viral eye infections


Summary: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.

Top Publications

  1. Chanana B, Azad R, Nair S. Bilateral macular choroiditis following Chikungunya virus infection. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:1020-1 pubmed
  2. Madhavan H, Priya K. The diagnostic significance of enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay for herpes simplex, varicella zoster and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003;51:71-5 pubmed
    ..It was also designed to study the seroprevalence in normal healthy individuals, and the genomic prevalence of HSV, VZV and CMV in patients without an active viral inflammatory process...
  3. Koizumi N, Yamasaki K, Kawasaki S, Sotozono C, Inatomi T, Mochida C, et al. Cytomegalovirus in aqueous humor from an eye with corneal endotheliitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:564-5 pubmed
    ..To report cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in aqueous humor from a patient with unilateral corneal endotheliitis...
  4. Chichili G, Athmanathan S, Farhatullah S, Gangopadhyay N, Jalali S, Pasricha G, et al. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in ocular specimens. Curr Eye Res. 2003;27:85-90 pubmed
    ..A multiplex PCR was developed and used for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in ocular samples...
  5. Venkatesh K, Biswas J, Kumarasamy N. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on ophthalmic manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:391-3 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the impact of HAART on the ocular manifestations of HIV...
  6. Mittal A, Mittal S, Bharati M, Ramakrishnan R, Saravanan S, Sathe P. Optic neuritis associated with chikungunya virus infection in South India. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1381-6 pubmed
    ..To define optic neuritis associated with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in a clinical setting...
  7. Sugita S, Shimizu N, Kawaguchi T, Akao N, Morio T, Mochizuki M. Identification of human herpesvirus 6 in a patient with severe unilateral panuveitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1426-7 pubmed
  8. Murthy G. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:395-7 pubmed
    ..Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual...
  9. Lalitha P, Rathinam S, Banushree K, Maheshkumar S, Vijayakumar R, Sathe P. Ocular involvement associated with an epidemic outbreak of chikungunya virus infection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:552-6 pubmed
    ..To study the range of ocular symptoms in a cohort of patients with chikungunya infection...

More Information


  1. Mahendradas P, Ranganna S, Shetty R, Balu R, Narayana K, Babu R, et al. Ocular manifestations associated with chikungunya. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:287-91 pubmed
    ..To report ocular manifestations associated with chikungunya...
  2. Nagata Y, Fujino Y, Matsumoto S, Nishi M, Ono A, Mochizuki M, et al. Ocular manifestations in Japanese patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1993;37:275-81 pubmed
    ..The ocular signs were also seen in 71% of the ARC cases and 37% of the AC cases. In Japanese HIV-seropositive patients, ocular manifestations are also as common as in Western HIV-seropositive patients...
  3. Arimura E, Deai T, Maruyama K, Uno N, Yamamoto H, Matsumoto C, et al. Herpes simplex virus-2 quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction in acute retinal necrosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:64-5 pubmed
  4. de Amorim Garcia C, Gomes A, de Oliveira A. Bilateral stellar neuroretinitis in a patient with dengue fever. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1382-3 pubmed
  5. Kempen J. Medical management of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:385-90 pubmed
    ..Research is needed to determine the optimal approach for managing cytomegalovirus retinitis in resource-constrained settings...
  6. Grover R, Ratho R, Gupta V, Mahajan R, Gupta A. Role of viral serology in the diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2002;45:269-71 pubmed
    ..Of the three VZV IgM positive cases, two were positive in acute blood samples and one in vitreous fluid. Thus VZU can be incriminated as the causative agent of ARNS cases in North India...
  7. Sudharshan S, Biswas J. Introduction and immunopathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:357-62 pubmed
    ..Advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has revolutionized the management of AIDS though there is associated increased development of immune recovery uveitis in a few of these patients...
  8. Lim W, Mathur R, Koh A, Yeoh R, Chee S. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:2057-64 pubmed
    ..To evaluate ocular manifestations associated with dengue fever...
  9. Bodaghi B, Rozenberg F, Cassoux N, Fardeau C, Lehoang P. Nonnecrotizing herpetic retinopathies masquerading as severe posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1737-43 pubmed
    ..Aqueous humor analysis can be performed in severe atypical forms of posterior uveitis unresponsive to conventional treatment to exclude a viral infection...
  10. Pauli A, Cruz Martinez L, Ponder J, Redig P, Glaser A, Klauss G, et al. Ophthalmologic and oculopathologic findings in red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks with naturally acquired West Nile virus infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:1240-8 pubmed
    ..To assess ophthalmologic features and ocular lesions in red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV)...
  11. Jain A, Sukhija J, Saini J, Chawla Y, Dhiman R. Hepatitis C virus-associated keratitis. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:131-4 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence of Mooren's ulcer in any of our patients. No association between chronic HCV and Mooren's ulcer was found in our study. Screening therefore in such cases is not necessary. ..
  12. Oberacher Velten I, Jonas J, Junemann A, Schmidt B. Bilateral optic neuropathy and unilateral tonic pupil associated with acute human herpesvirus 6 infection: a case report. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;243:175-7 pubmed
  13. Heinz C, Plentz A, Bauer D, Heiligenhaus A, Modrow S. Prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibodies and of viral DNA in patients with endogenous uveitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;243:999-1004 pubmed
    ..The role of parvovirus DNA in the aqueous fluid and of IgG antibodies against NS1 in the pathogenesis of uveitis cannot be defined at present. ..
  14. Kalpoe J, van Dehn C, Bollemeijer J, Vaessen N, Claas E, Barge R, et al. Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-related progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36:467-9 pubmed
  15. Dediulescu L, Dediulescu D. [Immunoprophylaxis versus immunotherapy in herpetic eye infections]. Oftalmologia. 2005;49:15-22 pubmed
  16. Cackett P, Weir C, McFadzean R, Seaton R. Optic neuropathy without retinopathy in AIDS and cytomegalovirus infection. J Neuroophthalmol. 2004;24:94-5 pubmed
  17. Zhang M, Zhou J, Marshall B, Xin H, Atherton S. Lack of iNOS facilitates MCMV spread in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:285-92 pubmed
    ..iNOS produced by macrophages, especially resident macrophages including microglia and RPE derived macrophages, plays an important role in limiting spread of MCMV in the retina. ..
  18. Kaminagayoshi T, Nakao K, Yashiki S, Sonoda S, Ohba N, Sakamoto T. Analysis of HLA class I and class II gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:199-204 pubmed
    ..The relative frequencies of these HLA alleles did not differ among the three groups. The results suggest that HLA class I and class II genes do not contribute to susceptibility to HAU. ..
  19. Madsen P, Thybo S. [Ocular complications of dengue fever]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005;167:4083-4 pubmed
    ..Months later, her visual symptoms had still not completely disappeared. Ocular complications of dengue are rarely reported, but in the Third World they are probably common. ..
  20. Uller T, Olsson M, Madsen T. Family and population effects on disease resistance in a reptile. Heredity (Edinb). 2003;91:112-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study confirms the importance of genetic (family) effects on pathogen resistance with variation in this trait among natural populations. ..
  21. Gemensky A, Wilkie D. Mineralized corneal sequestrum in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219:1568-72, 1550 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, mineralization of a corneal sequestrum in a cat has not been reported in a clinical case but has been reported in cats experimentally infected with FHV-1. ..
  22. Kuchtey R, Kosmorsky G, Martin D, Lee M. Uveitis associated with West Nile virus infection. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1648-9 pubmed
  23. Miller R, Howard M, Frith P, Perrons C, Pecorella I, Lucas S. Herpesvirus infection of eye and brain in HIV infected patients. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76:282-6 pubmed
    ..This was more than twice the incidence predicted from clinical evidence before death. Genome detection using nPCR was superior to histological methods for diagnosis of ocular and CNS herpesvirus infection. ..
  24. Quentin C, Reiber H. Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis: rubella virus antibodies and genome in aqueous humor. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:46-54 pubmed
    ..To characterize the polyspecific intraocular antibody synthesis in aqueous humor of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the eye and to detect the causative antigen in Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis (FHC)...
  25. Moesen I, Khemka S, Ayliffe W. Acute retinal necrosis secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 with preexisting chorioretinal scarring. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2008;45:59-61 pubmed
    ..The authors describe a rarely reported case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis in a child caused by neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2, where the presence of previous chorioretinal scarring made diagnosis challenging. ..
  26. Murray R. Conjunctival molluscum contagiosum. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:740 pubmed
  27. Walters G, James T. Viral causes of the acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2001;12:191-5 pubmed
    ..This can help in both the diagnosis of atypical cases of retinitis and uveitis and directing treatment in cases of acute retinal necrosis. ..
  28. Simon J. Povidone-iodine prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1437 pubmed
  29. Horton J. Neurovisual manifestations of herpesviruses. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2002;42:33-41 pubmed
  30. Cheng L, Hostetler K, Chaidhawangul S, Gardner M, Beadle J, Toyoguchi M, et al. Treatment or prevention of herpes simplex virus retinitis with intravitreally injectable crystalline 1-O-hexadecylpropanediol-3-phospho-ganciclovir. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:515-21 pubmed
    ..05) and provided sustained antiviral effect after a single intravitreal drug injection. The crystalline ammonium salt of HDP-P-GCV may be a very useful local therapy for herpes family viral retinitis. ..
  31. Buggage R, Smith J, Shen D, Chan C. Conjunctival papillomas caused by human papillomavirus type 33. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:202-4 pubmed
  32. Labetoulle M, Kucera P, Ugolini G, Lafay F, Frau E, Offret H, et al. Neuronal pathways for the propagation of herpes simplex virus type 1 from one retina to the other in a murine model. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:1201-10 pubmed
    ..Later, retinopetal transneuronal propagation of the virus from visual pathways may have contributed to increase the severity of contralateral retinitis. ..
  33. O HARA M, Lloyd W, Scribbick F, Gulley M. Latent intracellular Epstein-Barr Virus DNA demonstrated in ocular posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder mimicking granulomatous uveitis with iris nodules in a child. J AAPOS. 2001;5:62-3 pubmed
    ..Accurate diagnostic classification of PTLD to include confirmation of EBV infection carries significant therapeutic and prognostic implications. ..
  34. Chodosh J. Human adenovirus type 37 and the BALB/c mouse: progress toward a restricted adenovirus keratitis model (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:346-65 pubmed
    ..A similar pattern of cytokine expression in the corneas of HAdV37-infected Balb/c mice suggests the mouse adenoviral keratitis model may be useful for the study of early innate immune responses in the adenovirus-infected corneal stroma. ..
  35. Malik A, Hildebrand G, Sekhri R, Russell Eggitt I. Bilateral macular scars following intrauterine herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. J AAPOS. 2008;12:305-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ocular involvement most commonly consists of blepharoconjunctivitis or keratitis. We present a further manifestation of congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 infection. ..
  36. De Silva R, Mall A, Panieri E, Stupart D, Kahn D. Risk of blood splashes to the eye during surgery. S Afr J Surg. 2009;47:7-9 pubmed
    ..Surgeons and assistants were subject to similar risk. This study confirms the significant risk of ocular blood splashes during surgery, while also suggesting that both surgeons and assistants lack appreciation of the risk. ..
  37. Safak N, Bilgihan K, Gurelik G, Ozdek S, Hasanreisoglu B. Reactivation of presumed adenoviral keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:725-7 pubmed
    ..Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis can be reactivated after LASIK, unlike after photorefractive keratectomy, despite the absence of symptomatic and clinical findings before the procedure. ..
  38. Kawaguchi T, Sugita S, Shimizu N, Mochizuki M. Kinetics of aqueous flare, intraocular pressure and virus-DNA copies in a patient with cytomegalovirus iridocyclitis without retinitis. Int Ophthalmol. 2007;27:383-6 pubmed
    ..We show that inflammatory activity correlated well with the number of virus copies in the aqueous humor. ..
  39. de Visser L, Braakenburg A, Rothova A, De Boer J. Rubella virus-associated uveitis: clinical manifestations and visual prognosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the clinical profile of patients with chronic anterior uveitis and intraocular analyses positive for intraocular Rubella virus infection and assess eventual similarities to Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU)...
  40. Wolf A, Thurau S, Kook D, Haritoglou C. Ocular manifestation of primary VZV infection in a splenectomized patient. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2008;16:199-201 pubmed publisher
    ..For the development of VZV-associated uveitis, the presence of specific T cells are necessary. Here, the authors present a rare case of VZV-associated retinal vasculitis in a splenectomized patient. ..
  41. Ang L, Tan D. Autologous cultivated conjunctival transplantation for recurrent viral papillomata. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:136-8 pubmed
    ..This modality of treatment may be useful in the treatment of ocular surface disorders in which extensive conjunctival and fornix reconstruction is required. ..
  42. Vijayalakshmi P, Rajasundari T, Prasad N, Prakash S, Narendran K, Ravindran M, et al. Prevalence of eye signs in congenital rubella syndrome in South India: a role for population screening. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1467-70 pubmed
    ..43%). Cataracts among children have a high sensitivity for detecting CRS in India. It is the only clinical eye finding that has a high enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful as a screening tool for CRS. ..
  43. Pathanapitoon K, Ausayakhun S, Kunavisarut P, Pungrasame A, Sirirungsi W. Detection of cytomegalovirus in vitreous, aqueous and conjunctiva by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88:228-32 pubmed
    ..The use of PCR in the detection of cytomegalovirus in vitreous, aqueous and conjunctival samples had an equal specificity of 93% and had sensitivity of 67, 37 and 12%, respectively. ..
  44. Pavan Langston D. Deborah Pavan-Langston. Ocul Surf. 2006;4:54, 56-7 pubmed
  45. Dejaco Ruhswurm I, Kiss B, Rainer G, Krepler K, Wedrich A, Dallinger S, et al. Ocular blood flow in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:720-6 pubmed
    ..Decreased macular leukocyte density was detected in HIV infected persons. Our study suggests that abnormal retinal hemodynamics in individuals infected with HIV may be involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-related microvasculopathy. ..
  46. Miserocchi E, Modorati G, Azzolini C, Foster C, Brancato R. Herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis in an immunocompetent patient. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:99-102 pubmed
    ..To report a case of acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus 2 in an otherwise healthy patient...
  47. Bhatti M. Optic neuropathy from viruses and spirochetes. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2007;47:37-66, ix pubmed
  48. Raczynska K, Ulewicz Filipowicz J, Owczuk R. [Ophthalmic complications in the course of opportunistic infections--part I]. Klin Oczna. 2001;103:207-15 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of diagnosing methods and treatment of opportunistic infections which, when untreated, may quickly lead to vision loss, is necessary in contemporary ophthalmological practice...
  49. Rao G. Light intensity-associated eye lesions of Fischer 344 rats in long-term studies. Toxicol Pathol. 1991;19:148-55 pubmed
  50. Kim S, Lo W. Acute retinal necrosis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1104-5; author reply 1105-6 pubmed publisher
  51. Loh B, Bacsal K, Chee S, Cheng B, Wong D. Foveolitis associated with dengue Fever: a case series. Ophthalmologica. 2008;222:317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the clinical features of a series of patients with DF-associated foveolitis...
  52. Furrer H, Barloggio A, Egger M, Garweg J. Retinal microangiopathy in human immunodeficiency virus infection is related to higher human immunodeficiency virus-1 load in plasma. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:432-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the prevalence of retinal microangiopathy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients and its association with virologic, immunologic, and sociodemographic parameters...
  53. Jo T, Mizota A, Hatano N, Tanaka M. Frosted branch angiitis-like fundus following presumed influenza virus type A infection. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2006;50:563-564 pubmed publisher
  54. Schlingemann R, Bruinenberg M, Wertheim van Dillen P, Feron E. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122:891-2 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes...
  55. Shenoy R, Elagib E, al Siyabi H. Frosted retinal branch angiitis in an immunocompetent adult due to herpes simplex virus. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2001;49:56-7 pubmed
    ..A case of acute severe loss of vision due to perivasculitis typical of frosted retinal branch angiitis due to Herpes simplex virus in an otherwise healthy young Omani lady is presented...
  56. Andrew S. Ocular manifestations of feline herpesvirus. J Feline Med Surg. 2001;3:9-16 pubmed
    ..Diagnostic techniques discussed include: virus isolation, fluorescent antibody testing, serum neutralising titers, ELISA and polymerase chain reaction. Various therapies are also discussed...
  57. Chen D, Edgtton K, Gould A, Guo H, Mather M, Haigh O, et al. HBsAg-vectored vaccines simultaneously deliver CTL responses to protective epitopes from multiple viral pathogens. Virology. 2010;398:68-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies vindicate the use of HBsAg as a powerful vector to deliver CTL responses to foreign antigen and have implications for a multidisease vaccine applicable to an MHC-polymorphic population...
  58. Van Gelder R. Idiopathic no more: clues to the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis and glaucomatocyclitic crisis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:769-71 pubmed publisher
  59. Takahashi H, Sugita S, Shimizu N, Mochizuki M. A high viral load of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in ocular fluids in an HLA-B27-negative acute anterior uveitis patient with psoriasis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008;52:136-138 pubmed publisher
  60. Mendes T, Sobrinho E, Rosa A, dos Anjos L, da Costa G, Souza G, et al. Dengue maculopathy: visual electrophysiology and optical coherence tomography. Doc Ophthalmol. 2009;119:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Dengue maculopathy which could be caused by vascular alterations and/or aberrant immune response after infection may result in temporary or permanent visual losses...
  61. Gajdatsy A, Kosmin A, Barrett G. Coexistent adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2000;28:434-6 pubmed
    ..This observation is in keeping with previously reported modes of infection by Acanthamoeba, whereby any epithelial breach seems to allow inoculation of the eye by this opportunistic organism...
  62. Aizman A, Johnson M, Elner S. Treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome with oral antiviral medications. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:307-12 pubmed
    ..We investigated the use of the oral antiviral medications valacyclovir and famciclovir as the sole treatment for patients with newly diagnosed ARN syndrome...
  63. Chia A, Luu C, Mathur R, Cheng B, Chee S. Electrophysiological findings in patients with dengue-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:1421-6 pubmed
    ..To assess visual function in patients with dengue maculopathy using electrophysiological tests...
  64. Díaz de Durana Santa Coloma E, Vázquez Cruchaga E, Salazar Díez J, López Garrido J. [Herpes simplex virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis two years after presumably herpetic meningoencephalitis]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2004;79:33-5 pubmed
    ..Peripheral retinal necrosis and pallor of the optic disc were observed. PCR of the vitreous was positive for herpes simplex virus type I...
  65. Koevary S. Ocular involvement in patients infected by the West Nile virus. Optometry. 2005;76:609-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, a thorough ocular evaluation should include a dilated fundus examination and, when indicated, fluorescein angiography should be performed in patients suspected of being infected with WNV...
  66. Pepose J, Margolis T, LaRussa P, Pavan Langston D. Ocular complications of smallpox vaccination. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:343-52 pubmed
    ..To describe the ocular complications of smallpox vaccination and to discuss potential therapeutic options...
  67. Vandercam T, Hintzen R, de Boer J, Van der Lelij A. Herpetic encephalitis is a risk factor for acute retinal necrosis. Neurology. 2008;71:1268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) has been observed in several cases after herpetic encephalitis (HE). ARN is a devastating ocular disease with a very disappointing visual outcome. Therefore, early recognition and diagnosis are crucial...
  68. Park S, Holz H, Ravage Z, Merrill P, Nguyen Q. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Acute retinal necrosis syndrom. Retina. 2008;28:660-4 pubmed publisher
  69. Lappin M, Marks A, Greene C, Collins J, Carman J, Reif J, et al. Serologic prevalence of selected infectious diseases in cats with uveitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992;201:1005-9 pubmed
    ..Serologic evaluation for T gondii infection should include assays that detect IgM, IgG, and Ag, particularly in cats coinfected with FIV...
  70. Misiuk Hojło M, Michałowska M, Banach I. [Ocular manifestations during hepatitis C infection]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2007;61:545-50 pubmed
    ..This article describes ophthalmic symptoms of hepatitis C virus infection such a mere keratoconiunctivitis sicca to ischemic retinopathy, macular edema and ischemic neuropathy...
  71. Robbins S, Wiggert B, Kutty G, Chader G, Detrick B, Hooks J. Redistribution and reduction of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein during ocular coronavirus infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992;33:60-7 pubmed
    ..However, the infection initiated a series of events resulting in long-term reduction and redistribution of a critical photoreceptor protein...
  72. Tabrizi S, McCurrach F, Drewe R, Borg A, Garland S, Taylor H. Human papillomavirus in corneal and conjunctival carcinoma. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1997;25:211-5 pubmed
  73. Nicolo M, Artioli S, La Mattina G, Ghiglione D, Calabria G. Branch retinal artery occlusion combined with branch retinal vein occlusion in a patient with hepatitis C treated with interferon and ribavirin. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:811-4 pubmed
    ..To report a case of a combined branch retinal artery and vein occlusion in a patient with hepatitis C treated with interferon and ribavirin...
  74. Voros G, Pandit R, Snow M, Griffiths P. Unilateral recurrent acute retinal necrosis syndrome caused by cytomegalovirus in an immune-competent adult. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:484-6 pubmed
    ..To report an immune-competent patient with unilateral recurrent acute retinal necrosis syndrome caused by cytomegalovirus, and to highlight the importance of diagnostic vitreous biopsy and specific antiviral therapy in this condition...
  75. Muthiah M, Michaelides M, Child C, Mitchell S. Acute retinal necrosis: a national population-based study to assess the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment strategies and outcomes in the UK. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1452-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment strategies and outcomes for acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in the UK...
  76. Pek D, Teoh S. Ocular manifestations in dengue fever. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:755; author reply 755-6 pubmed
  77. Charbel Issa P, Eis Hübinger A, Klatt K, Holz F, Loeffler K. Oculoglandular syndrome associated with reactivated Epstein-Barr-virus infection. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:740, 855 pubmed publisher
  78. Gozalo A, Montoya E, Weller R. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2008;47:68-71 pubmed
    ..In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is noted in nonhuman primates."..
  79. Parentin F, Molin G, D Agaro P, Busetti M, Campello C. Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:139-41 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical findings in a patient with Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome as an uncommon manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection...
  80. Fardeau C. [Necrotic herpetic retinitis]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:538-46 pubmed
    ..We describe the different therapeutic strategies in the acute phase and as secondary prophylactic treatment. The clinical outcome appears to be influenced by rapid, appropriate treatment, limiting the extension of the retinal necrosis...
  81. Aslanides I, De Souza S, Wong D, Giavedoni L, Altomare F, Detorakis E, et al. Oral valacyclovir in the treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Retina. 2002;22:352-4 pubmed
  82. Buggage R, Levy Clarke G, Smith J. New corneal findings in human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 infection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:309-13 pubmed
    ..This report describes the ocular findings in three Jamaican patients with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 infection and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma...
  83. Xie L, Qi F, Gao H, Wang T, Shi W, Zhao J. Major shifts in corneal transplantation procedures in north China: 5316 eyes over 12 years. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the major shifts in the ratio of lamellar keratoplasty (LKP) to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and in the preoperative indications for each procedure...
  84. de Groot Mijnes J, ten Dam van Loon N, Weersink A, van Loon A, Rothova A. [Relationship between rubella virus and Fuchs heterochromic uveitis; 2 patients]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007;151:2631-4 pubmed
    ..Little is known about the pathogenesis ofFHU, but recent publications have provided evidence for the possible involvement of the rubella virus...
  85. Verma V, Shen D, Sieving P, Chan C. The role of infectious agents in the etiology of ocular adnexal neoplasia. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008;53:312-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, similar to other human malignancies, ultimately the role of infectious agents in ocular adnexal neoplasms is most likely as a cofactor to genetic and environmental risk factors...
  86. Shiraishi A, Hara Y, Takahashi M, Oka N, Yamaguchi M, Suzuki T, et al. Demonstration of "owl's eye" morphology by confocal microscopy in a patient with presumed cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:715-7 pubmed
    ..To report confocal microscopic observations of characteristic corneal endothelial lesions in a patient with presumed cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis...
  87. Chan C, Limstrom S, Tarasewicz D, Lin S. Ocular features of west nile virus infection in North America: a study of 14 eyes. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1539-46 pubmed
    ..To present a case series of ocular findings of West Nile virus infection (WNVI) in North America...
  88. Yamamoto M, Ohga S, Ohnishi Y, Inomata H. Optic disk vasculitis associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. Ophthalmologica. 2002;216:221-5 pubmed
    ..To report two cases of optic disk vasculitis associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV)...
  89. Markomichelakis N, Canakis C, Zafirakis P, Marakis T, Mallias I, Theodossiadis G. Cytomegalovirus as a cause of anterior uveitis with sectoral iris atrophy. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:879-82 pubmed
    ..To report two cases of recurrent anterior uveitis with sectoral iris atrophy and ocular hypertension during attacks caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
  90. Tajunisah I, Reddy S. Acute retinal necrosis complicating chickenpox in a healthy adult--a case report and review of literature. Compr Ther. 2007;33:25-31 pubmed
    ..This case is unusual in its severity, and to our knowledge, orbital floor triamcinolone therapy was not used earlier to contain ARN inflammation...
  91. Strianese D, Tranfa F, Finelli M, De Renzo A, Staibano S, Schiemer R, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in ocular adnexal lymphomas. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the influence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on disease appearance and outcome of ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (ONHL)...