merkel cell carcinoma

Summary

Summary: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)

Top Publications

  1. Zhan F, Packianathan V, Zeitouni N. Merkel cell carcinoma: a review of current advances. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2009;7:333-9 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive cutaneous malignancy of neuroendocrine origin. Its incidence has tripled over the past 15 years...
  2. Lewis K, Weinstock M, Weaver A, Otley C. Adjuvant local irradiation for Merkel cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:693-700 pubmed
    To determine the effect of adjuvant local irradiation on (1) disease recurrence and (2) survival rates in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)...
  3. Jabbour J, Cumming R, Scolyer R, Hruby G, Thompson J, Lee S. Merkel cell carcinoma: assessing the effect of wide local excision, lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy on recurrence and survival in early-stage disease--results from a review of 82 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2004. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:1943-52 pubmed
    Wide surgical excision, lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy have been used with varying efficacy in the management of early-stage Merkel cell carcinoma.
  4. Kim J, McNiff J. Nuclear expression of survivin portends a poor prognosis in Merkel cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:764-9 pubmed publisher
    Inhibition of apoptosis is a critical step in tumorigenesis in many cancers, including Merkel cell carcinoma; however, the exact regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood...
  5. Tolstov Y, Pastrana D, Feng H, Becker J, Jenkins F, Moschos S, et al. Human Merkel cell polyomavirus infection II. MCV is a common human infection that can be detected by conformational capsid epitope immunoassays. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:1250-6 pubmed publisher
    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is a newly-discovered human tumor virus found in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). The rate of MCV infection among persons without MCC is unknown...
  6. Senchenkov A, Barnes S, Moran S. Predictors of survival and recurrence in the surgical treatment of merkel cell carcinoma of the extremities. J Surg Oncol. 2007;95:229-34 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy that originates within the extremities in about 40% of cases. Treatment approaches to this tumor have not been standardized...
  7. Poulsen M. Merkel-cell carcinoma of the skin. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5:593-9 pubmed
    ..The treatment challenges for the clinician are often enormous because many of the patients are elderly and because lesions occur in difficult sites such as the head and neck region and the lower leg. ..
  8. Boghossian V, Owen I, Nuli B, Xiao P. Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site. World J Surg Oncol. 2007;5:117 pubmed
    ..We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional as well as unconventional patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma. ..
  9. Manganoni M, Farisoglio C, Tucci G, Venturini M, Marocolo D, Aquilano M, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection: a case report and review of the literature. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21:447-51 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin that occurs most often in sun-exposed areas. In the general population, it is a disease of older adults, with only 5% of cases occurring below the age of 50 years...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Katano H, Ito H, Suzuki Y, Nakamura T, Sato Y, Tsuji T, et al. Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1951-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy that sometimes occurs in the skin of elderly people. Recently, a new human polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was identified in Merkel cell carcinoma...
  2. Houben R, Shuda M, Weinkam R, Schrama D, Feng H, Chang Y, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus-infected Merkel cell carcinoma cells require expression of viral T antigens. J Virol. 2010;84:7064-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is the most aggressive skin cancer. Recently, it was demonstrated that human Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is clonally integrated in approximately 80% of MCC tumors...
  3. Fischer N, Brandner J, Fuchs F, Moll I, Grundhoff A. Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines: cell morphology and growth phenotype do not reflect presence of the virus. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2133-42 pubmed publisher
    The recently discovered human polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently found in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tissue and is believed to be causally linked to MCC pathogenesis...
  4. Mangana J, Dziunycz P, Kerl K, Dummer R, Cozzio A. Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus among Swiss Merkel cell carcinoma patients. Dermatology. 2010;221:184-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm which shares structural and immunohistochemical features with neuroectodermally derived cells...
  5. Eng T, Naguib M, Fuller C, Jones W, Herman T. Treatment of recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma: an analysis of 46 cases. Am J Clin Oncol. 2004;27:576-83 pubmed
    This report describes the course of recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma and defines possible treatment strategies for recurrent disease as seen in a long-term multisite retrospective analysis...
  6. Poulsen M. Merkel cell carcinoma of skin: diagnosis and management strategies. Drugs Aging. 2005;22:219-29 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the skin is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy of neuroendocrine origin with a propensity to affect predominately elderly patients in sun-exposed areas...
  7. Paulson K, Carter J, Johnson L, Cahill K, Iyer J, Schrama D, et al. Antibodies to merkel cell polyomavirus T antigen oncoproteins reflect tumor burden in merkel cell carcinoma patients. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8388-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that antibodies recognizing T-Ag are relatively specifically associated with MCC, do not effectively protect against disease progression, and may serve as a clinically useful indicator of disease status. ..
  8. Samlowski W, Moon J, Tuthill R, Heinrich M, Balzer Haas N, Merl S, et al. A phase II trial of imatinib mesylate in merkel cell carcinoma (neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin): A Southwest Oncology Group study (S0331). Am J Clin Oncol. 2010;33:495-9 pubmed publisher
    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was evaluated as a treatment for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin) based on the identification of strong c-KIT staining of these neoplasms...
  9. Andea A, Patel R, Ponnazhagan S, Kumar S, DeVilliers P, Jhala D, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: correlation of KIT expression with survival and evaluation of KIT gene mutational status. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1405-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is one of the most aggressive primary cutaneous malignancies...
  10. Tanahashi J, Kashima K, Daa T, Yada N, Fujiwara S, Yokoyama S. Merkel cell carcinoma co-existent with sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:983-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is occasionally associated with other types of cutaneous malignancies including squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and lentigo maligna...
  11. Wieland U, Mauch C, Kreuter A, Krieg T, Pfister H. Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in persons without merkel cell carcinoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1496-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MCPyV was also found in anogenital and oral samples (31%) and eyebrow hairs (50%) of HIV-positive men and in forehead swabs (62%) of healthy controls. MCPyV thus appears to be widespread...
  12. Coleman N, Smith Zagone M, Tanyi J, Anderson M, Coleman R, Dyson S, et al. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina with Merkel cell carcinoma phenotype. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:405-10 pubmed
    ..reports, these tumors have not been distinguished from primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma)...
  13. Sihto H, Kukko H, Koljonen V, Sankila R, Bohling T, Joensuu H. Clinical factors associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in Merkel cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:938-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the skin. Integration of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA to the tumor genome is frequent in these cancers. The clinical consequences of MCPyV infection are unknown...
  14. van der Heijden H, Heijdra Y. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. South Med J. 2005;98:345-9 pubmed
    ..Small cell carcinoma of the skin is included. This form of small cell carcinoma is often excluded from the larger review series, but can be an important alternative in the diagnostic process of patient evaluation. ..
  15. zur Hausen H. Novel human polyomaviruses--re-emergence of a well known virus family as possible human carcinogens. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:247-250 pubmed publisher
    ..It also makes reference to observations of polyomavirus-like particles in other conditions, particularly in hair-follicle cell-related proliferations...
  16. Pryor J, Simon R, Bourne P, Spaulding B, Scott G, Xu H. Merkel cell carcinoma expresses K homology domain-containing protein overexpressed in cancer similar to other high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:238-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon and aggressive primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma with a high rate of recurrence and metastasis...
  17. Busam K, Jungbluth A, Rekthman N, Coit D, Pulitzer M, Bini J, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in merkel cell carcinomas and its absence in combined tumors and pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1378-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is the eponym for primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma...
  18. Kassem A, Sch pflin A, Diaz C, Weyers W, Stickeler E, Werner M, et al. Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinomas and identification of a unique deletion in the VP1 gene. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5009-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive human malignancy of the elderly or immunosuppressed patients...
  19. Sharp C, Norja P, Anthony I, Bell J, Simmonds P. Reactivation and mutation of newly discovered WU, KI, and Merkel cell carcinoma polyomaviruses in immunosuppressed individuals. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:398-404 pubmed publisher
    ..TCR changes that potentially lead to transcriptional dysregulation may have pathogenic consequences equivalent in severity to those observed for JCV and BKV. ..
  20. Mecca P, Busam K. Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:207-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The case was originally misdiagnosed as a Merkel cell carcinoma, based largely on histologic morphology...
  21. Bichakjian C, Lowe L, Lao C, Sandler H, Bradford C, Johnson T, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: critical review with guidelines for multidisciplinary management. Cancer. 2007;110:1-12 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare cutaneous malignancy that occurs predominantly in the older white population...
  22. Buck C, Lowy D. Getting stronger: the relationship between a newly identified virus and Merkel cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:9-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer that develops in individuals who are over the age of 50 or immunosuppressed. DNA from a new polyomavirus, MCPyV, was recently shown to be clonally integrated in several MCC cases...
  23. Reisinger D, Shiffer J, Cognetta A, Chang Y, Moore P. Lack of evidence for basal or squamous cell carcinoma infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunocompetent patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:400-3 pubmed publisher
    ..cell polyomavirus (MCV) was discovered by digital transcriptome subtraction as a monoclonal infection of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumors. Subsequent studies have repeatedly confirmed that MCV is the likely cause for most MCC...
  24. Dinh V, Feun L, Elgart G, Savaraj N. Merkel cell carcinomas. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2007;21:527-44; ix pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and extremely aggressive skin cancer that arises from primary neural cells. It presents most commonly in the elderly and immunocompromised patients...
  25. Rawlings N, Brownstein S, Jordan D. Merkel cell carcinoma masquerading as a chalazion. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:469-70 pubmed
    ..Histopathologic examination disclosed Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Radiotherapy was not tolerated...
  26. Dim D, Nugent S, Darwin P, Peng H. Metastatic merkel cell carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking primary pancreatic endocrine tumor diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2009;53:223-8 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively infrequent, rapidly progressive and often fatal cutaneous malignancy exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation...
  27. Shah M, Varker K, Collamore M, Zwiebel J, Coit D, Kelsen D, et al. G3139 (Genasense) in patients with advanced merkel cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009;32:174-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy of the skin. Preclinical studies have identified up-regulation of the critical antiapoptosis gene bcl-2 in MCC...
  28. Sirikanjanapong S, Melamed J, Patel R. Intraepidermal and dermal Merkel cell carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma in situ: a case report with review of literature. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:881-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare aggressive primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in the elderly...
  29. Bajetta E, Celio L, Platania M, Lo Vullo S, Patuzzo R, Maurichi A, et al. Single-institution series of early-stage Merkel cell carcinoma: long-term outcomes in 95 patients managed with surgery alone. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2985-93 pubmed publisher
    To determine the long-term outcomes of early-stage Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patients managed with surgery alone.
  30. Boyse K, Foley E, Bradley V, Scarborough D. Merkel cell carcinoma: a case report with treatment summary and updates. Cutis. 2004;74:350-6 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary cutaneous neoplasm known for its propensity to develop early regional and distant metastasis. Fewer than 400 cases occur annually in the United States...
  31. Rollison D, Giuliano A, Becker J. New virus associated with merkel cell carcinoma development. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2010;8:874-80 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy of the skin with an annual incidence in the United States of 0.34 and 0.17 per 100,000 men and women, respectively...
  32. Tsang G, O BRIEN P, Robertson R, Hamilton C, Wratten C, Denham J. All delays before radiotherapy risk progression of Merkel cell carcinoma. Australas Radiol. 2004;48:371-5 pubmed
    ..The present descriptive study of 27 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) found that a median wait of 24 days for radiotherapy is associated with a high risk of progression...
  33. Tan K, Murali R, Karim R, Dutta B, Dutta R, McCarthy S, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma with fibrosarcomatous differentiation. Pathology. 2008;40:314-6 pubmed publisher
  34. Wong S, Young Y, Geisinger K, Shen P, Stewart J, Sangueza O, et al. Intraoperative imprint cytology for evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes from Merkel cell carcinoma. Am Surg. 2009;75:615-9 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy...
  35. Helmbold P, Lahtz C, Enk A, Herrmann Trost P, Marsch W, Kutzner H, et al. Frequent occurrence of RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation and Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma. Mol Carcinog. 2009;48:903-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers of the skin...
  36. Koh C, Veness M. Role of definitive radiotherapy in treating patients with inoperable Merkel cell carcinoma: the Westmead Hospital experience and a review of the literature. Australas J Dermatol. 2009;50:249-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon aggressive primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma with a propensity to spread to regional lymph nodes and distant sites...
  37. Richetta A, Mancini M, Torroni A, Lorè B, Iannetti G, Sardella B, et al. Total spontaneous regression of advanced merkel cell carcinoma after biopsy: review and a new case. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:815-22 pubmed publisher
  38. Dong H, Liu W, Cohen P, Mahle C, Zhang W. B-cell specific activation protein encoded by the PAX-5 gene is commonly expressed in merkel cell carcinoma and small cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:687-92 pubmed
    ..We have encountered cases of Merkel cell carcinoma expressing PAX-5 during our routine evaluation of lymphoma...
  39. Nemoto I, Sato Matsumura K, Fujita Y, Natsuga K, Ujiie H, Tomita Y, et al. Leukaemic dissemination of Merkel cell carcinoma in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33:270-2 pubmed
    We describe an unusual bone-marrow metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) arising in the right cheek of a 73-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's syndrome, who had been treated with oral prednisolone ..
  40. Veness M. Merkel cell carcinoma: improved outcome with the addition of adjuvant therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:7235-6; author reply 7237-8 pubmed
  41. McAfee W, Morris C, Mendenhall C, Werning J, Mendenhall N, Mendenhall W. Merkel cell carcinoma: treatment and outcomes. Cancer. 2005;104:1761-4 pubmed
    The purpose of the current study was to determine the outcomes of patients with previously untreated Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin who were treated with curative intent.
  42. Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun H, Rosen S, Gjoerup O, Moore P, et al. T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these mutations render the virus replication-incompetent, MCV is not a "passenger virus" that secondarily infects MCC tumors...
  43. Duncavage E, Zehnbauer B, Pfeifer J. Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:516-21 pubmed publisher
    It has recently been shown that Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and often lethal cutaneous malignancy, frequently harbors a novel clonally integrated polyomavirus aptly named Merkel cell polyomavirus...
  44. Howard R, Dores G, Curtis R, Anderson W, Travis L. Merkel cell carcinoma and multiple primary cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1545-9 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin for which causative factors remain largely unknown...
  45. Kukko H, Koljonen V, Lassus P, Tukiainen E, Haglund C, Bohling T. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in Merkel cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2587-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to examine the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and to correlate the expression with tumour growth and the development of metastasis.
  46. Shnayder Y, Weed D, Arnold D, Gomez Fernandez C, Bared A, Goodwin W, et al. Management of the neck in Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: University of Miami experience. Head Neck. 2008;30:1559-65 pubmed publisher
    We reviewed management of the cervical lymph nodes in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the head and neck.
  47. Kartha R, Sundram U. Silent mutations in KIT and PDGFRA and coexpression of receptors with SCF and PDGFA in Merkel cell carcinoma: implications for tyrosine kinase-based tumorigenesis. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:96-104 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin. Its treatment involves wide excision and radiotherapy but no effective therapy exists for advanced disease...
  48. Suarez C, Rodrigo J, Ferlito A, Devaney K, Rinaldo A. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Oral Oncol. 2004;40:773-9 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm of the skin. The tumor most frequently affects elderly patients, with a preference for the head and neck...
  49. Vazmitel M, Michal M, Shelekhova K, Sima R, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov D. Vascular changes in merkel cell carcinoma based on a histopathological study of 92 cases. Am J Dermatopathol. 2008;30:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..is a known feature of various neuroendocrine tumors, it has not been systematically studied in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the skin...
  50. Iyer J, Koba S, Nghiem P. Toward better management of merkel cell carcinoma using a consensus staging system, new diagnostic codes and a recently discovered virus. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2009;100 Suppl 2:49-54 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a neuroendocrine skin cancer with a higher propensity for recurrence and metastasis than melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma...
  51. McNiff J, Cowper S, Lazova R, Subtil A, Glusac E. CD56 staining in Merkel cell carcinoma and natural killer-cell lymphoma: magic bullet, diagnostic pitfall, or both?. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:541-5 pubmed
    Antibodies to CD56 label natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors such as Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)...
  52. Chang D, Mancuso A, Riggs C, Mendenhall W. Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin with leptomeningeal metastases. Am J Otolaryngol. 2005;26:210-3 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor that is thought to arise from epithelial cells that have undergone neuroendocrine differentiation. It usually presents in older adults and has a slight male predominance...
  53. Decker R, Wilson L. Role of radiotherapy in the management of merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2006;4:713-8 pubmed
    The role of radiotherapy in treating local and regional disease in patients with clinically localized Merkel cell carcinoma remains controversial...
  54. Lemos B, Storer B, Iyer J, Phillips J, Bichakjian C, Fang L, et al. Pathologic nodal evaluation improves prognostic accuracy in Merkel cell carcinoma: analysis of 5823 cases as the basis of the first consensus staging system. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:751-61 pubmed publisher
    The management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) has been complicated by a lack of detailed prognostic data and by the presence of conflicting staging systems.
  55. Schwartz R, Lambert W. The Merkel cell carcinoma: a 50-year retrospect. J Surg Oncol. 2005;89:5 pubmed
  56. Stadelmann W, Cobbins L, Lentsch E. Incidence of nonlocalization of sentinel lymph nodes using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in 74 consecutive head and neck melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma patients. Ann Plast Surg. 2004;52:546-9; discussion 550 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of nonlocalization on lymphoscintigraphy of sentinel nodes in patients with head and neck cutaneous malignancies...
  57. Garneski K, DeCaprio J, Nghiem P. Does a new polyomavirus contribute to Merkel cell carcinoma?. Genome Biol. 2008;9:228 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examine what it will take to determine whether or not this virus contributes to carcinogenesis...
  58. Touze A, Gaitan J, Maruani A, Le Bidre E, Doussinaud A, Clavel C, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus strains in patients with merkel cell carcinoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:960-2 pubmed publisher
    We investigated whether Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patients in France carry Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and then identified strain variations...
  59. Carter J, Paulson K, Wipf G, Miranda D, Madeleine M, Johnson L, et al. Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus-specific antibodies with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1510-22 pubmed publisher
    ..cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in approximately 75% of patients with the rare skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies against MCPyV in the general population and the association ..
  60. Warnick M, Singh S, Boisvert M, Peck G. Merkel cell carcinoma presenting as lymphadenopathy without a primary cutaneous lesion: a report of 2 cases. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:1397-8 pubmed publisher
  61. Jessup T, Wassef W, Yantiss R, Bhattacharya K. Metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed by EUS-guided FNA of a rapidly progressive peripancreatic mass. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;63:527-9 pubmed
  62. Foulongne V, Dereure O, Kluger N, Moles J, Guillot B, Segondy M. Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA detection in lesional and nonlesional skin from patients with Merkel cell carcinoma or other skin diseases. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:59-63 pubmed publisher
    Background A novel polyomavirus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), has recently been identified in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)...
  63. Deganello A, de Bree R, Dolivet G, Leemans C. Infrahyoid myocutaneous flap reconstruction after wide local excision of a Merkel cell carcinoma. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2005;25:50-3; discussion 53-4 pubmed
    ..presented of an 8 1-year-old female coming to our observation after two non radical local excisions of a Merkel cell carcinoma of the sub-mental skin region...
  64. Grandpeix C, Bonvalot S, Petrow P, Fraitag S, Gounod N, Avril M. [Continued complete remission of Merkel cell carcinoma with in-transit metastasis after treatment with isolated limb perfusion regional chemotherapy]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006;133:700-3 pubmed
    Primitive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor. It may be large since diagnosis is frequently delayed. The usual treatment is extensive surgical removal and radiotherapy.
  65. Viola G, Visca P, Bucher S, Migliano E, Lopez M. [Merkel cell carcinoma]. Clin Ter. 2006;157:553-9 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare form of skin cancer of likely neuroendocrine origin wich affects mainly white population in sun-exposed areas. It is an aggressive tumor and survival is dependent on stage at the time of diagnosis...
  66. Huang G, Chang W, Lee H, Taylor J, Cheng T, Chen C. Merkel cell carcinoma arising from the subcutaneous fat of the arm with intact skin. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:717-9 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm characteristically arising from the dermis of sunlight-exposed skin. It rarely arises outside the skin.
  67. Veness M, Perera L, McCourt J, Shannon J, Hughes T, Morgan G, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: improved outcome with adjuvant radiotherapy. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75:275-81 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. Patients remain at high risk of locoregional and distant relapse despite treatment...
  68. Muirhead R, Ritchie D. Partial regression of Merkel cell carcinoma in response to withdrawal of azathioprine in an immunosuppression-induced case of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2007;19:96 pubmed
  69. Huber G, Khalil M, Falck V, Matthews T, Dort J. Merkel cell carcinoma with solitary parotid metastasis: diagnostic dilemma in the absence of a primary site. J Otolaryngol. 2007;36:E70-2 pubmed
  70. Koljonen V, Bohling T, Haglund C, Ristimaki A. Expression of HuR in Merkel cell carcinoma and in normal skin. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:10-4 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to explore the expression pattern of HuR in primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), lymph node metastases and non-neoplastic skin.
  71. Swick B, Ravdel L, Fitzpatrick J, Robinson W. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha mutational status and immunohistochemical expression in Merkel cell carcinoma: implications for treatment with imatinib mesylate. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze MCCs for mutations in the PDGFRA gene as well as to analyze those MCCs exhibiting a possible mutation in the PDGFRA gene for immunohistochemical expression of PDGFRA...
  72. Lassacher A, Heitzer E, Kerl H, Wolf P. p14ARF hypermethylation is common but INK4a-ARF locus or p53 mutations are rare in Merkel cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1788-96 pubmed publisher
    Although the exact molecular mechanisms of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumorigenesis are unknown, they likely involve complex genetic alterations and mutations similar to those seen in many other cancers...
  73. Liao P. Merkel cell carcinoma. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21:447-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous malignancy that occurs mainly in the ultraviolet-exposed areas of the head and neck region and has a mortality rate higher than that of melanoma (33%) with a tendency to recur...
  74. Shuda M, Arora R, Kwun H, Feng H, Sarid R, Fernandez Figueras M, et al. Human Merkel cell polyomavirus infection I. MCV T antigen expression in Merkel cell carcinoma, lymphoid tissues and lymphoid tumors. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:1243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As with some of the other human polyomaviruses, lymphocytes may serve as a tissue reservoir for MCV infection, but hematolymphoid malignancies associated with MCC are unlikely to be caused by MCV...
  75. Swann M, Yoon J. Merkel cell carcinoma. Semin Oncol. 2007;34:51-6 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous cancer that predominately affects elderly Caucasians with fair skin and has a propensity for local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases...
  76. Goldberg S, Neifeld J, Frable W. Prognostic value of tumor thickness in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2007;95:618-22 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive skin malignancy that often presents with tumor metastases...
  77. Krasagakis K, Kruger Krasagakis S, Eberle J, Tsatsakis A, Tosca A, Stathopoulos E. Co-expression of KIT receptor and its ligand stem cell factor in Merkel cell carcinoma. Dermatology. 2009;218:37-43 pubmed publisher
    KIT receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, either by mutation or autocrine activation. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare KIT-positive cutaneous tumor...
  78. Becker J, Schrama D, Houben R. Merkel cell carcinoma. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. More than one-third of MCC patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as malignant melanoma...
  79. Ozaki K, Narama I. Merkel cell carcinoma in a cat. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1093-6 pubmed
    ..The positive reaction for cytokeratin 20 showed localized to diffuse pattern. This is the first report describing now cytokeratin 20 was clearly beneficial for the differential diagnosis of feline Merkel cell carcinoma.
  80. Papageorgiou K, Kaniorou Larai M. A case report of Merkel cell carcinoma on chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differential diagnosis of coexisting lymphadenopathy and indications for early aggressive treatment. BMC Cancer. 2005;5:106 pubmed
    ..There is increased evidence of association between CLL and skin cancers, including the uncommon Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).
  81. Houben R, Ortmann S, Schrama D, Herold M, Berberich I, Reichardt H, et al. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway induces apoptosis in the Merkel cell carcinoma cell line UISO. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2116-22 pubmed
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive tumor of the skin...
  82. Kampshoff J, Cogbill T. Unusual skin tumors: Merkel cell carcinoma, eccrine carcinoma, glomus tumors, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Surg Clin North Am. 2009;89:727-38 pubmed publisher
    This article discusses the epidemiology, etiology, presentation, pathology, evaluation and staging, and treatment of unusual skin tumors, such as Merkel cell carcinoma, eccrine carcinoma, glomus tumors, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  83. Koksal Y, Toy H, Talim B, Unal E, Akcoren Z, Cengiz M. Merkel cell carcinoma in a child. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;31:359-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare tumor of the skin with aggressive behavior, is usually fatal when advanced disease is present...