu Y, Leung K, Tong M, Kwok Y, Wong P, Kwan T. Fatal case of Aspergillus coinfection in a renal transplant recipient suffering from cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. Nephrology (Carlton). 2005;10:619-22 pubmed
    ..High index of suspicion and early and empirical initiation of antifungal therapy may be necessary for successful management of fulminant pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients. ..
  51. Palmer S, Limaye A, Banks M, Gallup D, Chapman J, Lawrence E, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A beneficial effect with regard to prevention of CMV disease seems to extend at least through 18 months after transplantation. ..
  52. El Sayed Zaki M, Goda T. Clinico-pathological study of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:199-205 pubmed
  53. Graham S. Non-tuberculosis opportunistic infections and other lung diseases in HIV-infected infants and children. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9:592-602 pubmed
    ..Bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are common in children throughout the developing world, and the added impact ..
  54. Coomes S, Wilke C, Moore T, Moore B. Induction of TGF-beta 1, not regulatory T cells, impairs antiviral immunity in the lung following bone marrow transplant. J Immunol. 2010;184:5130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that overexpression of TGF-beta1 following myeloablative conditioning post-BMT results in impaired effector T cell responses to viral infection...
  55. Efrati O, Gonik U, Bielorai B, Modan Moses D, Neumann Y, Szeinberg A, et al. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage for the evaluation of pulmonary disease in children with primary immunodeficiency and cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;48:324-9 pubmed
    ..A definite diagnosis may be achieved in these situations by fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)...
  56. Fu Y, He J, Wang X, Zheng X, Wu Q, Xie C, et al. A prime-boost vaccination strategy using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium and a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector elicits protective immunity against human respiratory syncytial virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that such a heterologous prime-boost strategy can enhance the efficacy of either the SL7207 or the FGAd vector regimen in generating immune responses in BALB/c mice...
  57. Fujita J. [Pneumonia associated with influenza virus infection]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64:1906-15 pubmed
    ..bacterial pneumonia often produces a syndrome that is clinically distinguishable from that of primary viral pneumonia. In primary influenza virus pneumonia, chest roentgenography revealed bilateral infiltrations but no ..
  58. Zavitz C, Bauer C, Gaschler G, Fraser K, Strieter R, Hogaboam C, et al. Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza. J Immunol. 2010;184:2001-13 pubmed publisher
  59. Yang Z, Liu N, Huang B, Wang Y, Hu Y, Zhu Y. [Effect of anti-influenza virus of Arctigenin in vivo]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2005;28:1012-4 pubmed
    ..To study anti-influenza virus effect of Arctigenin in vivo...
  60. Ho Y, Wang J, Wang J, Wu U, Chang C, Wu H, et al. Prognostic factors for fatal adult influenza pneumonia. J Infect. 2009;58:439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the prognostic factors for fatal adult influenza pneumonia...
  61. Murtagh P, Giubergia V, Viale D, Bauer G, Pena H. Lower respiratory infections by adenovirus in children. Clinical features and risk factors for bronchiolitis obliterans and mortality. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009;44:450-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenovirus (Ad) respiratory infections have a profound impact in Argentina. Severe chronic disease and a high mortality rate are observed in children after acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) by Ad...
  62. Wunderli W. [From diagnosis to the detection of avian influenza virus]. Ther Umsch. 2007;64:609-12 pubmed
    ..For this reason the detection of the avian virus by RT-PCR in throat swabs is the method of choice in order to be able to confirm or exclude a suspect case...
  63. Haber N, Dekimeche S, Cantet C, Marquand D, Szekely C, Lebon P. [Lower respiratory tract infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses in hospitalized elderly patients during the 2005-2006 winter season]. Presse Med. 2009;38:893-903 pubmed publisher
  64. Torres H, Aguilera E, Safdar A, Rohatgi N, Raad I, Sepulveda C, et al. Fatal cytomegalovirus pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies: an autopsy-based case-control study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:1160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete remission of an HM does not preclude the development of CMV pneumonia among patients with prolonged lymphopenia...
  65. de Jong M, Tran T, Truong H, Vo M, Smith G, Nguyen V, et al. Oseltamivir resistance during treatment of influenza A (H5N1) infection. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2667-72 pubmed