togaviridae infections


Summary: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Karabatsos N, Lewis A, Calisher C, Hunt A, Roehrig J. Identification of Highlands J virus from a Florida horse. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988;39:603-6 pubmed
    ..These tests demonstrate that strain 64A-1519 is a strain of HJ virus distinct from WEE virus. ..
  2. Sugamata M, Ahmed A, Miura T, Takasu T, Kono R, Ogata T, et al. Seroepidemiological study of infection with West Nile virus in Karachi, Pakistan, in 1983 and 1985. J Med Virol. 1988;26:243-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first report to show the prevalence of WN virus infection in Karachi, Pakistan. ..
  3. Hawkes R, Pamplin J, Boughton C, Naim H. Arbovirus infections of humans in high-risk areas of south-eastern Australia: a continuing study. Med J Aust. 1993;159:159-62 pubmed
    ..This needs to be considered in public health policy in these areas. ..
  4. Diaz L, Spinsanti L, Almiron W, Contigiani M. UNA virus: first report of human infection in Argentina. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:109-10 pubmed
    ..None sera were found positive for MAYV neutralizing antibodies. This is the first report of human infections by UNAV in Argentina...
  5. Shahar A, Schupper H, Lustig S, Levin R, Friedmann A, Fuchs P. Neuronal cell cultures as a model for assessing neurotoxicity induced by encephalitic viruses. Neurotoxicology. 1992;13:171-7 pubmed
    ..This peculiar arrangement of the virions, entrapped between the myelin lamellae may lead to a novel concept in the understanding of viral infection...
  6. Tyor W, Wesselingh S, Levine B, Griffin D. Long term intraparenchymal Ig secretion after acute viral encephalitis in mice. J Immunol. 1992;149:4016-20 pubmed
    ..The persistence of SV RNA suggests that viral protein may continue to be made, providing the impetus for the continued presence of SV-specific B cells in the brain...
  7. Pastoret P, Boulanger D, Mignon B, Waxweiler S. [Asymptomatic carriage of Pestivirus in ruminants]. Rev Sci Tech. 1992;11:1087-96 pubmed
    ..The presence of a small number of asymptomatic carriers enables the virus to circulate within a herd by horizontal transmission, leading to the birth of a new generation of asymptomatic carriers. ..
  8. Maheshwari R, Srikantan V, Bhartiya D. Chloroquine enhances replication of Semliki Forest virus and encephalomyocarditis virus in mice. J Virol. 1991;65:992-5 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possible connection between the increased spread of AIDS in endemic malaria areas and the wide use of CHL in those areas for the chemotherapy of malaria. ..
  9. Fitzmaurice M. Physiological relationships among stress, viruses, and cancer in experimental animals. Int J Neurosci. 1988;39:307-24 pubmed
    ..Various biologic factors, such as sex, genetic substrain differences and common interfering viral infections, must also be controlled or taken into consideration. ..

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Porter A, Itzhaki J. Gene targeting in human somatic cells. Complete inactivation of an interferon-inducible gene. Eur J Biochem. 1993;218:273-81 pubmed
    ..Plaque assays of infected 6-16-/- cells showed that expression of the 6-16 gene was not required for the induction by interferon of an antiviral state against encephalomyocarditis virus, semliki forest virus or cocal virus. ..
  2. Horling J, Vene S, Franzen C, Niklasson B. Detection of Ockelbo virus RNA in skin biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:2004-9 pubmed
    ..Acute- and convalescent-phase sera as well as lymphocytes collected during the convalescent phase were negative by the polymerase chain reaction. No infectious virus could be recovered from any of the specimens...
  3. Kraaijeveld C, Oosterlaken T, Snijders A, Benaissa Trouw B, Ekstijn G, Snippe H. A vaccine against Semliki Forest virus consisting of a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody cross-linked to a protein which contains virus-specific T-helper cell epitopes. Antiviral Res. 1992;19:275-84 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that SFV is neutralized by ab3 antibodies shortly after challenge, preventing, thereby, virus multiplication to levels sufficient to provoke a measurable booster response. ..
  4. Vargin V, Semenov B, Stobetsky V. T-cells of virus-infected mice produce a lymphokine which activates the autoreactivity of intact mouse lymphocytes. Acta Virol. 1991;35:94-7 pubmed
    ..Autoreactivity could be induced by the lymphokine only if the LAA producers and acceptors were compatible by the major histocompatibility complex antigens. ..
  5. Sherman L, Griffin D. Pathogenesis of encephalitis induced in newborn mice by virulent and avirulent strains of Sindbis virus. J Virol. 1990;64:2041-6 pubmed
    ..This lack of response does not lead to tolerance and persistent infection but rather to late virus clearance whenever the immune response is initiated. ..
  6. Oosterlaken T, Harmsen M, Jhagjhoor Singh S, Ekstijn G, Kraaijeveld C, Snippe H. A protective monoclonal anti-idiotypic vaccine to lethal Semliki Forest virus infection in BALB/c mice. J Virol. 1991;65:98-102 pubmed
    ..13A321 proved to be genetically restricted to BALB/c mice; even haplotype-identical (H-2d) DBA/2 mice did not respond, and consequently those animals died after infection with virulent SFV. ..
  7. Grosfeld H, Velan B, Leitner M, Cohen S, Lustig S, Lachmi B, et al. Semliki Forest virus E2 envelope epitopes induce a nonneutralizing humoral response which protects mice against lethal challenge. J Virol. 1989;63:3416-22 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, passive transfer experiments demonstrated that in the case of LMN, the protective effect was mainly of a humoral nature. ..
  8. Meek A, Faragher S, Weir R, Dalgarno L. Genetic and phenotypic studies on Ross River virus variants of enhanced virulence selected during mouse passage. Virology. 1989;172:399-407 pubmed
    ..However, 1st, 2nd, and 10th passage level virus induced higher levels of virus-specific RNA synthesis than did RRV NBO in cultured BHK cells. We propose a model for the mechanism of virulence enhancement on passaging RRV NBO in mice. ..
  9. Kumanomido T, Kamada M, Wada R, Kenemaru T, Sugiura T, Akiyama Y. Pathogenicity for horses of original Sagiyama virus, a member of the Getah virus group. Vet Microbiol. 1988;17:367-73 pubmed
    ..i. These clinical signs and virological findings were similar to those of horses infected naturally. The results indicate that Sagiyama virus has pathogenicity for horses and is similar to that of Getah virus. ..
  10. Cooper V, Doster A, Hesse R, Harris N. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: NEB-1 PRRSV infection did not potentiate bacterial pathogens. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1995;7:313-20 pubmed
    ..Findings in phase I indicated that NEB-1 PRRSV does not potentiate bacterial disease while inducing consistent clinical signs, viremia, seroconversion, and microscopic lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  11. Saito S, Kawakita M. Inhibitor of interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase and its relevance to alteration of cellular protein kinase activity level in response to external stimuli. Microbiol Immunol. 1991;35:1105-14 pubmed
    ..Longer IFN treatment (24 hr) led to recovery of the inhibitor activity, but it was overridden by an extensive net synthesis of the PK-I protein. ..
  12. Løken T, Bjerkas I, Larsen H. Experimental pestivirus infections in newborn goat kids. J Comp Pathol. 1990;103:277-88 pubmed
    ..The lymphocyte response to stimulation by phytohaemagglutinin was significantly increased on both sampling occasions in the BDV-inoculated kids, while in the BVDV-inoculated animals, a similar increase was seen only at 8 weeks. ..
  13. Boughton C, Hawkes R, Naim H. Illness caused by a Barmah Forest-like virus in New South Wales. Med J Aust. 1988;148:146-7 pubmed
    ..The present report documents three patients in whom Barmah Forest viral infection appears to have resulted in illness. Barmah Forest virus or a closely-related alphavirus may, as are several other alphaviruses, be pathogenic...
  14. Henry E, Kini G, Larson S, Robins R, Alaghamandan H, Smee D. Synthesis and broad-spectrum antiviral activity of 7,8-dihydro-7-methyl-8-thioxoguanosine. J Med Chem. 1990;33:2127-30 pubmed
    ..Against banzi, Semliki Forest, and San Angelo viruses in mice, 2 was highly active when administered before virus inoculation. ..
  15. Liu Y, King N, Kesson A, Blanden R, Mullbacher A. Flavivirus infection up-regulates the expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility antigens on and enhances T cell recognition of astrocytes in vitro. J Neuroimmunol. 1989;21:157-68 pubmed
    ..Similarly, WNV-infected astrocytes were better stimulators than normal astrocytes for a class II MHC-reactive T cell line, both in terms of T cell proliferation and interleukin release. ..
  16. Aaskov J, Dalglish D, Harper J, Douglas J, Donaldson M, Hertzog P. Natural killer cells in viral arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1987;68:23-32 pubmed
    ..The demonstration that peripheral NK cells could kill autologous synovial cells suggested that NK cells in joints of EPA patients may contribute to the arthritis associated with Ross River virus infection. ..
  17. Naides S. Viral infection including HIV and AIDS. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1994;6:423-8 pubmed
    ..This review highlights efforts made in the past year to elucidate the role of viral infection in rheumatologic disease. ..
  18. Jørgensen J, Johansen A, Hegseth M, Zou J, Robertsen B, Collet B, et al. A recombinant CHSE-214 cell line expressing an Mx1 promoter-reporter system responds to both interferon type I and type II from salmonids and represents a versatile tool to study the IFN-system in teleost fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:1294-303 pubmed
    ..A preliminary study presented herein suggests that both infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV) and salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) may block activation of the Mx promoter in CHSE-Mx10 stimulated with IFN-alpha/beta...
  19. Sissoko D, Ezzedine K, Moendandze A, Giry C, Renault P, Malvy D. Field evaluation of clinical features during chikungunya outbreak in Mayotte, 2005-2006. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:600-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To record and assess the clinical features of chikungunya fever (CHIKF), with a view to enable diagnosis based on clinical criteria rather than costly laboratory procedures in field conditions...
  20. Phillips D, Aaskov J, Atkin C, Wiemers M. Isolation of Kunjin virus from a patient with a naturally acquired infection. Med J Aust. 1992;157:190-1 pubmed
  21. Shibata I, Hatano Y, Nishimura M, Suzuki G, Inaba Y. Isolation of Getah virus from dead fetuses extracted from a naturally infected sow in Japan. Vet Microbiol. 1991;27:385-91 pubmed
    ..One of the viruses was cloned and named the Sakura strain. The Sakura strain was identified as Getah virus by cross-neutralization tests. ..
  22. Pinto A, Morahan P, Brinton M, Stewart D, Gavin E. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of recombinant interferons-alpha, -beta, and -gamma against alphatogavirus, bunyavirus, flavivirus, and herpesvirus infections. J Interferon Res. 1990;10:293-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IFN therapy might be valuable in human infections with these viruses, but that the correct choice of IFN and dose regimen is likely to be important. ..
  23. Truyen U, Kaaden O. Studies on linear epitopes of Semliki Forest virus in protection studies against lethal challenge virus infection. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1991;38:463-7 pubmed
    ..The role of linear epitopes in immunity and their potential use as synthetic vaccines against Alphaviruses are critically discussed. ..
  24. Presley J, Polo J, Johnston R, Brown D. Proteolytic processing of the Sindbis virus membrane protein precursor PE2 is nonessential for growth in vertebrate cells but is required for efficient growth in invertebrate cells. J Virol. 1991;65:1905-9 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequences of two such variants were determined. These variants contained point mutations that restored PE2 cleavage, indicating a genetic linkage between failure to cleave PE2 and failure to grow in mosquito cells. ..
  25. Nettleton P. Pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle. Rev Sci Tech. 1990;9:131-50 pubmed
    ..Serological surveys have shown that many species of free-living ruminants in North America, Europe and Africa have varying prevalence rates of antibodies to pestiviruses...
  26. Jaenson T. Overwintering of Culex mosquitoes in Sweden and their potential as reservoirs of human pathogens. Med Vet Entomol. 1987;1:151-6 pubmed
    ..5. Unless transovarially or venerally infected, Culex females are presumably of no or very limited importance in rural, central Sweden as winter reservoirs for blood-borne pathogens of vertebrates. ..
  27. Tyor W, Stoll G, Griffin D. The characterization of Ia expression during Sindbis virus encephalitis in normal and athymic nude mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1990;49:21-30 pubmed
    ..This suggests that immunocompetent T cells are necessary for "normal" infiltration of inflammatory cells and for Ia expression in the CNS during SV encephalitis. ..
  28. Doherty R. William C. Reeves and arbovirus research in Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;37:87S-93S pubmed
    ..That and the people he influenced in Australia made him a major figure in the development of Australian arbovirus research. ..
  29. Polo J, Davis N, Rice C, Huang H, Johnston R. Molecular analysis of Sindbis virus pathogenesis in neonatal mice by using virus recombinants constructed in vitro. J Virol. 1988;62:2124-33 pubmed
    ..The three diagnostic phenotypes cosegregated according to the origin of the codon for amino acid 114 of E2, confirming the dramatic effect of this single amino acid substitution on these three phenotypes. ..
  30. Kumanomido T, Wada R, Kanemaru T, Kamada M, Hirasawa K, Akiyama Y. Clinical and virological observations on swine experimentally infected with Getah virus. Vet Microbiol. 1988;16:295-301 pubmed
    ..1 g-1) was detected in the inguinal lymph node. Seroconversion was demonstrated in all the pigs on Day 6 p.i. These results suggest that Getah virus is mildly pathogenic for swine, which may play a role as an amplifying host in nature. ..
  31. Brighton S, Prozesky O, de la Harpe A. Chikungunya virus infection. A retrospective study of 107 cases. S Afr Med J. 1983;63:313-5 pubmed
    ..Synovial fluid from 3 patients was analysed. All the patients with persistent joint pain and stiffness had very high antibody titres against CHIK virus. ..
  32. Romero J, Newland J. Diagnosis of viral encephalitides: zoonotic-associated viruses. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:741-2 pubmed
  33. Parsons L, Webb H. IgG subclass responses in brain and serum in Semliki Forest virus demyelinating encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1992;18:351-9 pubmed
    ..Clearly there are differences in the patterns of subclass response between the CNS and the periphery. This may be important in the context of neurotropic viral infection. ..
  34. Ng M, Hong S. Flavivirus infection: essential ultrastructural changes and association of Kunjin virus NS3 protein with microtubules. Arch Virol. 1989;106:103-20 pubmed
    ..When vinblastine sulphate was added to the cells immediately after infection, formation of the paracrystals was delayed by two hours, and the affiliation of NS3 protein was also observed to be rearranged. ..
  35. Fraser J, Cunningham A, Mathews J, Riglar A. Immune complexes and Ross River virus disease (epidemic polyarthritis). Rheumatol Int. 1988;8:113-7 pubmed
  36. Mori Y, Otsuki N, Sakata M, Okamoto K. [Virology of the family Togaviridae]. Uirusu. 2011;61:211-9 pubmed
    ..Because human is only a natural host of the virus and effective live attenuated vaccines are available, immunization activities are strengthened globally to eliminate rubella and CRS, together with measles...
  37. Gu H, Artsob H, Lin Y, Wang D, Zhao B, Long Q. Arboviruses as aetiological agents of encephalitis in the People's Republic of China. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86:198-201 pubmed
    ..This study affirms the importance of flavivirus as causative agents of encephalitis in PRC and provides evidence that one or more alphaviruses are causing symptomatic infections with neurological involvement in PRC...
  38. Murphy T, McCollum W, Timoney P, Klingeborn B, Hyllseth B, Golnik W, et al. Genomic variability among globally distributed isolates of equine arteritis virus. Vet Microbiol. 1992;32:101-15 pubmed
  39. Turell M. Virus-dependent mortality in Rift Valley fever, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and chikungunya virus-inoculated mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. J Med Entomol. 1992;29:792-5 pubmed
  40. Bontems R, Anderson J, Smee D, Jin A, Alaghamandan H, Sharma B, et al. Guanosine analogues. Synthesis of nucleosides of certain 3-substituted 6-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H)-ones as potential immunotherapeutic agents. J Med Chem. 1990;33:2174-8 pubmed
    ..The 3-unsubstituted (5a) and the 3-bromo (5c) derivatives were found to be the most active immunopotentiators in this series...
  41. Fraser J, Cunningham A, Muller H, Sinclair R, Standish H. Glomerulonephritis in the acute phase of Ross River virus disease (epidemic polyarthritis). Clin Nephrol. 1988;29:149-52 pubmed
    ..Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies were not detected in the serum. Recovery from the renal disturbance was complete within three months although rheumatic symptoms persisted for 30 months...
  42. Moore L, Bostick D, Garry R. Sindbis virus infection decreases intracellular pH: alkaline medium inhibits processing of Sindbis virus polyproteins. Virology. 1988;166:1-9 pubmed
    ..Production of Sindbis virus was reduced by more than 90% and post-translational processing of Sindbis virus envelope precursors was inhibited in infected cells incubated in alkaline medium...
  43. Marquardt T, Helenius A. Misfolding and aggregation of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Biol. 1992;117:505-13 pubmed
    ..BiP was associated noncovalently with the aggregates and with some of the nonaggregated products. We conclude that aggregation reflects the poor solubility of incompletely folded polypeptide chains...
  44. Baron T, Albina E, Leforban Y, Madec F, Guilmoto H, Plana Duran J, et al. Report on the first outbreaks of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in France. Diagnosis and viral isolation. Ann Rech Vet. 1992;23:161-6 pubmed
  45. Singh K, Zaidi S, Raisuddin S, Saxena A, Murthy R, Ray P. Effect of zinc on immune functions and host resistance against infection and tumor challenge. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1992;14:813-40 pubmed
    ..It can be stated from this study that zinc treatment potentiates the cell mediated immunity and host resistance against infection and tumor challenge...
  46. Smith D, Broom A, Keil A, Mackenzie J. Murray Valley encephalitis acquired in Western Australia. Med J Aust. 1991;154:845-6 pubmed
    ..To report a recent fatal case of encephalitis associated with evidence of Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection, only the second fatality from this infection in Western Australia...
  47. Morvan J, Fontenille D, Digoutte J, Coulanges P. [The Wesselsbron virus, a new arbovirus for Madagascar]. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar. 1990;57:183-92 pubmed
    ..The detection of Wesselsbron antibodies in Lemurs sets the problem of the biological cycle...
  48. Ramasamy M, Sands M, Kay B, Fanning I, Lawrence G, Ramasamy R. Anti-mosquito antibodies reduce the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to arbovirus infection. Med Vet Entomol. 1990;4:49-55 pubmed
    ..Presence of the antibodies did not demonstrably affect virus titres in infected mosquitoes, nor the transmission of virus from infected mosquitoes to vertebrates...
  49. Lundstrom J, Niklasson B, Francy D. Swedish Culex torrentium and Cx. pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) as experimental vectors of Ockelbo virus. J Med Entomol. 1990;27:561-3 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, both Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium are capable of transmitting OCK virus in an enzootic cycle involving birds as hosts. However, Cx. torrentium appears to be physiologically a more efficient vector than Cx. pipiens...
  50. Mehta S, Pathak S, Webb H. Induction of membrane proliferation in mouse CNS by gold sodium thiomalate with reference to increased virulence of the avirulent Semliki Forest virus. Biosci Rep. 1990;10:271-9 pubmed
    ..Induction of membrane proliferation by GSTM seems to be an important factor in converting the avirulent Semliki Forest virus infection into a lethal one...
  51. LeDuc J. Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses. Rev Infect Dis. 1989;11 Suppl 4:S730-5 pubmed
    ..The transmission cycle for each hemorrhagic fever virus is distinct and is dependent upon the characteristics of the primary vector species and the possibility for its contact with humans...
  52. Mehta S, Webb H. The effect of gold sodium thiomalate in adult Swiss/A2G mice infected with togaviruses and flaviviruses. J Gen Virol. 1987;68 ( Pt 10):2665-8 pubmed
    ..These changes were associated with an enhanced virus invasion of the brain. Depression of the humoral antibody response was not observed...
  53. Brinton M, Arnheiter H, Haller O. Interferon independence of genetically controlled resistance to flaviviruses. Infect Immun. 1982;36:284-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the mode of expression of the flavivirus resistance gene differs significantly from that of the Mx gene conferring resistance to influenza virus-induced disease in A2G mice...
  54. Lundstrom J, Turell M, Niklasson B. Viremia in three orders of birds (Anseriformes, Galliformes and Passeriformes) inoculated with Ockelbo virus. J Wildl Dis. 1993;29:189-95 pubmed
    ..Bird species of all three orders tested, however, could function as incidental hosts of the virus...
  55. Guy J, Ficken M, Barnes H, Wages D, Smith L. Experimental infection of young turkeys with eastern equine encephalitis virus and highlands J virus. Avian Dis. 1993;37:389-95 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young turkeys...
  56. Albina E, Buffereau J. [Development and use of an immunoenzyme technique for the routine diagnosis of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome]. Rev Sci Tech. 1993;12:523-35 pubmed
    ..The test has been used for routine diagnosis of PRRS. The results obtained during nine months from over 21,000 samples have confirmed the value of the test for diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of the disease...
  57. Azevedo R, Silva E, Carvalho V, Rodrigues S, Nunes Neto J, Monteiro H, et al. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1830-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D...
  58. Weijers R, Mulder J, Lawson C, Leunissen J. Induction of autoantibodies to human enzymes following viral infection: a biologically relevant hypothesis. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1992;30:449-54 pubmed
    ..The existence of a site (epitope) on amylase recognized by an anti-amylase antibody is discussed...
  59. O Donnell M, Berry G, Carvan T, Bryan J. Dispersal of adult females of Culex annulirostris in Griffith, New South Wales, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1992;8:159-65 pubmed
    ..8 km (95% c.l. 4.1-40.9 km), and 50% of the population dispersed 4.8 km or more. Maximum recorded dispersal was 8.7 km, and 2 individuals traveled more than 5 km in 1 day. The relevance of the findings to control strategy is discussed...
  60. Smith G, Francy D. Laboratory studies of a Brazilian strain of Aedes albopictus as a potential vector of Mayaro and Oropouche viruses. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1991;7:89-93 pubmed
    ..The infection rate among mosquitoes fed the highest concentration (7.7 log10 PFU/ml) was 11/13 (85%), and 5/11 (46%) infected mosquitoes transmitted virus...
  61. Morahan P, Pinto A, Stewart D, Murasko D, Brinton M. Varying role of alpha/beta interferon in the antiviral efficacy of synthetic immunomodulators against Semliki Forest virus infection. Antiviral Res. 1991;15:241-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that induction of interferon alpha/beta does not appear to be the major common mechanism of antiviral activity among these diverse synthetic immunomodulators...
  62. Shannon A, Richards S, Kirkland P, Moyle A. An antigen-capture ELISA detects pestivirus antigens in blood and tissues of immunotolerant carrier cattle. J Virol Methods. 1991;34:1-12 pubmed
    ..4 for tissues. In contrast, all samples from negative cattle had S/N ratios less than 2.0. The antigen-capture ELISA has been validated on field samples and is suitable for routine diagnostic and certification testing...
  63. Jupp P, McIntosh B. Aedes furcifer and other mosquitoes as vectors of chikungunya virus at Mica, northeastern Transvaal, South Africa. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1990;6:415-20 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that Ae. furcifer is an epidemic-epizootic vector which does not maintain the virus at Mica and that no other mosquito species could have been important vectors...
  64. Lahesmaa Rantala R, Stahlberg T, Granfors K, Kuusisto P, Toivanen A. Serological cross-reactions against Yersinia enterocolitica in patients infected with other arthritis-associated microbes. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1990;8:5-9 pubmed
    ..Significantly, analysis of the reactivities against the different molecular weight antigen components of Yersinia revealed no dominant band or pattern which could thus have been defined as arthritis-associated...
  65. Abe K, Kurata T, Shikata T. Non-A, non-B hepatitis: visualization of virus-like particles from chimpanzee and human sera. Arch Virol. 1989;104:351-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, two chimpanzees inoculated with materials containing the VLP developed NANB hepatitis. These results strongly suggest that the VLP may be closely associated with the agent of NANB hepatitis...
  66. Cornel A, Jupp P. Comparison of three methods for determining transmission rates in vector competence studies with Culex univittatus and West Nile and Sindbis viruses. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1989;5:70-2 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that capillary feeding is an acceptable alternative to feeding on hamsters for determining transmission rates for Cx. univittatus with West Nile and Sindbis viruses...
  67. Burness A, Pardoe I, Faragher S, Vrati S, Dalgarno L. Genetic stability of Ross River virus during epidemic spread in nonimmune humans. Virology. 1988;167:639-43 pubmed
    ..We identify three features of the Ross River virus replication and transmission cycle which may limit the rate of evolution of arthropod-borne viruses in the field...
  68. Szekely L, Jin P, Jiang W, Rosen A, Wiman K, Klein G, et al. Position-dependent nuclear accumulation of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein during in vitro myogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 1993;155:313-22 pubmed
    ..Terminally located nuclei expressed human RB at a much higher level than did the centrally located nuclei. The results suggest that individual nuclei with a multinucleated syncytium may undergo position-dependent specialization...
  69. Giangaspero M, Vacirca G, Buettner M, Wolf G, Vanopdenbosch E, Muyldermans G. Serological and antigenical findings indicating pestivirus in man. Arch Virol Suppl. 1993;7:53-62 pubmed
    ..No antigen-specific binding could be observed. These findings indicated the occurrence of a pestivirus in man and might suggest a relationship with a pestivirus of animal origin...
  70. Jackson A, Bowen J, Downe A. Experimental infection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) by the oral route with Sindbis virus. J Med Entomol. 1993;30:332-7 pubmed
    ..The important differences between SIN and NSIN in a mouse model were not reflected in the infection of Ae. aegypti by the oral route...
  71. Martin D, Muth D, Brown T, Johnson A, Karabatsos N, Roehrig J. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1823-6 pubmed
    ..0 as a positive cutoff value. With a blind-coded human serum panel, this combined MAC-ELISA was shown to have test sensitivity and specificity that correlated well with those of other serological techniques...
  72. Brown C, Bomberger Brown M, Padhi A, Foster J, Moore A, Pfeffer M, et al. Host and vector movement affects genetic diversity and spatial structure of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae). Mol Ecol. 2008;17:2164-73 pubmed publisher
  73. Albina E, Leforban Y, Baron T, Plana Duran J, Vannier P. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus. Ann Rech Vet. 1992;23:167-76 pubmed
    ..This easy test now provides further possibilities for epidemiological surveys and could also be a reliable tool for new sanitary prophylaxis of the disease...
  74. Griffin D, Levine B, Tyor W, Irani D. The immune response in viral encephalitis. Semin Immunol. 1992;4:111-9 pubmed
    ..Immune T cells had no effect on virus replication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  75. Hayashi T, Iwata H, Hasegawa T, Ozaki M, Yamamoto H, Onodera T. Decrease in neutrophil migration induced by endotoxin and suppression of interleukin-1 production by macrophages in lactic dehydrogenase virus-infected mice. J Comp Pathol. 1991;104:161-70 pubmed
  76. Moss H, Tansey E, Milner P, Lincoln J, Burnstock G. Neuropeptide immunoreactivity and choline acetyltransferase activity in the mouse urinary bladder following inoculation with Semliki Forest Virus. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1990;31:47-56 pubmed
  77. Løken T. Pestivirus infections in Norway. Epidemiological studies in goats. J Comp Pathol. 1990;103:1-10 pubmed
    ..Sera from the 83 animals with NADL antibodies were titrated for neutralizing antibodies against three additional strains of pestivirus, the highest geometrical mean titre being found for antibodies against a Norwegian bovine strain...
  78. Silarug N, Foy H, Kupradinon S, Rojanasuphot S, Nisalak A, Pongsuwant Y. Epidemic of fever of unknown origin in rural Thailand, caused by influenza A (H1N1) and dengue fever. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1990;21:61-7 pubmed
  79. Rodhain F, Gonzalez J, Mercier E, Helynck B, Larouze B, Hannoun C. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83:851-4 pubmed
    ..No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area...
  80. Illavia S, Webb H, Colover J. Enhancement of demyelination in the central nervous system of Semliki Forest virus infected mice after pretreatment with muramyl dipeptide. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1988;14:483-93 pubmed
  81. Zytoon E, el Belbasi H, Matsumura T. Transovarial transmission of chikungunya virus by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes ingesting microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis under laboratory conditions. Microbiol Immunol. 1993;37:419-21 pubmed
    ..These results showed that A. albopictus of this strain that concurrently ingested the virus and microfilariae transmitted the virus by the transovarial route under experimental conditions...
  82. Diaz L, Diaz M, Almiron W, Contigiani M. Infection by UNA virus (Alphavirus; Togaviridae) and risk factor analysis in black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) from Paraguay and Argentina. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:1039-41 pubmed
    ..According to the statistical analysis performed, the monkey's age was a significant risk factor, but not the origin or sex. This is the first report of Alouatta caraya infection by UNAV and the first record of its activity in Paraguay...
  83. Takacs M, Berencsi G, Mezey I, Murányiné Brojnás J, Barcsay E, Ferenczi E, et al. [Transfusion-associated non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis caused by flaviviruses]. Orv Hetil. 1992;133 Suppl 1:37-9 pubmed
    ..This virus seems to be responsible for every 11th transfusion associated hepatitis examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  84. Widnell C, Baldwin S, Davies A, Martin S, Pasternak C. Cellular stress induces a redistribution of the glucose transporter. FASEB J. 1990;4:1634-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that stress induces an insulin-like distribution of certain membrane proteins...
  85. Buttner M, Hafner A, Wanke R, Eichhorn W, Hiller D. [Epidemic disease in a sheep herd with a possible relationship to a pestivirus]. Tierarztl Prax. 1989;17:39-42 pubmed
    ..Pathological-anatomical abnormalities were very similar to the character of BVD/MD. Scientific findings on pestivirus infections in sheep are discussed...
  86. Lamontagne L, Lafortune P, Fournel M. Modulation of the cellular immune responses to T-cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens in lambs with induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection. Am J Vet Res. 1989;50:1604-8 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that BVDV infection in lambs modulates the ability of lymphocytes to respond to lectins or antigenic stimuli according to the time after infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  87. Wu L, Ilonen J, Mäkelä M, Salonen R, Marusyk R, Salmi A. Impaired interleukin 1 and interleukin 2 production following in vitro abortive infection of murine spleen mononuclear cells by Semliki Forest virus. Cell Immunol. 1988;116:112-22 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that abortive SFV infection of spleen macrophages has an immunosuppressive effect which may lead to an aberrant immune regulation...
  88. Kempf C, Michel M, Kohler U, Koblet H, Oetliker H. Dynamic changes in plasma membrane properties of Semliki Forest virus infected cells related to cell fusion. Biosci Rep. 1988;8:241-54 pubmed
    ..The changes observed occur only at pH's below 6.2 corresponding to values required to trigger the fusion process. A possible role of these alterations of the plasma membrane related to membrane fusion phenomena is discussed...
  89. Ng L, Chow A, Sun Y, Kwek D, Lim P, Dimatatac F, et al. IL-1beta, IL-6, and RANTES as biomarkers of Chikungunya severity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4261 pubmed publisher
    ..Using these biomarkers, we were able to distinguish between mild disease and more severe forms of Chikungunya fever, thus enabling the identification of patients with poor prognosis and monitoring of the disease. ..
  90. Thein S, La Linn M, Aaskov J, Aung M, Aye M, Zaw A, et al. Development of a simple indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of immunoglobulin M antibody in serum from patients following an outbreak of chikungunya virus infection in Yangon, Myanmar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86:438-42 pubmed
    ..Routine use of the ELISA would alert authorities to future outbreaks of Chikungunya virus infection and avoid admission to hospital of patients with a non-life-threatening viral disease...
  91. Depner K, Hübschle O, Liess B. Prevalence of ruminant pestivirus infections in Namibia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1991;58:107-9 pubmed
    ..BVDV was isolated from six clinically affected bovines and three healthy heifers persistently infected with BVDV. The survey demonstrated that pestivirus infections are widespread in Namibia in both domestic and wild ruminants...
  92. Polo J, Johnston R. Mutational analysis of a virulence locus in the E2 glycoprotein gene of Sindbis virus. J Virol. 1991;65:6358-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, both the position of a mutation within the E2 sequence and the particular amino acid encoded at that position are important determinants of the mutant phenotypes...