rubella

Summary

Summary: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. Nascimento Silva J, Camacho L, Siqueira M, Freire M, Castro Y, Maia M, et al. Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. Vaccine. 2011;29:6327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains...
  2. Suzuki J, Goto H, Komase K, Abo H, Fujii K, Otsuki N, et al. Rubella virus as a possible etiological agent of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:1487-91 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether rubella virus is involved in the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI).
  3. Kennedy C, Burns B, Ault K. Does rubella immunity predict measles immunity? A serosurvey of pregnant women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:13890 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to determine whether rubella immunity infers measles immunity in pregnant women...
  4. Jin L, Thomas B. Application of molecular and serological assays to case based investigations of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. J Med Virol. 2007;79:1017-24 pubmed
    b>Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome continue to be important health problems worldwide...
  5. Marin M, Broder K, Temte J, Snider D, Seward J. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59:1-12 pubmed
    ..by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of the combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV, ProQuad, Merck & Co., Inc.)...
  6. Poethko Müller C, Mankertz A. Seroprevalence of measles-, mumps- and rubella-specific IgG antibodies in German children and adolescents and predictors for seronegativity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42867 pubmed publisher
    ..The IgG titres against measles, mumps and rubella were determined in 1 to 17 year olds While 88.8% of the children were MMR-vaccinated at least once, 76...
  7. Battisti A, Yoder J, Plevka P, Winkler D, Prasad V, Kuhn R, et al. Cryo-electron tomography of rubella virus. J Virol. 2012;86:11078-85 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus is the only member of the Rubivirus genus within the Togaviridae family and is the causative agent of the childhood disease known as rubella or German measles...
  8. Hannachi N, Marzouk M, Harrabi I, Ferjani A, Ksouri Z, Ghannem H, et al. [Seroprevalence of rubella virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in the Sousse region, Tunisia]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2011;104:62-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study is to evaluate seroprevalence of rubella virus (RV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and parvovirus B19 (PB19) in 404 Tunisian pregnant women, and to determine reliability of maternal past ..
  9. Binnicker M, Jespersen D, Harring J. Multiplex detection of IgM and IgG class antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus using a novel multiplex flow immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1734-8 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study was to evaluate the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma, rubella, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (ToRC) IgG and IgM multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and compare the results to those of conventional ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Majlessi F, Batebi A, Shariat M, Rahimi A, Azad T. Rubella serology in pregnant women attending health centres of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14:590-4 pubmed
    ..in 2003-05 to determine the serological status of a sample of pregnant women as a preliminary study for the rubella vaccination programme...
  2. Pankratz V, Vierkant R, O Byrne M, Ovsyannikova I, Poland G. Associations between SNPs in candidate immune-relevant genes and rubella antibody levels: a multigenic assessment. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:48 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic associations with variation in the immune response to rubella vaccine have typically been assessed one locus at a time...
  3. Haralambieva I, Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova I, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, et al. 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with variations in immune responses to rubella vaccine. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..an LD tagSNP selection approach and genotyped them in a cohort of 738 school children immunized with two doses of rubella vaccine...
  4. Hübschen J, Yermalovich M, Semeiko G, Samoilovich E, Blatun E, de Landtsheer S, et al. Co-circulation of multiple rubella virus strains in Belarus forming novel genetic groups within clade 1. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1960-6 pubmed
    ..recommends a comprehensive genetic characterization, little is known about circulating strains and genotypes of rubella virus (RUBV) for many European countries...
  5. Lievano F, Galea S, Thornton M, Wiedmann R, Manoff S, Tran T, et al. Measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine (M-M-R™II): a review of 32 years of clinical and postmarketing experience. Vaccine. 2012;30:6918-26 pubmed publisher
    M-M-R™II (measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live; Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corp.) is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella in individuals ? 12 months of age...
  6. Nardone A, Tischer A, Andrews N, Backhouse J, Theeten H, Gatcheva N, et al. Comparison of rubella seroepidemiology in 17 countries: progress towards international disease control targets. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:118-25 pubmed
    To standardize serological surveillance to compare rubella susceptibility in Australia and 16 European countries, and measure progress towards international disease-control targets...
  7. Martínez Torres A, Mosquera M, Sanz J, Ramos B, Echevarria J. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella virus strains from an outbreak in Madrid, Spain, from 2004 to 2005. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:158-63 pubmed publisher
    An outbreak of rubella affected 460 individuals in 2004 and 2005 in the community of Madrid, Spain. Most of the patients were nonvaccinated Latin American immigrants or Spanish males...
  8. Duszak R. Congenital rubella syndrome--major review. Optometry. 2009;80:36-43 pubmed publisher
    Congenital rubella syndrome is a rare disorder with devastating ocular and systemic consequences. Although efforts to eradicate the disease have been in place for some time, some areas of the world continue to be affected by this disease...
  9. Zhu Z, Cui A, Wang H, Zhang Y, Liu C, Wang C, et al. Emergence and continuous evolution of genotype 1E rubella viruses in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:353-63 pubmed publisher
    In China, rubella vaccination was introduced into the national immunization program in 2008, and a rubella epidemic occurred in the same year...
  10. Ai Theng Cheong -, Ee Ming Khoo -. Prevalence of rubella susceptibility among pregnant mothers in a community-based antenatal clinic in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2008;20:340-6 pubmed publisher
    routine rubella antibody screening is not done for antenatal mothers in community health clinics in Malaysia. However, congenital rubella syndrome has persisted with its associated health burden...
  11. Ahlgren C, Oden A, Toren K, Andersen O. Multiple sclerosis incidence in the era of measles-mumps-rubella mass vaccinations. Acta Neurol Scand. 2009;119:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Following national Swedish vaccination programs, measles sharply declined in the 1970s, and measles, mumps, and rubella were virtually eliminated in cohorts born from 1981.
  12. Featherstone D, Rota P, Icenogle J, Mulders M, Jee Y, Ahmed H, et al. Expansion of the global measles and rubella laboratory network 2005-09. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet) has been developed since 2000 to currently include 690 laboratories serving 183 ..
  13. Rainey J, Danovaro Holliday M, Magloire R, Kananda G, Lee C, Chamouillet H, et al. Haiti 2007-2008 national measles-rubella vaccination campaign: implications for rubella elimination. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 2:S616-21 pubmed publisher
    ..was conducted in Haiti in 2007-2008 to vaccinate all children and adolescents aged 1-19 years with measles-rubella vaccine in support of achieving the Region of the Americas' 2010 goal of eliminating rubella and congenital ..
  14. Tamer G, Dundar D, Caliskan E. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella and cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in western region of Turkey. Clin Invest Med. 2009;32:E43-7 pubmed
    Prenatal screening for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), rubella virus and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infectious agents is an important tool in this process...
  15. Haralambieva I, Oberg A, Ovsyannikova I, Kennedy R, Grill D, Middha S, et al. Genome-wide characterization of transcriptional patterns in high and low antibody responders to rubella vaccination. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62149 pubmed publisher
    Immune responses to current rubella vaccines demonstrate significant inter-individual variability...
  16. Abernathy E, Hübschen J, Muller C, Jin L, Brown D, Komase K, et al. Status of global virologic surveillance for rubella viruses. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S524-32 pubmed publisher
    The suspected measles case definition captures rubella cases. Therefore, measles surveillance will be improved in the course of the control and eventual elimination of rubella transmission...
  17. Claus C, Tzeng W, Liebert U, Frey T. Rubella virus-induced superinfection exclusion studied in cells with persisting replicons. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2769-73 pubmed
    For the first time, homologous superinfection exclusion was documented for rubella virus (RUB) by using Vero cells harbouring persisting RUB replicons...
  18. Wandinger K, Saschenbrecker S, Steinhagen K, Scheper T, Meyer W, Bartelt U, et al. Diagnosis of recent primary rubella virus infections: significance of glycoprotein-based IgM serology, IgG avidity and immunoblot analysis. J Virol Methods. 2011;174:85-93 pubmed publisher
    Reliable serodiagnosis of rubella virus (RV) infections requires discrimination of specific IgM induced by primary rubella from persistent, reactivated or non-specific IgM reactivity...
  19. Ilkow C, Goping I, Hobman T. The Rubella virus capsid is an anti-apoptotic protein that attenuates the pore-forming ability of Bax. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001291 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the multifunctional capsid protein of Rubella virus is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis...
  20. . Progress toward control of rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome --- worldwide, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1307-10 pubmed
    b>Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in a woman's pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, or an infant born with birth defects ..
  21. Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini M, Di Pietrantonj C. Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD004407 pubmed publisher
    Mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) are serious diseases that can lead to potentially fatal illness, disability and death...
  22. Matthews J, Tzeng W, Frey T. Determinants in the maturation of rubella virus p200 replicase polyprotein precursor. J Virol. 2012;86:6457-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RUBV), a positive-strand RNA virus, replicates its RNA within membrane-associated replication complexes (RCs) in the cytoplasm of infected cells...
  23. Hu J, Tao L, Shen J, Wang Y. [Study on the epidemiological characteristics of rubella from 1990-2006 in Shanghai]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2007;28:645-8 pubmed
    This paper analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of rubella in Shanghai from 1990 to 2006.
  24. Ameratunga R, Woon S, Koopmans W, French J. Cellular and molecular characterisation of the hyper immunoglobulin M syndrome associated with congenital rubella infection. J Clin Immunol. 2009;29:99-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome (HIM) is a rare group of immune deficiency disorders characterised by normal or increased serum IgM with normal or reduced IgG, IgA and IgE...
  25. Tahita M, Hübschen J, Tarnagda Z, Ernest D, Charpentier E, Kremer J, et al. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Burkina Faso. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:164 pubmed publisher
    Despite the serious consequences of rubella infection during early pregnancy, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence in a number of African countries including Burkina Faso.
  26. Shourie S, Jackson C, Cheater F, Bekker H, Edlin R, Tubeuf S, et al. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a web based decision aid to support parents' decisions about their child's Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccine. 2013;31:6003-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of a web based decision aid versus a leaflet versus, usual practice in reducing parents' decisional conflict for the first dose MMR vaccination decision. The, impact on MMR vaccine uptake was also explored...
  27. Saffar M, Ajami A, Khalilian A, Saffar H. The impact of maternal measles-rubella immunization on the 12-month-old infant's immune response to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine immunogenicity. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:845-7 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to assess the roles of maternal measles-rubella (MR) vaccination before pregnancy on the persistence of passive immunity against MR in their infant before measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization and the effects ..
  28. Hanaoka M, Hisano M, Watanabe N, Sugawara K, Kambe Y, Kanda E, et al. Changes in the prevalence of the measles, rubella, varicella-zoster, and mumps virus antibody titers in Japanese pregnant women. Vaccine. 2013;31:2343-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, after adjusting for age, low antibody titers of measles (? 4 via the neutralization test [NT]), rubella (? 16 via the hemagglutination inhibition [HI]), and varicella and mumps (plus minus or negative on the enzyme-..
  29. Stowe J, Andrews N, Taylor B, Miller E. No evidence of an increase of bacterial and viral infections following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:1422-5 pubmed publisher
    ..appeared to be a reduced risk of severe bacterial infection in the three months following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR)...
  30. Lacapere F, Magloire R, Danovaro Holliday M, Flannery B, Chamoulliet H, Celestin E. The use of rapid coverage monitoring in the national rubella vaccination campaign, Haiti 2007-2008. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 2:S698-705 pubmed publisher
    Prior to introduction of rubella vaccine in Haiti's national immunization program, the Haitian government conducted a nationwide rubella-measles immunization campaign targeting persons 1-19 years of age to accelerate elimination of ..
  31. Rota P, Brown K, Hübschen J, Muller C, Icenogle J, Chen M, et al. Improving global virologic surveillance for measles and rubella. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S506-13 pubmed publisher
    An important aspect of laboratory surveillance for measles and rubella is the genetic characterization of circulating wild-type viruses to support molecular epidemiologic studies and to track transmission pathways...
  32. Mo X, Xu L, Yang Q, Feng H, Peng J, Zhang Y, et al. Microarray profiling analysis uncovers common molecular mechanisms of rubella virus, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in ECV304 cells. Curr Mol Med. 2011;11:481-8 pubmed
    ..cardiovascular diseases in perinatal period, changes in mRNA expression levels of ECV304 cells infected by rubella virus (RUBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were analyzed using a ..
  33. Ferezin R, Bertolini D, Demarchi I. [Prevalence of positive sorology for HIV, hepatitis B, toxoplasmosis and rubella in pregnant women from the northwestern region of the state of Paraná]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2013;35:66-70 pubmed
    To ascertain the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), toxoplasmosis and rubella infections in pregnant women in northwestern Paraná.
  34. Abernathy E, Cabezas C, Sun H, Zheng Q, Chen M, Castillo Solorzano C, et al. Confirmation of rubella within 4 days of rash onset: comparison of rubella virus RNA detection in oral fluid with immunoglobulin M detection in serum or oral fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:182-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus infection is typically diagnosed by the identification of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in serum, but approximately 50% of serum samples from rubella cases collected on the day of rash onset are ..
  35. Shah I, Bhatnagar S. Antenatal diagnostic problem of congenital rubella. Indian J Pediatr. 2010;77:450-1 pubmed publisher
    We present a preterm neonate who developed congenital rubella syndrome in a mother who had rubella at 5 months of gestation. An amniocentesis was done in the mother at that time but amniotic fluid rubella PCR was negative...
  36. Castillo Solorzano C, Reef S, Morice A, Vascones N, Chévez A, Castalia Soares R, et al. Rubella vaccination of unknowingly pregnant women during mass campaigns for rubella and congenital rubella syndrome elimination, the Americas 2001-2008. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 2:S713-7 pubmed publisher
    Due to the significant teratogenicity of rubella virus and the use of a live-attentuated vaccine, pregnancy is a contraindication of receipt of rubella vaccine (RCV)...
  37. Davidkin I, Jokinen S, Broman M, Leinikki P, Peltola H. Persistence of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in an MMR-vaccinated cohort: a 20-year follow-up. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:950-6 pubmed publisher
    The persistence of antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella induced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and the kinetics of antibody decline after the second MMR vaccine dose were studied in the same cohort for 20 years.
  38. Birnbaum A, Tessler H, Schultz K, Farber M, Gao W, Lin P, et al. Epidemiologic relationship between fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis and the United States rubella vaccination program. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:424-428 pubmed
    To investigate an epidemiologic association between Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI) and the rubella vaccination program in the United States.
  39. Dhiman N, Haralambieva I, Kennedy R, Vierkant R, O Byrne M, Ovsyannikova I, et al. SNP/haplotype associations in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes and immunity to rubella vaccine. Immunogenetics. 2010;62:197-210 pubmed publisher
    ..between individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/haplotypes and immune outcomes after two doses of rubella vaccine...
  40. Waaijenborg S, Hahné S, Mollema L, Smits G, Berbers G, van der Klis F, et al. Waning of maternal antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in communities with contrasting vaccination coverage. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:10-6 pubmed publisher
    The combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has been successfully administered for >20 years. Because of this, protection by maternal antibodies in infants born to vaccinated mothers might be negatively affected.
  41. Byrne L, Brant L, Reynolds C, Ramsay M. Seroprevalence of low rubella IgG antibody levels among antenatal women in England tested by NHS Blood and Transplant: 2004-2009. Is rubella susceptibility increasing?. Vaccine. 2012;30:161-7 pubmed publisher
    Antenatal testing for rubella susceptibility is undertaken to identify women at risk of exposure during pregnancy and to target post-partum immunisation...
  42. Papania M, Wallace G, Rota P, Icenogle J, Fiebelkorn A, Armstrong G, et al. Elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome from the Western hemisphere: the US experience. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:148-55 pubmed publisher
    To verify the elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) from the Western hemisphere, the Pan American Health Organization requested each member country to compile a national elimination report...
  43. Hübschen J, Kremer J, de Landtsheer S, Muller C. A multiplex TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of measles and rubella virus. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:246-50 pubmed publisher
    Measles and rubella virus cause fever/rash diseases that are difficult to differentiate clinically. Both viruses can be detected in the same clinical specimens and are propagated on the same cell cultures...
  44. Chen M, Zhu Z, Zhang Y, Favors S, Xu W, Featherstone D, et al. An indirect immunocolorimetric assay to detect rubella virus infected cells. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:414-8 pubmed
    An indirect immunocolorimetric assay (ICA) to detect rubella virus infected cells by the naked eye was developed...
  45. Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova I, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, Poland G. Associations between cytokine/cytokine receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms and humoral immunity to measles, mumps and rubella in a Somali population. Tissue Antigens. 2008;72:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphisms (SNPs) using Illumina GoldenGate genotyping to determine associations with measles, mumps and rubella immunity. Overall, 61 significant associations (P < or = 0...
  46. Siemerink M, Sijssens K, de Groot Mijnes J, De Boer J. Rubella virus-associated uveitis in a nonvaccinated child. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:899-900 pubmed
    To report presumed Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU) associated with Rubella virus (RV)-specific intraocular antibody production in a child who was not vaccinated against rubella.
  47. Pourabbas B, Ziyaeyan M, Alborzi A, Mardaneh J. Efficacy of measles and rubella vaccination one year after the nationwide campaign in Shiraz, Iran. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:43-6 pubmed
    ..In Iran, the national measles-rubella campaign, targeting individuals aged 5-25 years, was initiated in December 2003.
  48. Socan M, Berginc N. High seroprevalence of varicella, measles, mumps, rubella and pertussis antibodies in first-grade medical students. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2008;120:422-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to investigate seropositivity for five vaccine-preventable communicable diseases - varicella, measles, mumps, rubella and pertussis - in a sample of first-grade medical students.
  49. Metcalf C, Bjørnstad O, Ferrari M, Klepac P, Bharti N, Lopez Gatell H, et al. The epidemiology of rubella in Mexico: seasonality, stochasticity and regional variation. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1029-38 pubmed publisher
    The factors underlying the temporal dynamics of rubella outside of Europe and North America are not well known...
  50. Ege M, Herzum I, Buchele G, Krauss Etschmann S, Lauener R, Bitter S, et al. Specific IgE to allergens in cord blood is associated with maternal immunity to Toxoplasma gondii and rubella virus. Allergy. 2008;63:1505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Various studies have found reduced prevalences of atopic sensitization and atopic diseases in children previously exposed to infections or living conditions with a high microbial burden, such as the farming environment...
  51. Theeten H, Hutse V, Hens N, Yavuz Y, Hoppenbrouwers K, Beutels P, et al. Are we hitting immunity targets? The 2006 age-specific seroprevalence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus in Belgium. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoglobulins against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and diphtheria at all available ages (1-65 years), and against tetanus in >40-year-olds, were measured ..
  52. Das S, Ramachandran V, Arora R. Cytomegalovirus and rubella infection in children and pregnant mothers--a hospital based study. J Commun Dis. 2007;39:113-7 pubmed
    ..Vertical transmission can lead to serious congenital infections. Rubella virus causes serious disease after vertical transmission but mostly remain subclinical or cause a trivial ..
  53. Hardelid P, Williams D, Dezateux C, Tookey P, Peckham C, Cubitt W, et al. Analysis of rubella antibody distribution from newborn dried blood spots using finite mixture models. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1698-706 pubmed publisher
    ..in 2004 in North Thames and anonymously linked to birth registration data, were tested for maternally acquired rubella IgG antibody as a proxy for maternal antibody concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
  54. Wang C, Zhu Z, Xu Q, Xu A, Fang X, Song L, et al. Rubella epidemics and genotypic distribution of the rubella virus in Shandong Province, China, in 1999-2010. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42013 pubmed publisher
    The rubella vaccine was introduced into the immunization program in 1995 in the Shandong province, China. A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented at different stages of measles control in Shandong province.
  55. Ruokonen P, Metzner S, Ucer A, Torun N, Hofmann J, Pleyer U. Intraocular antibody synthesis against rubella virus and other microorganisms in Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:565-71 pubmed publisher
    Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) is a common intraocular disease of uncertain etiology that has recently been related to rubella virus (RV) infection.
  56. Esteghamati A, Gouya M, Zahraei S, Dadras M, Rashidi A, Mahoney F. Progress in measles and rubella elimination in Iran. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:1137-41 pubmed
    ..Prevention and control of measles and rubella is a high priority for the Islamic Republic of Iran...
  57. Andrus J, de Quadros C, Solorzano C, Periago M, Henderson D. Measles and rubella eradication in the Americas. Vaccine. 2011;29 Suppl 4:D91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Implementation of measles elimination strategies will uncover the "hidden" disease burden of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome...
  58. Metcalf C, Lessler J, Klepac P, Morice A, Grenfell B, Bjørnstad O. Structured models of infectious disease: inference with discrete data. Theor Popul Biol. 2012;82:275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We illustrate the general approach by developing a model of rubella in Costa Rica...
  59. Muscat M, Zimmerman L, Bacci S, Bang H, Glismann S, Mølbak K, et al. Toward rubella elimination in Europe: an epidemiological assessment. Vaccine. 2012;30:1999-2007 pubmed publisher
    The elimination of rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by 2015 are established goals for Europe. Our aim was to review the epidemiology of rubella in relation to this goal.
  60. Heijstek M, van Gageldonk P, Berbers G, Wulffraat N. Differences in persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between children with rheumatic disease and healthy controls: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:948-54 pubmed publisher
    To compare the persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and healthy controls.
  61. Reef S, Strebel P, Dabbagh A, Gacic Dobo M, Cochi S. Progress toward control of rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome--worldwide, 2009. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S24-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella, usually a mild rash illness in children and adults, can cause serious consequences when a pregnant woman is infected, particularly in early pregnancy...
  62. Goodson J, Chu S, Rota P, Moss W, Featherstone D, Vijayaraghavan M, et al. Research priorities for global measles and rubella control and eradication. Vaccine. 2012;30:4709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..services, and (4) measles eradication activities should be used to accelerate control and elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  63. Kombich J, Muchai P, Tukei P, Borus P. Rubella seroprevalence among primary and pre- primary school pupils at Moi's Bridge location, Uasin Gishu District, Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:269 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella is an infectious and generally mild childhood viral disease...
  64. Figueiredo C, Oliveira M, Curti S, Afonso A, Frugis Yu A, Araujo J, et al. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of rubella virus isolated in São Paulo, Brazil during 1997-2004. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1831-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  65. Matthews J, Tzeng W, Frey T. Analysis of the function of cytoplasmic fibers formed by the rubella virus nonstructural replicase proteins. Virology. 2010;406:212-27 pubmed publisher
    The P150 and P90 replicase proteins of rubella virus (RUBV), a plus-strand RNA Togavirus, produce a unique cytoplasmic fiber network resembling microtubules...
  66. Wensing B, Relvas L, Caspers L, Valentincic N, Stunf S, de Groot Mijnes J, et al. Comparison of rubella virus- and herpes virus-associated anterior uveitis: clinical manifestations and visual prognosis. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1905-10 pubmed publisher
    To compare the clinical characteristics and visual prognosis of patients with anterior uveitis (AU) and intraocular fluid analysis positive for rubella virus (RV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), or varicella zoster virus (VZV).
  67. Manikkavasagan G, Bukasa A, Brown K, Cohen B, Ramsay M. Oral fluid testing during 10 years of rubella elimination, England and Wales. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1532-8 pubmed publisher
    Surveillance of rubella in England and Wales has included immunoglobulin M testing of oral (crevicular) fluid from reported case-patients since 1994...
  68. Schuster V, Otto W, Maurer L, Tcherepnine P, Pfletschinger U, Kindler K, et al. Immunogenicity and safety assessments after one and two doses of a refrigerator-stable tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine in healthy children during the second year of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:724-30 pubmed publisher
    Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and varicella (V) vaccines are often coadministered at 1 clinic visit...
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