congenital rubella syndrome

Summary

Summary: Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Best J, Castillo Solorzano C, Spika J, Icenogle J, Glasser J, Gay N, et al. Reducing the global burden of congenital rubella syndrome: report of the World Health Organization Steering Committee On Research Related To Measles and Rubella Vaccines and Vaccination, June 2004. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1890-7 pubmed
    Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) continue to be important health problems in many countries...
  2. Robertson S, Featherstone D, Gacic Dobo M, Hersh B. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome: global update. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2003;14:306-15 pubmed
    Worldwide, it is estimated that there are more than 100.000 infants born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) each year...
  3. Duszak R. Congenital rubella syndrome--major review. Optometry. 2009;80:36-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Congenital rubella syndrome is a rare disorder with devastating ocular and systemic consequences. Although efforts to eradicate the disease have been in place for some time, some areas of the world continue to be affected by this disease...
  4. Castillo Solorzano C, Carrasco P, Tambini G, Reef S, Brana M, de Quadros C. New horizons in the control of rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas. J Infect Dis. 2003;187 Suppl 1:S146-52 pubmed
    ..Preventable Diseases recommended the implementation of a regional initiative to strengthen rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) preventive efforts in 1997...
  5. Panagiotopoulos T, Georgakopoulou T. Epidemiology of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in Greece, 1994-2003. Euro Surveill. 2004;9:17-9 pubmed
    In 1993, there was a large epidemic of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Greece...
  6. Dayan G, Zimmerman L, Shteinke L, Kasymbekova K, Uzicanin A, Strebel P, et al. Investigation of a rubella outbreak in Kyrgyzstan in 2001: implications for an integrated approach to measles elimination and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2003;187 Suppl 1:S235-40 pubmed
    ..This opportunity was used to launch a rubella and congenital rubella syndrome prevention program...
  7. Vijayalakshmi P, Kakkar G, Samprathi A, Banushree R. Ocular manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome in a developing country. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2002;50:307-11 pubmed
    To describe the ocular manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), a common cause of congenital cataracts in developing countries.
  8. Vynnycky E, Gay N, Cutts F. The predicted impact of private sector MMR vaccination on the burden of Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Vaccine. 2003;21:2708-19 pubmed
    ..current levels of private sector MMR coverage (<60%) would lead to increases in the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) both among unvaccinated individuals and the general population even when mixing between ..
  9. Ushida M, Katow S, Furukawa S. Congenital rubella syndrome due to infection after maternal antibody conversion with vaccine. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003;56:68-9 pubmed
    We experienced a case of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) due to infection after maternal antibody conversion with vaccine...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Morice A, Ulloa Gutierrez R, Avila Aguero M. Congenital rubella syndrome: progress and future challenges. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..the triad of deafness, cataracts and cardiac disease as the classical clinical manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), strong efforts have been implemented around the world to achieve effective preventive strategies...
  2. Katow S. Surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome in Japan, 1978-2002: effect of revision of the immunization law. Vaccine. 2004;22:4084-91 pubmed
    ..pregnancy in women who are not immune to rubella often induces congenital anomalies in infants, namely congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  3. Jin L, Thomas B. Application of molecular and serological assays to case based investigations of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. J Med Virol. 2007;79:1017-24 pubmed
    Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome continue to be important health problems worldwide...
  4. Jiménez G, Avila Aguero M, Morice A, Gutiérrez H, Soriano A, Badilla X, et al. Estimating the burden of congenital rubella syndrome in Costa Rica, 1996-2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:382-6 pubmed
    The epidemiology of rubella in Costa Rica changed during recent decades, shifting the susceptible groups to the reproductive age. This study estimates the burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) from 1996 to 2001 in this country.
  5. Robinson J, Lee B, Preiksaitis J, Plitt S, Tipples G. Prevention of congenital rubella syndrome--what makes sense in 2006?. Epidemiol Rev. 2006;28:81-7 pubmed
    ..Routine use of rubella vaccine is gradually resulting in the elimination of endemic rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the developed world, and routine use of vaccine in young children is now being implemented in ..
  6. Thant K, Oo W, Myint T, Shwe T, Han A, Aye K, et al. Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:12-20 pubmed
    ..Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS.
  7. Katow S. Molecular epidemiology of rubella virus in Asia: utility for reduction in the burden of diseases due to congenital rubella syndrome. Pediatr Int. 2004;46:207-13 pubmed
    ..immunity to rubella are infected during the early stage of pregnancy, their babies are often born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which is characterized by a few disorders including deafness, cataracts and heart malformations...
  8. Terada K. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in Japan: epidemiological problems. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003;56:81-7 pubmed
    Rubella virus infection can lead to problems with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the next generation due to fetal infection, but these problems are preventable with vaccination...
  9. Viskari H, Paronen J, Keskinen P, Simell S, Zawilinska B, Zgorniak Nowosielska I, et al. Humoral beta-cell autoimmunity is rare in patients with the congenital rubella syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;133:378-83 pubmed
    The congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is associated with increased risk for diabetes and thyroid disease. However, the mechanisms by which the rubella virus may cause these diseases are poorly characterized...
  10. Lanzieri T, Parise M, Siqueira M, Fortaleza B, Segatto T, Prevots D. Incidence, clinical features and estimated costs of congenital rubella syndrome after a large rubella outbreak in Recife, Brazil, 1999-2000. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:1116-22 pubmed
    ..In 2002, a study was conducted to assess the burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) after this outbreak.
  11. Bloom S, Rguig A, Berraho A, Zniber L, Bouazzaoui N, Zaghloul Z, et al. Congenital rubella syndrome burden in Morocco: a rapid retrospective assessment. Lancet. 2005;365:135-41 pubmed
    ..considering introduction of rubella vaccine into their immunisation programme assess their burden of congenital rubella syndrome, to determine whether vaccination is warranted...
  12. Ooi H, Cheong S, Yogeswery S, Norizah I, Zuridah H, Kumarasamy V, et al. Congenital rubella syndrome with positive serology and virus isolation. Med J Malaysia. 2006;61:248-50 pubmed
    An effective live attenuated rubella vaccine was available since 1969 and congenital rubella syndrome can be prevented with appropriate vaccination...
  13. Al Awaidy S, Griffiths U, Nwar H, Bawikar S, Al Aisiri M, Khandekar R, et al. Costs of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Oman: evidence based on long-term follow-up of 43 children. Vaccine. 2006;24:6437-45 pubmed
    As part of the national plan for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), Oman established a national registry of CRS cases. As of May 2005, the registry included 43 surviving CRS cases, with a mean age of 11.9 years...
  14. Morice A, Carvajal X, León M, Machado V, Badilla X, Reef S, et al. Accelerated rubella control and congenital rubella syndrome prevention strengthen measles eradication: the Costa Rican experience. J Infect Dis. 2003;187 Suppl 1:S158-63 pubmed
    In 2000, Costa Rica set a goal for accelerated rubella control and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention in conjunction with its established measles eradication goal...
  15. Frey T. Neurological aspects of rubella virus infection. Intervirology. 1997;40:167-75 pubmed
    ..or German measles, however infection during early pregnancy can lead to severe birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  16. Nasiri R, Yoseffi J, Khajedaloe M, Sarafraz Yazdi M, Delgoshaei F. Congenital rubella syndrome after rubella vaccination in 1-4 weeks periconceptional period. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76:279-82 pubmed publisher
    To examine weather exposure to rubella vaccine during 1-4 wk periconceptional period can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).
  17. Hwang S, Chen Y. Congenital rubella syndrome with autistic disorder. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73:104-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) consists of a group of abnormalities that develop in children as a result of maternal infection with rubella virus...
  18. Castillo Solorzano C, de Quadros C. [Accelerated rubella control and the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2002;11:273-6 pubmed
    b>Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and with high costs...
  19. Lugnér A, Mollema L, Ruijs W, Hahné S. A cost-utility analysis of antenatal screening to prevent congenital rubella syndrome. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:1172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The programme would be cost-effective (euro1100/QALY gained) when assuming an acceptability of vaccination of 20% in women belonging to orthodox protestant risk groups...
  20. Oster M, Riehle Colarusso T, Correa A. An update on cardiovascular malformations in congenital rubella syndrome. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has long been characterized by the triad of deafness, cataract, and cardiovascular malformations (CVMs)...
  21. Rogers M, McCoy R. Rubella immunoglobulin G antibody titers in children with seizures. Epilepsy Res. 2003;54:35-40 pubmed
    ..The percentage of US adolescents and young adults with a history of seizures that may have insufficient immunity to rubella is estimated to be 14-50%. ..
  22. Lasek Duriez A, Hubiche T, Aladjidi N, Lamireau T, Taieb A, Leaute Labreze C. [Chronic exanthema in a child with congenital rubella]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2008;135:222-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In a setting of congenital rubella syndrome, the infant presented psychomotor retardation, deafness, hypoplasia of the pulmonary artery and under-..
  23. Reef S, Frey T, Theall K, Abernathy E, Burnett C, Icenogle J, et al. The changing epidemiology of rubella in the 1990s: on the verge of elimination and new challenges for control and prevention. JAMA. 2002;287:464-72 pubmed
    In 1989, the United States established a goal to eliminate indigenous rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by 2000...
  24. Friederichs V, Cameron J, Robertson C. Impact of adverse publicity on MMR vaccine uptake: a population based analysis of vaccine uptake records for one million children, born 1987-2004. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:465-8 pubmed
    ..Predicted figures for "final" MMR1 uptake are under the herd immunity threshold and campaigns may be required to increase uptake among future primary school children. ..
  25. Ndiaye O, Diagne I, Sylla A, Diallo J, Gueye Ba M, Diouf S, et al. [Congenital rubella: a case report]. Dakar Med. 2001;46:79-81 pubmed
    ..We also find severe ocular pathology, hearing deficit and associated cardiac disease. This case shows the needs for preventive strategies, such as vaccination against rubella for women of child bearing age. ..
  26. Armstrong N, O Donnell N. Anniversary of rubella epidemic. Lancet. 2004;364:328 pubmed
  27. Forrest J, Turnbull F, Sholler G, Hawker R, Martin F, Doran T, et al. Gregg's congenital rubella patients 60 years later. Med J Aust. 2002;177:664-7 pubmed
    ..This cohort of people with congenital rubella has illuminated our understanding of viral teratogenesis. ..
  28. Stronati M, Bollani L, Lombardi G, Di Comite A. [Follow-up of the neonate at risk between hospital and territory: neonates with congenital infections]. Minerva Pediatr. 2007;59:501-2 pubmed
  29. Plotkin S. Commentary: congenital rubella syndrome should not be a disease of poor countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:1123-4 pubmed
  30. Weisinger H, Pesudovs K. Optical complications in congenital rubella syndrome. Optometry. 2002;73:418-24 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in utero infection can have devastating effects. collectively known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  31. Hahné S, Abbink F, van Binnendijk R, Ruijs W, van Steenbergen J, de Melker H. [Rubella epidemic in the Netherlands, 2004/'05: awareness of congenital rubella syndrome required]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:1174-8 pubmed
    ..problem due to the teratogenic effects associated with primary rubella infection during pregnancy (congenital rubella syndrome)...
  32. Plotkin S. The history of rubella and rubella vaccination leading to elimination. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43 Suppl 3:S164-8 pubmed
    b>Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) was discovered in the 1940s, rubella virus was isolated in the early 1960s, and rubella vaccines became available by the end of the same decade...
  33. Ueda K. [Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 3:299-303 pubmed
  34. Gidding H, Young M, Pugh R, Burgess M. Rubella in Australia: can we explain two recent cases of congenital rubella syndrome?. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2003;27:537-40 pubmed
  35. Reef S, Plotkin S, Cordero J, Katz M, Cooper L, Schwartz B, et al. Preparing for elimination of congenital Rubella syndrome (CRS): summary of a workshop on CRS elimination in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:85-95 pubmed
    The goal of eliminating indigenous rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the United States in the near future is now within reach, because rubella incidence has been sustained at record-low levels since the mid-1990s...
  36. Vijayalakshmi P, Rajasundari T, Prasad N, Prakash S, Narendran K, Ravindran M, et al. Prevalence of eye signs in congenital rubella syndrome in South India: a role for population screening. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1467-70 pubmed
    b>Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) resulting from maternal rubella infection, especially in the first trimester, affects an estimated 100 000 infants each year worldwide...
  37. Dammeyer J. Congenital rubella syndrome and delayed manifestations. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:1067-70 pubmed publisher
    Several hypotheses of different medical and psychological delayed manifestations among people who have congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) have been discussed. This study tests some of these hypotheses of delayed manifestations...
  38. Hamkar R, Jalilvand S, Mokhtari Azad T, Jelyani K, Nategh R. Evaluation of immunity against rubella in Iranian after mass campaign for measles-rubella vaccination on December 2003. Am J Infect Control. 2006;34:588-92 pubmed
    Prevention of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is the main goal of rubella immunization...
  39. Panagiotopoulos T, Antoniadou I, Valassi Adam E. Increase in congenital rubella occurrence after immunisation in Greece: retrospective survey and systematic review. BMJ. 1999;319:1462-7 pubmed
    To describe the events leading to the epidemic of congenital rubella syndrome in Greece in 1993 after a major rubella epidemic. Retrospective survey and systematic review. Greece (population 10 million), 1950-95...
  40. Aksit S, Egemen A, Ozacar T, Kurugol Z, Keskinoglu P, Tasbakan M, et al. Rubella seroprevalence in an unvaccinated population in Izmir: recommendations for rubella vaccination in Turkey. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999;18:577-80 pubmed
    ..of rubella vaccine into national immunization schedules continues to occur, and data on rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in Turkey are insufficient...
  41. Chotta N, Mgongo M, Uriyo J, Msuya S, Stray Pedersen B, Stray Pedersen A. Rubella sero-prevalence among children in Kilimanjaro region: a community based study prior to the introduction of rubella vaccine in Tanzania. Ital J Pediatr. 2017;43:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Depending on gestation age, it may result in fetal death, stillbirth or a new-born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  42. Bar Oz B, Levichek Z, Moretti M, Mah C, Andreou S, Koren G. Pregnancy outcome following rubella vaccination: a prospective controlled study. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;130A:52-4 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to examine whether periconceptional exposure to rubella vaccine can cause the congenital rubella syndrome, and to compare the rate of major malformations and developmental milestones among offspring of women ..
  43. Namaei M, Ziaee M, Naseh N. Congenital rubella syndrome in infants of women vaccinated during or just before pregnancy with measles-rubella vaccine. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127:551-4 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) among the infants born to the vaccinated mothers...
  44. Canepa P, Valle L, Cristina E, de Florentiis D, Parodi V, Banfi F, et al. Role of congenital rubella reference laboratory: 21-months-surveillance in Liguria, Italy. J Prev Med Hyg. 2009;50:221-6 pubmed
    ..The aim was to reduce and maintain Congenital Rubella Syndrome incidence lower than 1 case per 100,000 live births/year by 2007...
  45. Otsuki N, Sakata M, Saito K, Okamoto K, Mori Y, Hanada K, et al. Both sphingomyelin and cholesterol in the host cell membrane are essential for Rubella virus entry. J Virol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    i>Rubella virus (RuV) causes a systemic infection and transplacental fetal infection causes congenital rubella syndrome. In this study, we showed that treatment of cells with sphingomyelinase inhibited RuV infection...
  46. Arya S, Agarwal N. [Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2004;16:366-7 pubmed
  47. Takano T, Morimoto M, Bamba N, Takeuchi Y, Ohno M. Frontal-dominant white matter lesions following congenital rubella and cytomegalovirus infection. J Perinat Med. 2006;34:254-5 pubmed
  48. Kawamura N, Okamura A, Furuta H, Katow S, Yamada M, Kobayashi I, et al. Improved dysgammaglobulinaemia in congenital rubella syndrome after immunoglobulin therapy: correlation with CD154 expression. Eur J Pediatr. 2000;159:764-6 pubmed
    A boy with congenital rubella syndrome developed dysgammaglobulinaemia with elevated serum levels of IgM...
  49. Young R. Wrongful life claim: Harriton (by her tutor) v Stephens; Waller (by his tutor) v James; Waller (by his tutor) v Hoolahan. J Law Med. 2004;12:17-25 pubmed
  50. Ray P, Black S, Shinefield H, Dillon A, Schwalbe J, Holmes S, et al. Risk of chronic arthropathy among women after rubella vaccination. Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. JAMA. 1997;278:551-6 pubmed
    ..A review by the Institute of Medicine found a possible relationship between rubella vaccination and chronic arthritis among women...
  51. Oliver C, Hall S, Hales J, Murphy G, Watts D. The treatment of severe self-injurious behavior by the systematic fading of restraints: effects on self-injury, self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect. Res Dev Disabil. 1998;19:143-65 pubmed
    ..The reasons for a decrease in SIB with a corresponding decrease in restriction in the absence of any manipulation of contingencies for SIB are discussed, with particular reference to stimulus control...
  52. Lawn J, Reef S, Baffoe Bonnie B, Adadevoh S, Caul E, Griffin G. Unseen blindness, unheard deafness, and unrecorded death and disability: congenital rubella in Kumasi, Ghana. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1555-61 pubmed
    ..rubella serosusceptibility among women of reproductive age in West Africa ranges from 10% to 30%, congenital rubella syndrome has not been reported. In Ghana, rubella immunization and serologic testing are unavailable...
  53. Dammeyer J. Prevalence and aetiology of congenitally deafblind people in Denmark. Int J Audiol. 2010;49:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of difference in aetiology and ethnicity are discussed in relation to the Scandinavian traditions of clinical practice and identification of congenital deafblindness...
  54. Shah I, Bhatnagar S. Antenatal diagnostic problem of congenital rubella. Indian J Pediatr. 2010;77:450-1 pubmed publisher
    We present a preterm neonate who developed congenital rubella syndrome in a mother who had rubella at 5 months of gestation. An amniocentesis was done in the mother at that time but amniotic fluid rubella PCR was negative...
  55. Carvill S, Marston G. People with intellectual disability, sensory impairments and behaviour disorder: a case series. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2002;46:264-72 pubmed
    ..The identification of psychiatric disorders in this group can be difficult, particularly in those with severe ID and limited communication skills...
  56. Ciofi Degli Atti M, Salmaso S. [The national Plan for the eradication of measles and congenital rubella]. Epidemiol Prev. 2004;28:7-8 pubmed
  57. Rajasundari T, Sundaresan P, Vijayalakshmi P, Brown D, Jin L. Laboratory confirmation of congenital rubella syndrome in infants: an eye hospital based investigation. J Med Virol. 2008;80:536-46 pubmed publisher
    ..specimens from South Indian children aged 0-59 months with ocular anomalies consistent with suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) were investigated...
  58. Minussi L, Mohrdieck R, Bercini M, Ranieri T, Sanseverino M, Momino W, et al. Prospective evaluation of pregnant women vaccinated against rubella in southern Brazil. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;25:120-3 pubmed
    ..highest risk of this infection occurs during pregnancy, as the virus may cause fetal damage known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  59. Lardennois C, Radi Bencteux S, Trestard L, Marret S, Grangeot Keros L, Buffet Janvresse C. Congenital rubella with bilateral cataract detected at 5 weeks. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1550 pubmed
  60. Gaudelus J. [Elimination of measles and congenital rubella: what vaccination strategy for the future?]. Arch Pediatr. 2005;12 Spec No 4:11-3 pubmed
  61. Letonturier P. [Congenital German measles: less than one case per 100 000 births in Europe in 2010?]. Presse Med. 2004;33:1293 pubmed
  62. Sakaihara M. Wrongful birth claim in Japan. Med Sci Law. 2002;42:258-60 pubmed
    ..There have been four cases relating to congenital rubella syndrome and one case relating to Down's syndrome held in Japan...
  63. Salih M, Abdel Gader A, Al Jarallah A, Kentab A, Gadelrab M, Alorainy I, et al. Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. Saudi Med J. 2006;27 Suppl 1:S41-52 pubmed
    ..To report on the role of infectious and inflammatory disorders as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children...
  64. Sharan S, Sharma S, Billson F. Congenital rubella cataract: a timely reminder in the new millennium?. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:83-4 pubmed
    ..rubella infection in the phase of organogenesis results in congenital defects collectively termed as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  65. St John M, Benjamin S. An epidemic of congenital rubella in Barbados. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2000;20:231-5 pubmed
    Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are preventable, but epidemics of rubella and CRS are not infrequent in the Caribbean and other developing countries...
  66. Cooray S, Warrener L, Jin L. Improved RT-PCR for diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of rubella. J Clin Virol. 2006;35:73-80 pubmed
    ..The larger size of the PCR amplicon was also useful for molecular genotyping of virus strains...
  67. Choussat A. [Reflections on the Perruche judgement]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2002;95:397-8 pubmed
  68. Tookey P. Congenital rubella: down but not out. Lancet. 2002;360:803 pubmed
  69. Pistol A, Hennessey K, Pitigoi D, Ion Nedelcu N, Lupulescu E, Walls L, et al. Progress toward measles elimination in Romania after a mass vaccination campaign and implementation of enhanced measles surveillance. J Infect Dis. 2003;187 Suppl 1:S217-22 pubmed
    ..9%) and after (94.4%) the campaign. The low number of laboratory-confirmed cases and high population immunity suggest that interruption of indigenous measles virus transmission is a real possibility for Romania...
  70. Avila Aguero M, Morice Trejos A, Castillo Solorzano C, Soriano Fallas A, Ulloa Gutierrez R, Reef S. [Congenital rubella syndrome in Costa Rica: importance of active surveillance]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2005;62:43-7 pubmed
    To identify cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and their form of presentation in children aged < 3 months in the National Children's Hospital of Costa Rica between 1996 and 2000.
  71. Dontigny L, Arsenault M, Martel M. Rubella in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2008;30:152-158 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide an update on rubella and pregnancy so that health professionals remain aware of the potentially devastating effects on the developing fetus...
  72. Rittler M, Lopez Camelo J, Castilla E. Monitoring congenital rubella embryopathy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70:939-43 pubmed
    ..include rubella vaccination in their immunization programs, targeting the complete elimination of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  73. Forrest J, Burgess M, Donovan T. A resurgence of congenital rubella in Australia?. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2003;27:533-6 pubmed
    Two infants with congenital rubella defects (congenital rubella syndrome) have been reported from Queensland in 2003, after an increase in rubella in that State in 2001-2002...
  74. Castillo Solorzano C, Andrus J. Rubella elimination and improving health care for women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2017-21 pubmed
    ..44th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization adopted a goal to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome by 2010...
  75. Sasmaz T, Kurt A, Ozturk C, Bugdayci R, Oner S. Rubella seroprevalence in women in the reproductive period, Mersin, Turkey. Vaccine. 2007;25:912-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, women in this age group are advised to have a single dose of rubella vaccination in order to avoid CRS before pregnancy...
  76. Kanchanalarp C, Cheewaruangroj W, Thawin C, Lertsukprasert K. Indication and surgical consideration of cochlear implantation at Ramathibodi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:1171-7 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate selection criteria for cochlear implant candidates as well as the outcome of quality of life (QoL) after cochlear implant surgery...
  77. Edlich R, Winters K, Long W, Gubler K. Rubella and congenital rubella (German measles). J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2005;15:319-28 pubmed
    ..The congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) involves multiple organ systems and has a long period of active infection and virus shedding in ..
  78. Mackey D. 2005 Gregg Lecture: Congenital cataract--from rubella to genetics. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:199-207 pubmed
    ..At least one-fifth of congenital cataract is familial. Understanding the genetics of familial cataract will lead to better treatment of congenital as well as age-related cataract...
  79. Dunn P. Perinatal lessons from the past: Sir Norman Gregg, ChM, MC, of Sydney (1892-1966) and rubella embryopathy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007;92:F513-4 pubmed
    ..By identifying rubella infection in early pregnancy as a cause of congenital malformations and disabilities, Gregg alerted the medical profession to the importance of the prenatal environment...