chikungunya fever


Summary: An acute infection caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS characterized by RASH; FEVER; JOINT PAINS; CONJUNCTIVITIS; MENINGOENCEPHALITIS; LYMPHOPENIA; and THROMBOCYTOPENIA.

Top Publications

  1. Gould E, Gallian P, De Lamballerie X, Charrel R. First cases of autochthonous dengue fever and chikungunya fever in France: from bad dream to reality!. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1702-4 pubmed publisher
  2. Tun M, Thant K, Inoue S, Nabeshima T, Aoki K, Kyaw A, et al. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1378-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene. ..
  3. Horwood P, Reimer L, Dagina R, Susapu M, Bande G, Katusele M, et al. Outbreak of chikungunya virus infection, Vanimo, Papua New Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1535-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chikungunya virus of the Eastern/Central/Southern African genotype harboring the E1:A226V mutation was identified. This ongoing outbreak has spread to ?8 other provinces and has had a harmful effect on public health. ..
  4. Mordecai E, Cohen J, Evans M, Gudapati P, Johnson L, Lippi C, et al. Detecting the impact of temperature on transmission of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya using mechanistic models. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005568 pubmed publisher
    ..Such brief transmission windows limit the likelihood of major epidemics following disease introduction in temperate zones. ..
  5. Korman A, Alikhan A, Kaffenberger B. Viral exanthems: An update on laboratory testing of the adult patient. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76:538-550 pubmed publisher
    ..We review viral exanthems based on clinical features and discuss the available and optimal laboratory techniques to assist the dermatologist in a targeted workup. ..
  6. Paniz Mondolfi A, Rodriguez Morales A, Blohm G, Marquez M, Villamil Gomez W. ChikDenMaZika Syndrome: the challenge of diagnosing arboviral infections in the midst of concurrent epidemics. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2016;15:42 pubmed publisher
  7. Carrillo Hernández M, Ruiz Saenz J, Villamizar L, Gómez Rangel S, Martínez Gutierrez M. Co-circulation and simultaneous co-infection of dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses in patients with febrile syndrome at the Colombian-Venezuelan border. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18:61 pubmed publisher
  8. Agha S, Chepkorir E, Mulwa F, Tigoi C, Arum S, Guarido M, et al. Vector competence of populations of Aedes aegypti from three distinct cities in Kenya for chikungunya virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005860 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti susceptibility and transmission of CHIKV. In addition to viremia levels, temperature and feeding behavior of Ae. aegypti may also contribute to the observed disease patterns. ..
  9. Cavalcanti L, Freitas A, Brasil P, Cunha R. Surveillance of deaths caused by arboviruses in Brazil: from dengue to chikungunya. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:583-585 pubmed publisher
    ..The major challenge ahead is to investigate deaths suspected of occurring due to arbovirus infections and to understand the role of each infection in the unfavourable outcome. ..

More Information


  1. Quyen N, Kien D, Rabaa M, Tuan N, Vi T, Van Tan L, et al. Chikungunya and Zika Virus Cases Detected against a Backdrop of Endemic Dengue Transmission in Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:146-150 pubmed publisher
    ..Zika viruses were linked to French Polynesian strains, chikungunya to Cambodian strains. Against a backdrop of endemic dengue transmission, chikungunya and Zika present an additional arboviral disease burden in Vietnam. ..
  2. Humphrey J, Cleton N, Reusken C, Glesby M, Koopmans M, Abu Raddad L. Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005707 pubmed publisher
    ..However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity of CHIKV epidemiologic research from the region suggests that CHIKV transmission is currently underrecognized. ..
  3. Göertz G, Vogels C, Geertsema C, Koenraadt C, Pijlman G. Mosquito co-infection with Zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of Aedes aegypti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005654 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that Ae. aegypti can transmit both ZIKV and CHIKV via a single bite. Furthermore, co-infection of ZIKV and CHIKV does not influence the vector competence of Ae. aegypti. ..
  4. Staples J, Fischer M. Chikungunya virus in the Americas--what a vectorborne pathogen can do. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:887-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Omarjee R, Prat C, Flusin O, Boucau S, Tenebray B, Merle O, et al. Importance of case definition to monitor ongoing outbreak of chikungunya virus on a background of actively circulating dengue virus, St Martin, December 2013 to January 2014. Euro Surveill. 2014;19: pubmed
  6. Elsinga J, Gerstenbluth I, van der Ploeg S, Halabi Y, Lourents N, Burgerhof J, et al. Long-term Chikungunya Sequelae in Curaçao: Burden, Determinants, and a Novel Classification Tool. J Infect Dis. 2017;216:573-581 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, there is no consensus on how to define chikungunya chronicity...
  7. Gerardin P, Fianu A, Michault A, Mussard C, Boussaïd K, Rollot O, et al. Predictors of Chikungunya rheumatism: a prognostic survey ancillary to the TELECHIK cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R9 pubmed publisher
  8. Cardoso C, Paploski I, Kikuti M, Rodrigues M, Silva M, Campos G, et al. Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness Associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses, Salvador, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:2274-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Little E, Bajwa W, Shaman J. Local environmental and meteorological conditions influencing the invasive mosquito Ae. albopictus and arbovirus transmission risk in New York City. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005828 pubmed publisher
    ..The methods applied here can be used to monitor and identify areas of risk for other imported vector-borne diseases. ..
  10. Fauci A, Morens D. Zika Virus in the Americas--Yet Another Arbovirus Threat. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:601-4 pubmed publisher
  11. Oon L, Ng L. Chikungunya in Singapore--the battle continues. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2014;43:325-7 pubmed
  12. Weaver S, Lecuit M. Chikungunya virus and the global spread of a mosquito-borne disease. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1231-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Donalisio M, Freitas A, Zuben A. Arboviruses emerging in Brazil: challenges for clinic and implications for public health. Rev Saude Publica. 2017;51:30 pubmed publisher
  14. Faruque L, Zaman R, Gurley E, Massung R, Alamgir A, Galloway R, et al. Prevalence and clinical presentation of Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella and chikungunya virus infections among hospital-based febrile patients from December 2008 to November 2009 in Bangladesh. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:141 pubmed publisher
    ..Rickettsial infections are frequent yet under-recognized cause of febrile illness in Bangladesh. Clinical guidelines should be revised so that local clinicians can diagnose rickettsial infections and provide appropriate drug treatment. ..
  15. Roth A, Mercier A, Lepers C, Hoy D, Duituturaga S, Benyon E, et al. Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections - an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014. Euro Surveill. 2014;19: pubmed
  16. Campos G, Albuquerque Bandeira A, Diniz Rocha V, Dias J, Carvalho R, Sardi S. First Detection of Chikungunya Virus in Breast Milk. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36:1015-1017 pubmed publisher
    ..The baby's CHIKV serology and reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were negative. The detection of CHIKV in milk raises clinical and epidemiologic questions. ..
  17. Carvalho C, Casseb S, Gonçalves R, Silva E, Gomes A, Vasconcelos P. Bovine lactoferrin activity against Chikungunya and Zika viruses. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1749-1754 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that bLf antimicrobial properties are extendable to CHIKV and ZIKV, underlining a generic inhibition mechanism that can be explored to develop a potential strategy against their infections. ..
  18. Weaver S. Arrival of chikungunya virus in the new world: prospects for spread and impact on public health. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e2921 pubmed publisher
  19. Brito C, Teixeira M. Increased number of deaths during a chikungunya epidemic in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:650-651 pubmed publisher
    ..However, considering the temporal overlap, some of these deaths may have been caused by the aggravation of pre-existing comorbidities or complications caused directly by chikungunya virus infection. ..
  20. Prat C, Flusin O, Panella A, Tenebray B, Lanciotti R, Leparc Goffart I. Evaluation of commercially available serologic diagnostic tests for chikungunya virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:2129-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, accurate diagnostic methods are essential for differentiating the infections. We evaluated 4 CHIKV serologic diagnostic tests, 2 of which showed poor sensitivity and specificity. ..
  21. Akiner M, Demirci B, Babuadze G, Robert V, Schaffner F. Spread of the Invasive Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Black Sea Region Increases Risk of Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika Outbreaks in Europe. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004664 pubmed publisher
  22. Rezza G. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas. Pathog Glob Health. 2014;108:349-55 pubmed publisher
  23. Sharp T, Roth N, Torres J, Ryff K, Pérez Rodríguez N, Mercado C, et al. Chikungunya cases identified through passive surveillance and household investigations--Puerto Rico, May 5-August 12, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:1121-8 pubmed
    ..Residents of and travelers to the tropics can minimize their risk for both chikungunya and dengue by taking standard measures to avoid mosquito bites. ..
  24. Kautz T, Díaz González E, Erasmus J, Malo García I, Langsjoen R, Patterson E, et al. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:2070-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. ..
  25. Rezza G, El Sawaf G, Faggioni G, Vescio F, Al Ameri R, De Santis R, et al. Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1351-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, 116 dengue and 49 chikungunya cases were diagnosed. Dengue virus type 2 was the predominant serotype. The co-circulation of these viruses indicates that mosquitoborne infections represent a public health threat in Yemen. ..
  26. Tan C, Wong P, Li M, Yang H, Ng L, O Neill S. wMel limits zika and chikungunya virus infection in a Singapore Wolbachia-introgressed Ae. aegypti strain, wMel-Sg. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005496 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti genetic background. These results also strongly suggest that female Aedes aegypti carrying Wolbachia will have a reduced capacity to transmit ZIKV and CHIKV. ..
  27. Cunha R, Trinta K. Chikungunya virus: clinical aspects and treatment - A Review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:523-531 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to present current information regarding the clinical aspects and treatment of Chikungunya virus infection. ..
  28. Braga J, Bressan C, Dalvi A, Calvet G, Daumas R, Rodrigues N, et al. Accuracy of Zika virus disease case definition during simultaneous Dengue and Chikungunya epidemics. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179725 pubmed publisher
    ..In areas where multiple arboviruses circulate, the presence of rash with pruritus or conjunctival hyperemia, without any other general clinical manifestations such as fever, petechia or anorexia is the best Zika case definition. ..
  29. Gadia C, Manirakiza A, Tekpa G, Konamna X, Vickos U, Nakoune E. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008-2010. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:735 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-infection with at least two of these pathogens was also found. These findings suggest that a systematic investigation should be undertaken of infectious agents that cause febrile jaundice in the CAR. ..
  30. Alto B, Wiggins K, Eastmond B, Velez D, Lounibos L, Lord C. Transmission risk of two chikungunya lineages by invasive mosquito vectors from Florida and the Dominican Republic. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005724 pubmed publisher
    Between 2014 and 2016 more than 3,800 imported human cases of chikungunya fever in Florida highlight the high risk for local transmission...
  31. Blagrove M, Caminade C, Waldmann E, Sutton E, Wardeh M, Baylis M. Co-occurrence of viruses and mosquitoes at the vectors' optimal climate range: An underestimated risk to temperate regions?. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005604 pubmed publisher
  32. Sá P, Nunes M, Leite I, Campelo M, Leão C, Souza J, et al. Chikungunya virus infection with severe neurologic manifestations: report of four fatal cases. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2017;50:265-268 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is important, as very few cases in the literature reporting death due to atypical Chikungunya virus infection are available. ..
  33. Nhan T, Musso D. The burden of chikungunya in the Pacific. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21:e47-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Dutta S, Tripathi A. Association of toll-like receptor polymorphisms with susceptibility to chikungunya virus infection. Virology. 2017;511:207-213 pubmed publisher
    ..Chikungunya patients with rs179010-CC genotype showed significantly high IFN-? level(p = 0.003). Thus, these TLR variants might act as potential prognostic biomarkers for predicting CHIKV susceptibility among uninfected individuals. ..
  35. . Chikungunya outbreak--Cambodia, February-March 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:737-40 pubmed
    ..Public health agencies and policymakers in affected and nearby unaffected areas of Asia and elsewhere should be alert to the potential spread and reemergence of CHIKV. ..
  36. Broeckel R, Fox J, Haese N, Kreklywich C, Sukulpovi Petty S, Legasse A, et al. Therapeutic administration of a recombinant human monoclonal antibody reduces the severity of chikungunya virus disease in rhesus macaques. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005637 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results show promising therapeutic activity of a human anti-CHIKV mAb in rhesus macaques and provide proof-of-principle for its possible use in humans to treat active CHIKV infections. ..
  37. Foissac M, Javelle E, Ray S, Guérin B, Simon F. Post-Chikungunya rheumatoid arthritis, Saint Martin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:530-2 pubmed publisher
  38. Horwood P, Buchy P. Chikungunya. Rev Sci Tech. 2015;34:479-89 pubmed
    ..The lack of a commercial vaccine and the failure of vector control strategies to limit the expansion of chikungunya have prompted the need for further options to prevent the spread of this disease. ..
  39. Mansuy J, Grouteau E, Mengelle C, Claudet I, Izopet J. Chikungunya in the Caribbean--threat for Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1423-5 pubmed publisher
  40. Reis N, Silva A, Reis E, Silva F, Reis I. Viruses vector control proposal: genus Aedes emphasis. Braz J Infect Dis. 2017;21:457-463 pubmed publisher
    ..Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness. ..
  41. Lucena Silva N, Assunção M, Ramos F, Azevedo F, Lessa R, Cordeiro M, et al. Encephalitis associated with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion due to chikungunya infection in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2017;50:417-422 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of encephalitis caused by CHIKV infection associated with an atypical presentation of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, evolving to cognitive impairment and apraxia of speech. ..
  42. Rodriguez Morales A, Paniz Mondolfi A. Venezuela: far from the path to dengue and chikungunya control. J Clin Virol. 2015;66:60-1 pubmed publisher
  43. Dariano D, Taitt C, Jacobsen K, Bangura U, Bockarie A, Bockarie M, et al. Surveillance of Vector-Borne Infections (Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria) in Bo, Sierra Leone, 2012-2013. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1151-1154 pubmed publisher
  44. Cassadou S, Boucau S, Petit Sinturel M, Huc P, Leparc Goffart I, Ledrans M. Emergence of chikungunya fever on the French side of Saint Martin island, October to December 2013. Euro Surveill. 2014;19: pubmed
  45. Leparc Goffart I, Nougairede A, Cassadou S, Prat C, de Lamballerie X. Chikungunya in the Americas. Lancet. 2014;383:514 pubmed publisher
  46. Fortuna C, Remoli M, Rizzo C, Benedetti E, Fiorentini C, Bella A, et al. Imported arboviral infections in Italy, July 2014-October 2015: a National Reference Laboratory report. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:216 pubmed publisher
  47. Halstead S. Reappearance of chikungunya, formerly called dengue, in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:557-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses. ..
  48. Ng L. Immunopathology of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Lessons Learned from Patients and Animal Models. Annu Rev Virol. 2017;4:413-427 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding key cellular factors in CHIKV infection and the interplay with the immune system will aid in the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches to combat this painful viral disease in humans. ..
  49. Balavoine S, Pircher M, Hoen B, Herrmann Storck C, Najioullah F, Madeux B, et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Chikungunya: Description of All Cases Diagnosed during the 2014 Outbreak in the French West Indies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:356-360 pubmed publisher
    ..A 2-fold increase in incidence was observed during the year of chikungunya outbreak. This study supports prior reports suggesting that GBS may be a complication of chikungunya. ..
  50. Costa da Silva A, Ioshino R, Petersen V, Lima A, Cunha M, Wiley M, et al. First report of naturally infected Aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ECSA in the Americas. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005630 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil...
  51. Krystosik A, Curtis A, Buritica P, Ajayakumar J, Squires R, Dávalos D, et al. Community context and sub-neighborhood scale detail to explain dengue, chikungunya and Zika patterns in Cali, Colombia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181208 pubmed publisher
    ..Resulting risk maps with local context could be leveraged to increase vector-control efficiency- targeting key areas of environmental risk. ..
  52. Pereira L, Villas Bôas R, Scott S, Nóbrega P, Sobreira Neto M, Castro J, et al. Encephalitis associated with the chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Brazil: report of 2 cases with neuroimaging findings. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2017;50:413-416 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurologic complications of chikungunya infection have been reported. Here we report the clinical and neuroimaging data of 2 patients with chikungunya-associated encephalitis during the recent Brazilian epidemic. ..
  53. Aubry M, Teissier A, Roche C, Richard V, Yan A, Zisou K, et al. Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:724-6 pubmed publisher