viral bronchiolitis

Summary

Summary: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Bont L, Kimpen J. Immunological mechanisms of severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28:616-21 pubmed
  2. Mandelberg A, Tal G, Witzling M, Someck E, Houri S, Balin A, et al. Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution treatment in hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis. Chest. 2003;123:481-7 pubmed
    To determine the utility of inhaled hypertonic saline solution to treat infants hospitalized with viral bronchiolitis.
  3. Mandelberg A, Tal G, Naugolny L, Cesar K, Oron A, Houri S, et al. Lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness as a risk factor for intensive care unit hospitalization in infants with respiratory syncitial virus bronchiolitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;144:48-52 pubmed
    ..A certain threshold of LPS hyporesponsiveness may have a very high negative predictive value for ICU hospitalization, even better than the determination of known TLR4 mutations for this purpose...
  4. Everard M. The role of the respiratory syncytial virus in airway syndromes in childhood. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2006;6:97-102 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of the acute illness probably provides better prognostic information than the type of virus...
  5. Amanatidou V, Sourvinos G, Apostolakis S, Tsilimigaki A, Spandidos D. T280M variation of the CX3C receptor gene is associated with increased risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:410-4 pubmed
  6. Priftis K, Papadopoulou A, Liatsis E, Katsikas D, Nicolaidou P, Kanariou M. Serum eosinophil cationic protein and CD23 in acute RSV bronchiolitis. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:CR493-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to test whether serum ECP and soluble CD23 levels, which are markers of eosinophil and IgE responses, respectively, are elevated in infants hospitalized for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis...
  7. Martinez F. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:S76-82 pubmed
    ..It is likely, however, that strategies for the prevention of RSV infection may play a role in the prevention of the subsequent development of persistent wheezing and asthma-like symptoms in childhood...
  8. Døllner H, Risnes K, Radtke A, Nordbø S. Outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection in norwegian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:436-40 pubmed
    ..We have studied the occurrence of hMPV and report clinical findings of 50 hMPV-infected children who were hospitalized during an outbreak in Norway...
  9. Tahan F, Ozcan A, Koc N. Clarithromycin in the treatment of RSV bronchiolitis: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Respir J. 2007;29:91-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, clarithromycin treatment may be helpful in reducing the short-term effects of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis...

More Information

Publications80

  1. McNamara P, Flanagan B, Baldwin L, Newland P, Hart C, Smyth R. Interleukin 9 production in the lungs of infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Lancet. 2004;363:1031-7 pubmed
    ..We aimed to investigate whether interleukin 9 was produced in the lungs of infants with severe RSV disease and if found, from which cells it originated...
  2. Le Roux P, Marshall B, Toutain F, Mary J, Pinon G, Briquet E, et al. [Nosocomial viral infections in a pediatric service: example of rotaviral gastroenteritis and respiratory syncytial viral bronchiolitis]. Arch Pediatr. 2004;11:908-15 pubmed
    ..Nosocomial infections are a preoccupation in a pediatric hospital mainly during the winter with bronchiolitis and gastroenteritis epidemics. We have examined the risk factors of nosocomial infections...
  3. Dornelles C, Piva J, Marostica P. Nutritional status, breastfeeding, and evolution of Infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:336-43 pubmed
    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infectious disease of infancy...
  4. Zedan M, Gamil N, El Assmy M, Fayez E, Nasef N, Fouda A, et al. Montelukast as an episodic modifier for acute viral bronchiolitis: a randomized trial. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010;31:147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of once-daily montelukast therapy on the clinical progress and the cytokine profile of patients with acute viral bronchiolitis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 85 patients (mean age, 3.5 +/- 2...
  5. McNamara P, Ritson P, Selby A, Hart C, Smyth R. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity in infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:922-6 pubmed
    ..To examine over time, the cellular response within the lungs of infants ventilated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and to compare this response in infants born at term with those born preterm...
  6. Openshaw P, Dean G, Culley F. Links between respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and childhood asthma: clinical and research approaches. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:S58-64; discussion S64-5 pubmed
    ..Further study is necessary to determine the relative roles of RSV infection and genetic predisposition in explaining the association between RSV infection and asthma/RAD...
  7. Jafri H. Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus: antiviral therapies. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:S89-92; discussion S92-3 pubmed
    ..High risk patients, who meet the American Academy of Pediatrics criteria for RSV prophylaxis, may be candidates for passive prophylaxis...
  8. Patel H, Gouin S, Platt R. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral albuterol in infants with mild-to-moderate acute viral bronchiolitis. J Pediatr. 2003;142:509-14 pubmed
    To determine whether oral albuterol is effective in reducing symptomatology of acute viral bronchiolitis in infants with mild-to-moderate illness.
  9. Sigurs N, Gustafsson P, Bjarnason R, Lundberg F, Schmidt S, Sigurbergsson F, et al. Severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy and asthma and allergy at age 13. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:137-41 pubmed
    ..RSV bronchiolitis in infancy severe enough to cause hospitalization is a risk factor for allergic asthma in early adolescence...
  10. Castro M, Schweiger T, Yin Declue H, Ramkumar T, Christie C, Zheng J, et al. Cytokine response after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in early life. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:726-733.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Immune response after viral infection usually involves T(H)1-mediated response; however, severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection appears to be associated with the development of asthma, a T(H)2-predominant phenotype...
  11. Unger S, Cunningham S. Effect of oxygen supplementation on length of stay for infants hospitalized with acute viral bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2008;121:470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal was to establish the final supportive therapy determinants of hospital length of stay for bronchiolitis...
  12. Domachowske J, Rosenberg H. Advances in the treatment and prevention of severe viral bronchiolitis. Pediatr Ann. 2005;34:35-41 pubmed
    b>Viral bronchiolitis continues to be a major public health problem...
  13. Bonville C, Bennett N, Koehnlein M, Haines D, Ellis J, DelVecchio A, et al. Respiratory dysfunction and proinflammatory chemokines in the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) model of viral bronchiolitis. Virology. 2006;349:87-95 pubmed
    ..and local production of proinflammatory chemokines in the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) model of viral bronchiolitis. With a reduced inoculum of this natural rodent pathogen, we observe virus clearance by day 9, while ..
  14. Jones A, Qui J, Bataki E, Elphick H, Ritson S, Evans G, et al. Neutrophil survival is prolonged in the airways of healthy infants and infants with RSV bronchiolitis. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:651-7 pubmed
    ..The speculation is that the prolonged survival of neutrophils in the infant airway contributes to the characteristic accumulation of neutrophils in the airways of infants with respiratory infections...
  15. Panitch H. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: supportive care and therapies designed to overcome airway obstruction. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:S83-7; discussion S87-8 pubmed
  16. Semple M, Cowell A, Dove W, Greensill J, McNamara P, Halfhide C, et al. Dual infection of infants by human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus is strongly associated with severe bronchiolitis. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:382-6 pubmed
    ..99 [95% confidence interval, 5.0-24.12]; P<.001, by Fisher exact test). Dual infection by hMPV and hRSV is associated with severe bronchiolitis...
  17. Bar A, Srugo I, Amirav I, Tzverling C, Naftali G, Kugelman A. Inhaled furosemide in hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the short and long-term clinical effects and the treatment-feasibility of inhaled-furosemide (IF) as compared with placebo via hood in hospitalized infants with viral-bronchiolitis (VB)...
  18. Wainwright C. Acute viral bronchiolitis in children- a very common condition with few therapeutic options. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2010;11:39-45; quiz 45 pubmed publisher
    Acute viral bronchiolitis remains a cause of substantial morbidity and health care costs in young infants. It is the most common lower respiratory tract condition and most common reason for admission to hospital in infants...
  19. Cambonie G, Milesi C, Jaber S, Amsallem F, Barbotte E, Picaud J, et al. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure decreases respiratory muscles overload in young infants with severe acute viral bronchiolitis. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:1865-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the efficacy of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on respiratory distress symptoms and respiratory effort in young infants with acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis...
  20. Rubin F, Fischer G. [Clinical and transcutaneous oxygen saturation characteristics in hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis]. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2003;79:435-42 pubmed
    To describe the clinical characteristics of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) and to assess the influence of oxygen desaturation time (DT) as a prognostic test to estimate the evolution of such patients.
  21. David M, Luc Vanuxem C, Loundou A, Bosdure E, Auquier P, Dubus J. [Assessment of the French Consensus Conference for Acute Viral Bronchiolitis on outpatient management: progress between 2003 and 2008]. Arch Pediatr. 2010;17:125-31 pubmed publisher
    The 2000 French Consensus Conference for Acute Viral Bronchiolitis management underlined clinical practice recommendations.
  22. Green R, Zar H, Jeena P, Madhi S, Lewis H. South African guideline for the diagnosis, management and prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis in children. S Afr Med J. 2010;100:320, 322-5 pubmed
    ..South African Thoracic Society, South African Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, United South African Neonatal Association...
  23. Beigelman A, Mikols C, Gunsten S, Cannon C, Brody S, Walter M. Azithromycin attenuates airway inflammation in a mouse model of viral bronchiolitis. Respir Res. 2010;11:90 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization in young infants. It is associated with the development of childhood asthma and contributes to morbidity and mortality in the elderly...
  24. Tal G, Cesar K, Oron A, Houri S, Ballin A, Mandelberg A. Hypertonic saline/epinephrine treatment in hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis reduces hospitalization stay: 2 years experience. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006;8:169-73 pubmed
    We recently published preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of hypertonic saline in infants with viral bronchiolitis.
  25. Khoshoo V, Edell D. Previously healthy infants may have increased risk of aspiration during respiratory syncytial viral bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 1999;104:1389-90 pubmed
    ..Respiratory illnesses may cause feeding difficulties in infants. We studied the safety of oral feeding during respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) bronchiolitis in previously healthy infants...
  26. Sigurs N, Bjarnason R, Sigurbergsson F, Kjellman B. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy is an important risk factor for asthma and allergy at age 7. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:1501-7 pubmed
    ..The results support the theory that the RSV influences the mechanisms involved in the development of asthma and allergy in children...
  27. Calogero C, Sly P. Acute viral bronchiolitis: to treat or not to treat-that is the question. J Pediatr. 2007;151:235-7 pubmed
  28. Fischer G, Teper A, Colom A. Acute viral bronchiolitis and its sequelae in developing countries. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2002;3:298-302 pubmed
    Acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) is a common disease found throughout the world. Various aspects of it are being studied: its epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment...
  29. Sarrell E, Tal G, Witzling M, Someck E, Houri S, Cohen H, et al. Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution treatment in ambulatory children with viral bronchiolitis decreases symptoms. Chest. 2002;122:2015-20 pubmed
    To determine the utility of inhaled hypertonic saline solution to treat ambulatory infants with viral bronchiolitis.
  30. Garofalo R, Hintz K, Hill V, Patti J, Ogra P, Welliver R. A comparison of epidemiologic and immunologic features of bronchiolitis caused by influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. J Med Virol. 2005;75:282-9 pubmed
  31. Fjaerli H, Farstad T, Bratlid D. Hospitalisations for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in Akershus, Norway, 1993-2000: a population-based retrospective study. BMC Pediatr. 2004;4:25 pubmed
    ..The aims of the present study were to identify risk groups, outcome and incidences of hospitalisation for RSV bronchiolitis in Norwegian children under two years of age and to compare the results with other studies...
  32. Li M, Harkema J, Islam Z, Cuff C, Pestka J. T-2 toxin impairs murine immune response to respiratory reovirus and exacerbates viral bronchiolitis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;217:76-85 pubmed
    ..These effects might be attributable to reduced alveolar macrophage levels as well as modulated cytokine and mucosal Ig responses...
  33. Kuzik B, Al Qadhi S, Kent S, Flavin M, Hopman W, Hotte S, et al. Nebulized hypertonic saline in the treatment of viral bronchiolitis in infants. J Pediatr. 2007;151:266-70, 270.e1 pubmed
    To investigate the use of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) for treating viral bronchiolitis in moderately ill hospitalized infants by a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled, multicenter trial.
  34. McNamara P, Flanagan B, Selby A, Hart C, Smyth R. Pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Eur Respir J. 2004;23:106-12 pubmed
    ..The decrease in tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 protein in preterm infants may reflect the prolonged clinical course seen in these infants...
  35. Hartling L, Wiebe N, Russell K, Patel H, Klassen T. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of epinephrine for the treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:957-64 pubmed
    ..Controversy exists surrounding the use of bronchodilators for bronchiolitis. Epinephrine hydrochloride is being used with increasing frequency in this group; however, its efficacy has not been systematically reviewed...
  36. Patel H, Platt R, Pekeles G, Ducharme F. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of nebulized therapy with epinephrine compared with albuterol and saline in infants hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis. J Pediatr. 2002;141:818-24 pubmed
    In previously well infants hospitalized with acute viral bronchiolitis, the effectiveness of repeated nebulized therapy with epinephrine (EPI) was compared with treatment with albuterol (ALB) or saline placebo (PLAC).
  37. Proesmans M, Sauer K, Govaere E, Raes M, de Bilderling G, De Boeck K. Montelukast does not prevent reactive airway disease in young children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:1830-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We cannot exclude that a subgroup of children may, however, benefit from this treatment. ..
  38. Zar H, White D, Morrow B, Feldman C, Risenga S, Masekela R, et al. The bronchiolitis season is upon us--recommendations for the management and prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis. S Afr Med J. 2015;105:525-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite being so common, bronchiolitis remains poorly diagnosed and managed. This article is intended as an update on issues pertaining to this condition. ..
  39. Tourniaire G, Milesi C, Baleine J, Crozier J, Lapeyre C, Combes C, et al. [Anemia, a new severity factor in young infants with acute viral bronchiolitis?]. Arch Pediatr. 2018;25:189-193 pubmed publisher
    ..of low respiratory infection of the child, but there are no data on anemia as a severity factor in acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) in infants...
  40. Janke B, Paul P, Landgraf J, Halbur P, Huinker C. Paramyxovirus infection in pigs with interstitial pneumonia and encephalitis in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:428-33 pubmed
    ..Germ-free pigs inoculated with this isolate developed mild clinical illness and similar but less severe histopathologic lesions in lungs and brain. ..
  41. Flamant C, Hallalel F, Nolent P, Chevalier J, Renolleau S. Severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in children: from short mechanical ventilation to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Eur J Pediatr. 2005;164:93-8 pubmed
    ..Only bronchopulmonary dysplasia was associated with a need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation that may provide lifesaving support in infants refractory to conventional management. ..
  42. Weinberger M. Should corticosteroids be used for first-time young wheezers?. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119:567-9 pubmed
  43. Somers C, Ahmad N, Mejias A, Buckingham S, Carubelli C, Katz K, et al. Effect of dexamethasone on respiratory syncytial virus-induced lung inflammation in children: results of a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20:477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This may help explain, at least in part, the lack of clinical benefit of steroid treatment in children with severe RSV bronchiolitis. ..
  44. Jacques J, Bouscambert Duchamp M, Moret H, Carquin J, Brodard V, Lina B, et al. Association of respiratory picornaviruses with acute bronchiolitis in French infants. J Clin Virol. 2006;35:463-6 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight the need to implement a rapid picornavirus RT-PCR detection assay for the clinical diagnosis of respiratory infections in pediatric patients with bronchiolitis. ..
  45. Jartti T, Lehtinen P, Vuorinen T, Ruuskanen O. Bronchiolitis: age and previous wheezing episodes are linked to viral etiology and atopic characteristics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..According to current US and UK guidelines, bronchiolitis includes wheezing children <24 months of age. Our observations suggest that the clinical definition should include only children with their first episode of wheezing. ..
  46. Bastien N, Chui N, Robinson J, Lee B, Dust K, Hart L, et al. Detection of human bocavirus in Canadian children in a 1-year study. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:610-3 pubmed
    ..The spectrum of illness included upper respiratory infection, croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia with a prominence of cough and fever. ..
  47. Reina J, Gonzalez Gárdenas M, Ruiz de Gopegui E, Padilla E, Ballesteros F, Mari M, et al. Prospective evaluation of a dot-blot enzyme immunoassay (Directigen RSV) for the antigenic detection of respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates of paediatric patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:967-71 pubmed
    ..8% and a specificity of 100%. Overall, the ColorPAC assay was an acceptable, simple and rapid method for the antigenic detection of RSV in paediatric respiratory samples. ..
  48. Teeratakulpisarn J, Ekalaksananan T, Pientong C, Limwattananon C. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus detection in young children with acute bronchiolitis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2007;25:139-45 pubmed
    ..The clinical manifestations among the 6 hMPV, RSV and non-RSV-infected children were similar. RSV was the leading cause of acute bronchiolitis in young children and hMPV had a low prevalence in northeastern Thailand. ..
  49. Oliveira Santos M, Santos J, Soares J, Dias A, Quaresma M. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal. Int J Biometeorol. 2016;60:1807-1817 pubmed
    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent...
  50. Gern J. Viral respiratory infection and the link to asthma. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:S97-103 pubmed publisher
  51. Gomez R, Colas C, Sebastián A, Arribas J. Respiratory repercussions in adults with a history of infantile bronchiolitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004;93:447-51 pubmed
    b>Viral bronchiolitis in infancy has been identified in previous studies as a potential precursor to the development of lower respiratory tract illness in later childhood and beyond...
  52. Romain O. [Obstructive rhinitis with respiratory syncytial virus infants under 3 years of age and at risk for bronchiolitis]. Arch Pediatr. 2002;9:558 pubmed
  53. Inoue Y, Shimojo N, Suzuki Y, Campos Alberto E, Yamaide A, Suzuki S, et al. CD14 -550 C/T, which is related to the serum level of soluble CD14, is associated with the development of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in the Japanese population. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1618-24 pubmed
    ..This study's results indicate that, in different ethnic groups, different genetic factors contribute to the development of RSV bronchiolitis. ..
  54. Hon K, Leung E, Hung E, Tang J, Chow C, Leung T, et al. Premorbid factors and outcome associated with respiratory virus infections in a pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenovirus was isolated in four patients and two (both with adenovirus type 3) died during the PICU stay. In PICU, respiratory viral infections were associated with significant morbidity and life-threatening conditions. ..
  55. Lin J. Hyperglycemia in pediatric critical illness: Does one size fit all?. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2007;8:585-6 pubmed
  56. Merkus P, de Hoog M, van Gent R, de Jongste J. DNase treatment for atelectasis in infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Eur Respir J. 2001;18:734-7 pubmed
    ..A therapeutic trial of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease may be an option in the treatment for atelectasis in severe or complicated respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy...
  57. Dimova Yaneva D, Helms P. The role of leukotrienes and eosinophil cationic protein in acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2003;45:5-11 pubmed
    ..The potential role of leukotrienes and eosinophil cationic protein in RSV disease, especially bronchiolitis, are reviewed...
  58. Steiner R. Treating acute bronchiolitis associated with RSV. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:325-30 pubmed
    ..The use of common infection-control measures can reduce nosocomial transmission of RSV infections...
  59. Sanchez I, Navarro H, Bertrand P, Alvarez C, Lisboa C. [Acoustic analysis of wheezing in infants with acute bronchial obstruction. A follow-up study ]. Rev Med Chil. 2002;130:760-7 pubmed
    ..There is some information about wheeze characteristics in infants, however it is not clear whether the different wheeze patterns relates to prognosis and evolution during the first two years of life...
  60. van Woensel J, Kimpen J, Brand P. Respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in children. Diagnosis and treatment. Minerva Pediatr. 2001;53:99-106 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, although RSV infections each year have a considerable socio-economic impact attempts to find an effective therapy have been quite unsuccessful so far...
  61. Hertig A, Misset B, Therby A, Ben Ali A, Christias M, Garrouste M, et al. [Respiratory distress and bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus in an immunocompetent adult]. Presse Med. 2002;31:73 pubmed
  62. de Bilderling G, Bodart E. Bronchiolitis management by the Belgian paediatrician: discrepancies between evidence-based medicine and practice. Acta Clin Belg. 2003;58:98-105 pubmed
    ..Logistic regression analyses allowed us to identify patterns of prescription based on age, type and level of activity and language...
  63. Howidi M, Rajah J, Abushrar Z, Parsons H. The severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in young infants in the United Arab Emirates. J Trop Pediatr. 2007;53:22-6 pubmed
    ..This was evidenced by their longer duration of oxygen and more frequent need to be managed in the intensive care unit...
  64. Welliver T, Reed J, Welliver R. Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus infections: observations from tissues of fatal infant cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:S92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe infantile RSV and influenza virus LRTI is characterized by inadequate (rather than excessive) adaptive immune responses, robust viral replication and apoptotic crisis...
  65. Frogel M, Nerwen C, Boron M, Cohen A, VanVeldhuisen P, Harrington M, et al. Improved outcomes with home-based administration of palivizumab: results from the 2000-2004 Palivizumab Outcomes Registry. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:870-3 pubmed publisher
  66. López Guinea A, Casado Flores J, Martín Sobrino M, Espínola Docio B, de la Calle Cabrera T, Serrano A, et al. [Severe bronchiolitis. Epidemiology and clinical course of 284 patients]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2007;67:116-22 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and clinical course of patients admitted to the PICU for bronchiolitis...
  67. Lemanske R. Does respiratory syncytial viral-induced bronchiolitis result from helper T cell type 1/type 2 cytokine imbalance?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168:625-7 pubmed
  68. Xepapadaki P, Papadopoulos N. Viral infections and allergies. Immunobiology. 2007;212:453-9 pubmed
    ..In the present report, recent data on the role of viral infections in the development and progression of allergy and asthma are reviewed...
  69. Tibby S, Hatherill M, Wright S, Wilson P, Postle A, Murdoch I. Exogenous surfactant supplementation in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:1251-6 pubmed
    ..The data from this pilot study suggest that functional surfactant has a role in maintaining small airway patency as well as lung compliance in infants infected with RSV and an outcome study is now warranted...
  70. Bryan D, Hart P, Forsyth K, Gibson R. Immunomodulatory constituents of human milk change in response to infant bronchiolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007;18:495-502 pubmed
  71. Elphick H, Ritson S, Rigby A, Everard M. Phenotype of acute respiratory syncytial virus induced lower respiratory tract illness in infancy and subsequent morbidity. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:307-9 pubmed
    ..Those with RSVW were more likely to have evidence of allergic sensitisation when compared with RSVB subjects (22% vs 7%), and have increased symptoms and increased use of inhaled steroids...