viral encephalitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.

Top Publications

  1. Hoke C. History of U.S. military contributions to the study of viral encephalitis. Mil Med. 2005;170:92-105 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the U.S. military contributions to the prevention and control of the first seven of these...
  2. Steel C, Kim W, Sanford L, Wellman L, Burnett S, Van Rooijen N, et al. Distinct macrophage subpopulations regulate viral encephalitis but not viral clearance in the CNS. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;226:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, two anatomically distinct phagocytic populations regulate VSV encephalitis in a non-redundant fashion although neither population is essential for viral clearance in the CNS...
  3. Chadha M, Comer J, Lowe L, Rota P, Rollin P, Bellini W, et al. Nipah virus-associated encephalitis outbreak, Siliguri, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:235-40 pubmed
    ..NiV infection has not been previously detected in India...
  4. Beig F, Malik A, Rizvi M, Acharya D, Khare S. Etiology and clinico-epidemiological profile of acute viral encephalitis in children of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e141-6 pubmed publisher
    To study the etiology of viral encephalitis (VE) in the children of western Uttar Pradesh, India and to assess the clinico-epidemiological profile of these children in relation to VE.
  5. Sejvar J. The evolving epidemiology of viral encephalitis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006;19:350-7 pubmed
    ..review describes recent developments in the epidemiology of West Nile virus and several other emerging viral encephalitides in the developed and developing world and the emergence of novel mechanisms of transmitting viral encephalitis.
  6. Savarin C, Stohlman S, Atkinson R, Ransohoff R, Bergmann C. Monocytes regulate T cell migration through the glia limitans during acute viral encephalitis. J Virol. 2010;84:4878-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute viral encephalitis was thus induced in CCL2-deficient (CCL2(-/-)) mice to specifically abrogate monocyte recruitment...
  7. Mackenzie J. Emerging zoonotic encephalitis viruses: lessons from Southeast Asia and Oceania. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:434-40 pubmed
    ..These viruses will form the body of this brief review...
  8. Domingues R. Treatment of viral encephalitis. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2009;9:56-62 pubmed
    ..The time course of the viral encephalitis can be acute, subacute, or chronic...
  9. Gadre G, Satishchandra P, Mahadevan A, Suja M, Madhusudana S, Sundaram C, et al. Rabies viral encephalitis: clinical determinants in diagnosis with special reference to paralytic form. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the paralytic form poses a diagnostic dilemma, to distinguish it from Guillain-Barré syndrome. The problem is further compounded in the absence of a history of dog bite, clinical features resembling a psychiatric syndrome...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Churchill M, Wesselingh S, Cowley D, Pardo C, McArthur J, Brew B, et al. Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Ann Neurol. 2009;66:253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that astrocytes can be extensively infected with HIV, and suggest an important role for HIV-infected astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis...
  2. Clarke P, Beckham J, Leser J, Hoyt C, Tyler K. Fas-mediated apoptotic signaling in the mouse brain following reovirus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:6161-70 pubmed publisher
  3. Delhaye S, Paul S, Blakqori G, Minet M, Weber F, Staeheli P, et al. Neurons produce type I interferon during viral encephalitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7835-40 pubmed
    ..Our data show that, in vivo, neurons take an active part to the antiviral defense by being both IFN-alpha/beta producers and responders...
  4. Chang L, Huang L, Gau S, Wu Y, Hsia S, Fan T, et al. Neurodevelopment and cognition in children after enterovirus 71 infection. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1226-34 pubmed
    ..Enterovirus 71 is a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease and encephalitis in Asia and elsewhere. The long-term neurologic and psychiatric effects of this viral infection on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood...
  5. de Keyser J, Mostert J, Koch M. Dysfunctional astrocytes as key players in the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders. J Neurol Sci. 2008;267:3-16 pubmed
    ..Targeting astrocyte dysfunction may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these disorders...
  6. Gurley E, Montgomery J, Hossain M, Bell M, Azad A, Islam M, et al. Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1031-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and highlights the need for infection control strategies for resource-poor settings...
  7. Kumar G, Kalita J, Misra U. Raised intracranial pressure in acute viral encephalitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:399-406 pubmed publisher
    There is paucity of data evaluating intracranial pressure (ICP) rise and its management in acute viral encephalitis (AVE)...
  8. Domingues R, Teixeira A. Management of acute viral encephalitis in Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2009;13:433-9 pubmed
    The appropriate management of acute viral encephalitis is a challenge. Clinical picture includes general symptoms and a wide range of neurological signs...
  9. Kneen R, Jakka S, Mithyantha R, Riordan A, Solomon T. The management of infants and children treated with aciclovir for suspected viral encephalitis. Arch Dis Child. 2010;95:100-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate how infants and children with suspected viral encephalitis are currently managed in a UK tertiary children's hospital.
  10. Lee J, Kim J, Park B, Yoo H, Lee B, Kim D. Akabane viral encephalitis in calves in South Korea. Vet Rec. 2007;161:236-8 pubmed
  11. Solbrig M, Fan Y, Hermanowicz N, Morgese M, Giuffrida A. A synthetic cannabinoid agonist promotes oligodendrogliogenesis during viral encephalitis in rats. Exp Neurol. 2010;226:231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the ability of cannabinoids to promote the development of biologically supportive or symbiotic oligodendroglia may generalize to other microglia-driven neurodegenerative syndromes including NeuroAIDS and diseases of aging...
  12. Luby S, Rahman M, Hossain M, Blum L, Husain M, Gurley E, et al. Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1888-94 pubmed
    ..This investigation suggests that Nipah virus was transmitted from P. giganteus to persons through drinking fresh date palm sap...
  13. Kim W, Alvarez X, Fisher J, Bronfin B, Westmoreland S, McLaurin J, et al. CD163 identifies perivascular macrophages in normal and viral encephalitic brains and potential precursors to perivascular macrophages in blood. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:822-34 pubmed
  14. Choi S, Jang S, Kim J, Ihm C, Lee M, Yoon S. Novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viral encephalitis. Yonsei Med J. 2010;51:291-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The H1N1 virus infection can be causative of the encephalitis, as with other influenza virus infections. Careful monitoring is essential for reducing complications...
  15. Solomon T, Hart I, Beeching N. Viral encephalitis: a clinician's guide. Pract Neurol. 2007;7:288-305 pubmed
    The management of patients with suspected viral encephalitis has been revolutionised in recent years with improved imaging and viral diagnostics, better antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies, and enhanced neurointensive care...
  16. Gable M, Gavali S, Radner A, Tilley D, Lee B, Dyner L, et al. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: report of ten cases and comparison with viral encephalitis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:1421-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compares the presentation of such patients to those with viral encephalitis, so that infectious disease clinicians may identify individuals with this treatable disorder...
  17. Rayamajhi A, Singh R, Prasad R, Khanal B, Singhi S. Study of Japanese encephalitis and other viral encephalitis in Nepali children. Pediatr Int. 2007;49:978-84 pubmed
    ..cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 1 month-14 years to identify the proportion of viral encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis (JE) and compare the clinico-laboratory profile and outcome of JE with that of ..
  18. Misra U, Tan C, Kalita J. Viral encephalitis and epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 6:13-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral encephalitis presents with seizures not only in the acute stage but also increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. Acute symptomatic and late unprovoked seizures in different viral encephalitides are reviewed here...
  19. Dalwai A, Ahmad S, Pacsa A, Al Nakib W. Echovirus type 9 is an important cause of viral encephalitis among infants and young children in Kuwait. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of enteroviruses in encephalitis is not fully established...
  20. Tandale B, Tikute S, Arankalle V, Sathe P, Joshi M, Ranadive S, et al. Chandipura virus: a major cause of acute encephalitis in children in North Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Med Virol. 2008;80:118-24 pubmed
    ..undertaken between May 2005 and April 2006 to elucidate the contribution of Chandipura virus (CHPV) to acute viral encephalitis cases in children, seroconversion in recovered cases and to compare the seroprevalences of anti-CHPV IgM and ..
  21. Morishima T. [Infantile viral encephalitis and encephalopathy in Japan]. Uirusu. 2009;59:59-65 pubmed
    It has been reported that there are approximately one thousand annual cases of infantile viral encephalitis and encephalopathy in Japan...
  22. Beckham J, Goody R, Clarke P, Bonny C, Tyler K. Novel strategy for treatment of viral central nervous system infection by using a cell-permeating inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. J Virol. 2007;81:6984-92 pubmed
    b>Viral encephalitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet there is no proven efficacious therapy for most viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  23. Shlapobersky M, Sinyakov M, Katzenellenbogen M, Sarid R, Don J, Avtalion R. Viral encephalitis of tilapia larvae: primary characterization of a novel herpes-like virus. Virology. 2010;399:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the clinical manifestation (a whirling syndrome), we refer to the disease as viral encephalitis of tilapia larvae...
  24. Vu T, Carrum G, Hutton G, Heslop H, Brenner M, Kamble R. Human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39:705-9 pubmed
    ..Given this high incidence of HHV-6 and the possibility of successful outcome with prompt treatment, a high index of suspicion of this disorder is required in recipients of monoclonal antibody supported allografts...
  25. Kalita J, Srivastava R, Mishra M, Basu A, Misra U. Cytokines and chemokines in viral encephalitis: a clinicoradiological correlation. Neurosci Lett. 2010;473:48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokines and chemokines did not correlate with severity of encephalitis, radiological changes and presence of movement disorders. CSF IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES were significantly higher in encephalitis patients compared to controls...
  26. Gil L, Lopez C, Lazo L, Valdes I, Marcos E, Alonso R, et al. Recombinant nucleocapsid-like particles from dengue-2 virus induce protective CD4+ and CD8+ cells against viral encephalitis in mice. Int Immunol. 2009;21:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, both IFN-gamma secretion and protection against viral encephalitis were demonstrated to be dependent on CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells...
  27. Gorniak R, Young G, Wiese D, Marty F, Schwartz R. MR imaging of human herpesvirus-6-associated encephalitis in 4 patients with anterograde amnesia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:887-91 pubmed
    ..A frequent etiology seen in this context is human herpesvirus-6 (HHV6) infection. We report the evolution of MR imaging findings and clinical course in 4 patients with limbic encephalitis probably related to HHV6...
  28. Kapil P, Atkinson R, Ramakrishna C, Cua D, Bergmann C, Stohlman S. Interleukin-12 (IL-12), but not IL-23, deficiency ameliorates viral encephalitis without affecting viral control. J Virol. 2009;83:5978-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that IL-12 does not contribute to antiviral function within the CNS but enhances morbidity associated with viral encephalitis by increasing the ratio of IFN-gamma to protective IL-10.
  29. Olsen A, Morrey J, Smee D, Sidwell R. Correlation between breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and disease outcome of viral encephalitis in mice. Antiviral Res. 2007;75:104-12 pubmed
    Changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were evaluated in two mouse models of viral encephalitis. The ability of sodium fluorescein (NaFl) to cross the BBB from the serum into the central nervous system was assayed in ..
  30. Jayakeerthi R, Potula R, Srinivasan S, Badrinath S. Shell Vial Culture assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis. Virol J. 2006;3:2 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the various clinical parameters with respect to viral etiology has also been carried out...
  31. Burrer R, Buchmeier M, Wolfe T, Ting J, Feuer R, Iglesias A, et al. Exacerbated pathology of viral encephalitis in mice with central nervous system-specific autoantibodies. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:557-66 pubmed
    ..Our study illustrates the possibility that infections can lead to much more profound immunopathology in the presence of an otherwise latent autoimmune condition...
  32. Bellini W, Harcourt B, Bowden N, Rota P. Nipah virus: an emergent paramyxovirus causing severe encephalitis in humans. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:481-7 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes what is known about the virology, epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and control of this novel pathogen...
  33. Kehle J, Roth B, Metzger C, Pfitzner A, Enders G. Molecular characterization of an Enterovirus 71 causing neurological disease in Germany. J Neurovirol. 2003;9:126-8 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis also showed that the strain must have been imported to Germany several years ago, and continues to circulate since then. ..
  34. Studahl M. Influenza virus and CNS manifestations. J Clin Virol. 2003;28:225-32 pubmed
    ..The pathogenic mechanisms behind the influenza CNS complications are unknown. The treatment is symptomatic, with control of vital functions in the intensive care unit, antiepileptic medication and treatment against brain oedema...
  35. Tripathy A, Balaji S, Rao N, Thakare J, Mishra A, Arankalle V. Cytokine levels in Chandipura virus associated encephalopathy in children. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37:590-3 pubmed
    ..1+/-472.5 vs 113.4.+/-148.3, p = 0.01, 486.2+/-145.7 vs 113.8+/-82.4, p = 0.003). Cytokine levels were not significantly different in Groups A and B...
  36. Arankalle V, Prabhakar S, Madhukar W, Hanumaih -, Dattatraya P, Chandra M. G, N, and P gene-based analysis of Chandipura viruses, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:123-6 pubmed
    ..Sequence analyses of G, N, and P genes showed 95.6%-97.6% nucleotide identity with the 1965 isolate (G gene, 7-11 amino acid changes); N and P genes were highly conserved. ..
  37. Rao B, Basu A, Wairagkar N, Gore M, Arankalle V, Thakare J, et al. A large outbreak of acute encephalitis with high fatality rate in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, in 2003, associated with Chandipura virus. Lancet. 2004;364:869-74 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that this outbreak of acute encephalitis in Andhra Pradesh was associated with Chandipura virus, adding to the evidence suggesting that this virus should be considered as an important emerging pathogen. ..
  38. Togashi T, Matsuzono Y, Narita M, Morishima T. Influenza-associated acute encephalopathy in Japanese children in 1994-2002. Virus Res. 2004;103:75-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that influenza-associated acute encephalopathy may be an underestimated syndrome and is another reason to promote vaccination against influenza in infants and younger children. ..
  39. Davison K, Crowcroft N, Ramsay M, Brown D, Andrews N. Viral encephalitis in England, 1989-1998: what did we miss?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:234-40 pubmed
    ..in England from April 1, 1989, to March 31, 1998, and identified approximately 700 cases, 46 fatal, from viral encephalitis that occurred during each year; most (60%) were of unknown etiology...
  40. Shoji H, Azuma K, Nishimura Y, Fujimoto H, Sugita Y, Eizuru Y. Acute viral encephalitis: the recent progress. Intern Med. 2002;41:420-8 pubmed
    In the new Japanese control law for infectious diseases, most varieties of acute viral encephalitis belong to Category IV requiring report of all cases at sentinel hospitals...
  41. Cinque P, Bossolasco S, Lundkvist A. Molecular analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in viral diseases of the central nervous system. J Clin Virol. 2003;26:1-28 pubmed
    ..The most relevant NA amplification strategies and clinical applications of to date will be the object of this review...
  42. Schneider Schaulies J, Meulen V, Schneider Schaulies S. Measles infection of the central nervous system. J Neurovirol. 2003;9:247-52 pubmed
    ..However, many questions concerning the human MV-induced CNS diseases are still open...
  43. Kumar S. Inadequate research facilities fail to tackle mystery disease. BMJ. 2003;326:12 pubmed
  44. Bennetto L, Scolding N. Inflammatory/post-infectious encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75 Suppl 1:i22-8 pubmed
  45. Trottier M, Palian B, Reiss C. VSV replication in neurons is inhibited by type I IFN at multiple stages of infection. Virology. 2005;333:215-25 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of virion release closely matched the overall suppression of infectious VSV particle release, suggesting that type I IFN plays a role in inhibition of VSV assembly...
  46. Hsu V, Hossain M, Parashar U, Ali M, Ksiazek T, Kuzmin I, et al. Nipah virus encephalitis reemergence, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2082-7 pubmed
    ..Surveillance and enhancement of diagnostic capacity to detect Nipah virus infection are recommended...
  47. Nuovo G, Defaria D, Chanona Vilchi J, Zhang Y. Molecular detection of rabies encephalitis and correlation with cytokine expression. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:62-7 pubmed
  48. Kawada J, Kimura H, Ito Y, Hara S, Iriyama M, Yoshikawa T, et al. Systemic cytokine responses in patients with influenza-associated encephalopathy. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:690-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that influenza-associated encephalopathy might be a consequence of systemic immune responses...
  49. Thakare J, Rao T, Padbidri V. Prevalence of West Nile virus infection in India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002;33:801-5 pubmed
    ..This study is important because it records evidence of WN virus infection in India...
  50. Debiasi R, Tyler K. Molecular methods for diagnosis of viral encephalitis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:903-25, table of contents pubmed
  51. Ichiyama T, Morishima T, Isumi H, Matsufuji H, Matsubara T, Furukawa S. Analysis of cytokine levels and NF-kappaB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in influenza virus-associated encephalopathy. Cytokine. 2004;27:31-7 pubmed
    ..Influenza virus-associated encephalopathy (IE) is suggested to be a proinflammatory cytokine-related disease...
  52. Chua K. Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. J Clin Virol. 2003;26:265-75 pubmed
  53. Koley T, Jain S, Sharma H, Kumar S, Mishra S, Goyal A, et al. Dengue encephalitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:422-3 pubmed
  54. Kennedy P. Viral encephalitis: causes, differential diagnosis, and management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75 Suppl 1:i10-5 pubmed
  55. Poluektova L, Gorantla S, Faraci J, Birusingh K, Dou H, Gendelman H. Neuroregulatory events follow adaptive immune-mediated elimination of HIV-1-infected macrophages: studies in a murine model of viral encephalitis. J Immunol. 2004;172:7610-7 pubmed
    ..To mirror the regulatory events that occur in human brain after HIV-1 infection, a murine model of viral encephalitis was used to study relationships, over time, among lymphocyte-mediated infected cell elimination, innate ..
  56. Rempel J, Murray S, Meisner J, Buchmeier M. Differential regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses in viral encephalitis. Virology. 2004;318:381-92 pubmed
    b>Viral encephalitis is a global health concern. The ability of a virus to modulate the immune response can have a pivotal effect on the course of disease and the fate of the infected host...
  57. Steiner I, Budka H, Chaudhuri A, Koskiniemi M, Sainio K, Salonen O, et al. Viral encephalitis: a review of diagnostic methods and guidelines for management. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:331-43 pubmed
    b>Viral encephalitis is a medical emergency. The spectrum of brain involvement and the prognosis are dependent mainly on the specific pathogen and the immunological state of the host...
  58. Chaudhuri A, Kennedy P. Diagnosis and treatment of viral encephalitis. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78:575-83 pubmed
    ..Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the commonest sporadic acute viral encephalitis in the Western world...
  59. Solomon T. Exotic and emerging viral encephalitides. Curr Opin Neurol. 2003;16:411-8 pubmed
  60. Khetsuriani N, Holman R, Anderson L. Burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1988-1997. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:175-82 pubmed
    ..The average cost of an encephalitis-associated hospitalization, as determined by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for 1997, was $28,151, for an annual national cost of hospitalization of $650 million...