hiv wasting syndrome


Summary: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).

Top Publications

  1. Smit E, Skolasky R, Dobs A, Calhoun B, Visscher B, Palella F, et al. Changes in the incidence and predictors of wasting syndrome related to human immunodeficiency virus infection, 1987-1999. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:211-8 pubmed
    ..05) and potent ART (p = 0.097). Predictors of wasting have changed with potent ART. Further research is needed to determine whether lipodystrophy may be misdiagnosed as wasting syndrome...
  2. Tang A, Forrester J, Spiegelman D, Knox T, Tchetgen E, Gorbach S. Weight loss and survival in HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;31:230-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, FFM or BCM estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis does not add further prognostic value over weight loss...
  3. Bushen O, Davenport J, Lima A, Piscitelli S, Uzgiris A, Silva T, et al. Diarrhea and reduced levels of antiretroviral drugs: improvement with glutamine or alanyl-glutamine in a randomized controlled trial in northeast Brazil. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1764-70 pubmed
  4. Kotler D, Wanke C. Management of HIV wasting syndrome: a consensus conference. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37 Suppl 5:S261 pubmed
  5. Wanke C. Pathogenesis and consequences of HIV-associated wasting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37 Suppl 5:S277-9 pubmed
    ..In patients with HIV wasting, therapies should be directed both at reversing the underlying source of protein energy malnutrition and at other factors that may be contributing to weight loss...
  6. Campa A, Yang Z, Lai S, Xue L, Phillips J, Sales S, et al. HIV-related wasting in HIV-infected drug users in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1179-85 pubmed
    ..We investigated this concern in a hard-to-reach population of HIV-infected drug users in Miami, Florida...
  7. Mangili A, Murman D, Zampini A, Wanke C. Nutrition and HIV infection: review of weight loss and wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy from the nutrition for healthy living cohort. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:836-42 pubmed
    ..This information is intended to raise awareness among health care providers of HIV-infected patients that weight loss and wasting remain important acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining conditions, despite the advent of HAART...
  8. Ndekha M, van Oosterhout J, Saloojee H, Pettifor J, Manary M. Nutritional status of Malawian adults on antiretroviral therapy 1 year after supplementary feeding in the first 3 months of therapy. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:1059-63 pubmed publisher
  9. Kong A, Edmonds P. Testosterone therapy in HIV wasting syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:692-9 pubmed body weight, over-all exercise functional capacity, and perceived quality of life in patients with HIV wasting syndrome and its adverse effects...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Koller E, Mann M, Malozowski S, Bacsanyi J, Gibert C. Aseptic necrosis in HIV seropositive patients: a possible etiologic role for megestrol acetate. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2000;14:405-10 pubmed
    ..Cachectic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients may have additional risk factors that predispose them to aseptic necrosis when receiving megestrol acetate. ..
  2. Grinspoon S, Gelato M. Editorial: The rational use of growth hormone in HIV-infected patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3478-9 pubmed
  3. Abrams D. Use of androgens in patients who have HIV/AIDS: what we know about the effect of androgens on wasting and lipodystrophy. AIDS Read. 2001;11:149-56 pubmed
    ..Appropriate doses of the various preparations of testosterone and anabolic steroids have not been determined. ..
  4. Mupere E, Zalwango S, Chiunda A, Okwera A, Mugerwa R, Whalen C. Body composition among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Uganda. Ann Epidemiol. 2010;20:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Gender, but not HIV status, was associated with body composition changes in TB. TB appears to be the dominant factor driving the wasting process among co-infected patients. ..
  5. Roubenoff R, McDermott A, Weiss L, Suri J, Wood M, Bloch R, et al. Short-term progressive resistance training increases strength and lean body mass in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS. 1999;13:231-9 pubmed
    ..01). This preliminary study suggests that short-term, high intensity PRT can significantly increase LBM and strength in HIV infection, and may be used as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacological anabolic treatments in this disease. ..
  6. Salas Salvado J, García Lorda P. The metabolic puzzle during the evolution of HIV infection. Clin Nutr. 2001;20:379-91 pubmed
  7. Grinspoon S, Corcoran C, Stanley T, Rabe J, Wilkie S. Mechanisms of androgen deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with the wasting syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:4120-6 pubmed
    ..Further studies of the mechanism of adrenal steroid shunting and the efficacy of androgen replacement in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women are necessary. ..
  8. Dworkin M, Williamson J. AIDS wasting syndrome: trends, influence on opportunistic infections, and survival. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;33:267-73 pubmed
    ..The authors' study provides supportive information that treatment of wasting syndrome may have a favorable impact on survival. ..
  9. Wohl D. Diagnosis and management of body morphology changes and lipid abnormalities associated with HIV Infection and its therapies. Top HIV Med. 2004;12:89-93 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes a presentation by David A. Wohl, MD, at the February 2004 International AIDS Society-USA course in Atlanta. ..
  10. Mulligan K, Zackin R, Von Roenn J, Chesney M, Egorin M, Sattler F, et al. Testosterone supplementation of megestrol therapy does not enhance lean tissue accrual in men with human immunodeficiency virus-associated weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:563-70 pubmed
    ..Sexual functioning was preserved with MA/TE but worsened in MA/PL. MA produced robust weight gain. Coadministration of testosterone preserved sexual functioning but did not enhance LBM accrual. ..
  11. Keithley J, Swanson B, Zeller J, Sha B, Cohen M, Hershow R, et al. Comparison of standard and immune-enhancing oral formulas in asymptomatic HIV-infected persons: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2002;26:6-14 pubmed
    ..Within the context and limitations of this study, standard and immune-enhancing oral formulas consumed daily for 1 year had no differential effects on nutrition or immune parameters in asymptomatic HIV-infected persons. ..
  12. Bendick C, Scheifele C, Reichart P. Oral manifestations in 101 Cambodians with HIV and AIDS. J Oral Pathol Med. 2002;31:1-4 pubmed
    ..Since only very few studies have been published to date on the oral health status of Cambodian HIV/AIDS patients, it was the purpose of the present investigation to study oral manifestations in Cambodian patients with HIV disease...
  13. Binder W, Bloom D. The use of custom-designed midfacial and submalar implants in the treatment of facial wasting syndrome. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2004;6:394-7 pubmed
    ..In each patient, the appearance of volumetric soft tissue restoration was successfully achieved, returning a permanent and more healthful appearance to the face. ..
  14. Shikuma C, Valcour V, Ratto Kim S, Williams A, Souza S, Gerschenson M, et al. HIV-associated wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a syndrome of residual HIV infection in monocytes and macrophages?. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1846-8 pubmed
    ..9 vs. 0.9 copies/10(6) PBMCs; P = .006). ..
  15. Ndekha M, van Oosterhout J, Zijlstra E, Manary M, Saloojee H, Manary M. Supplementary feeding with either ready-to-use fortified spread or corn-soy blend in wasted adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: randomised, investigator blinded, controlled trial. BMJ. 2009;338:b1867 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplementary feeding with fortified spread resulted in a greater increase in BMI and lean body mass than feeding with corn-soy blend. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN67515515. ..
  16. Strawford A, Barbieri T, Van Loan M, Parks E, Catlin D, Barton N, et al. Resistance exercise and supraphysiologic androgen therapy in eugonadal men with HIV-related weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999;281:1282-90 pubmed
    ..Protease inhibitors did not prevent lean tissue anabolism. ..
  17. Kaplan G, Thomas S, Fierer D, Mulligan K, Haslett P, Fessel W, et al. Thalidomide for the treatment of AIDS-associated wasting. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000;16:1345-55 pubmed
    ..Although the anabolic benefits of high-dose thalidomide are limited by drug intolerance, 8 weeks of low-dose thalidomide results in significant weight gain in patients with AIDS-associated wasting. ..
  18. Moyle G, Schoelles K, Fahrbach K, Frame D, James K, Scheye R, et al. Efficacy of selected treatments of HIV wasting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37 Suppl 5:S262-76 pubmed
  19. Bernadette H. Cannabinoid therapeutics: high hopes for the future. Drug Discov Today. 2005;10:459-62 pubmed
  20. Tang A, Jacobson D, Spiegelman D, Knox T, Wanke C. Increasing risk of 5% or greater unintentional weight loss in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, 1995 to 2003. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;40:70-6 pubmed
    Although the incidence of most AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, including HIV wasting syndrome, has dramatically decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), previous studies have shown that ..
  21. Tadesse A, Kassu A. Intestinal parasite isolates in AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Gondar Teaching Hospital, North west Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2005;43:93-6 pubmed
    ..Cryptosporidium parvum, under-estimated cause of chronic diarrhea in immunocompetent adults, was found to be the prominent diarrheagen in AIDS patients in this study, similar with other studies in different African countries. ..
  22. Goldsmith D, Wagstaff A. Mammalian cell-derived somatropin : a review of its use in the management of HIV-associated wasting. Drugs. 2006;66:387-401 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, indications to date are that somatropin is likely to have an important role in the treatment of patients with HIV-associated wasting. ..
  23. Morley J, Thomas D, Wilson M. Cachexia: pathophysiology and clinical relevance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:735-43 pubmed
    ..Numerous diseases can result in cachexia, each by a slightly different mechanism. Both nutritional support and orexigenic agents play a role in the management of cachexia. ..
  24. Montano M, Flanagan J, Jiang L, Sebastiani P, Rarick M, Lebrasseur N, et al. Transcriptional profiling of testosterone-regulated genes in the skeletal muscle of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men experiencing weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2793-802 pubmed
    ..These data provide new insights into the mechanisms of androgen action and have implications for both development of muscle biomarkers and anabolic therapies for wasting and sarcopenia. ..
  25. Capili B, Anastasi J. Body mass index and nutritional intake in patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea: a secondary analysis. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2008;20:463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The continued use of nutritional supplements to boost weight should also be reviewed at each visit to prevent the consumption of unnecessary calories. ..
  26. Fairfield W, Finkelstein J, Klibanski A, Grinspoon S. Osteopenia in eugonadal men with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:2020-6 pubmed
    ..Testosterone administration, but not resistance training, over 3 months increases lumbar spine BMD in eugonadal men with AIDS wasting. ..
  27. Shenoy S, Baliga S, Kurnvilla T, Prashanth H, Dominic R. Opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in Mangalore, South India. Trop Doct. 2003;33:250 pubmed
  28. Menéndez Capote R, Chappotten Delahanty M, Ruiz Pérez A, Antonica Costa F. [Sentinel infections for AIDS in a group of African patients with HIV/AIDS infection]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2006;24:287-8 pubmed
  29. Dudgeon W, Phillips K, Carson J, Brewer R, Durstine J, Hand G. Counteracting muscle wasting in HIV-infected individuals. HIV Med. 2006;7:299-310 pubmed
    ..This review will explore the HIV/AIDS muscle-wasting syndrome, its aetiology, and the treatments used to counteract wasting. ..
  30. Falutz J. Growth hormone and HIV infection: contribution to disease manifestations and clinical implications. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;25:517-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper will review abnormalities of growth hormone biology and the use of growth hormone and growth hormone releasing factor as therapeutic agents in HIV patients. ..
  31. van Staden A, Barnard H, Nel M, Attwood E, Oosthuizen G, Dannhauser A, et al. Nutritional status of HIV-1 seropositive patients in the Free State Province of South Africa--laboratory parameters. Cent Afr J Med. 1998;44:246-50 pubmed
    ..Multivitamin/anti-oxidant supplementation of HIV/AIDS patients should be considered, as this could lead to improved immune function in these patients. ..
  32. Gatti G, Di Biagio A, De Pascalis C, Guerra M, Bassetti M, Bassetti D. Pharmacokinetics of rifabutin in HIV-infected patients with or without wasting syndrome. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;48:704-11 pubmed
    ..4+/-12.9 vs 46.0+/-23.5 h, P=0.12). Our study suggests that the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin in patients with wasting syndrome are not altered to a degree that is clinically important. ..
  33. Villamor E, Msamanga G, Spiegelman D, Coley J, Hunter D, Peterson K, et al. HIV status and sociodemographic correlates of maternal body size and wasting during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:415-24 pubmed
    ..The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD R01 32257), and the Fogarty International Center (NIH D43 TW00004). ..
  34. Hall W, Degenhardt L. Medical marijuana initiatives : are they justified? How successful are they likely to be?. CNS Drugs. 2003;17:689-97 pubmed
    ..While awaiting these developments, patients with specified medical conditions could be given exemptions from criminal prosecution to grow cannabis for their own use, at their own risk. ..
  35. Trout H, Mentre F, Panhard X, Kodjo A, Escaut L, Pernet P, et al. Enhanced saquinavir exposure in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with diarrhea and/or wasting syndrome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:538-45 pubmed
    ..This must be evaluated in a long-term period. ..
  36. Choi H, Gray P, Storer T, Calof O, Woodhouse L, Singh A, et al. Effects of testosterone replacement in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1531-41 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are needed to fully explore the role of androgens in the regulation of body composition in women. ..
  37. Authier F, Gherardi R. [Muscular complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the era of effective anti-retroviral therapy]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2006;162:71-81 pubmed
    ..These features are described in the present review. ..
  38. Melchior J, Blanty S, de Truchis P. [Nutritional problems associated with human retrovirus infection in tropical zones and possible response strategies]. Med Trop (Mars). 2006;66:339-41 pubmed
  39. Filteau S, PrayGod G, Woodd S, Friis H, Heimburger D, Koethe J, et al. Nutritional status is the major factor affecting grip strength of African HIV patients before and during antiretroviral treatment. Trop Med Int Health. 2017;22:1302-1313 pubmed publisher
    ..Programmes to improve health and survival of HIV patients should incorporate nutritional assessment and management and could use grip strength as a functional indicator of improving nutrition. ..
  40. DeTommaso D. Treating unintentional weight loss nutrition options: an important piece of the HIV puzzle. Posit Aware. 2002;13:28-9 pubmed
  41. Wanke C, Polsky B, Kotler D. Guidelines for using body composition measurement in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2002;16:375-88 pubmed
    ..Portability, low cost, ease of use, and patient acceptance make anthropometry and BIA ideally suited for the clinical setting. ..
  42. Argiles J, Almendro V, Busquets S, Lopez Soriano F. The pharmacological treatment of cachexia. Curr Drug Targets. 2004;5:265-77 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present article is to review the different therapeutic approaches that have been designed to fight and counteract muscle wasting in different pathological states such as cancer, AIDS and chronic heart failure. ..
  43. Eid A, Orenstein R. Metabolic and morphologic complications of HIV infection. J Med Liban. 2006;54:97-105 pubmed
  44. Paccou J, Viget N, Legrout Gérot I, Yazdanpanah Y, Cortet B. Bone loss in patients with HIV infection. Joint Bone Spine. 2009;76:637-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with established bone insufficiency, bisphosphonate therapy should be considered. Alendronate in combination with vitamin D and calcium supplementation has been found effective in improving BMD values. ..
  45. Mulligan K, Tai V, Algren H, Abrams D, Leiser R, Lo J, et al. Altered fat distribution in HIV-positive men on nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;26:443-8 pubmed
    ..Our results, which have been obtained retrospectively, are intended to provide the impetus for prospective, controlled studies of the interactions among drug and host factors in the development of fat distribution abnormalities...
  46. Luangjaru S, Ruxrungtham K, Wisedopas N, Mahachai V. D-xylose absorption in non-chronic diarrhea AIDS patients with the wasting syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86 Suppl 2:S477-83 pubmed
    ..To compare the intestinal absorptive capacity, permeability function and duodenal histopathology in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with or without wasting syndrome who had not suffered from chronic diarrhea...
  47. Goldsmith D, Wagstaff A. Spotlight on mammalian cell-derived somatropin in HIV-associated wasting. BioDrugs. 2006;20:191-2 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, indications to date are that somatropin is likely to have an important role in the treatment of patients with HIV-associated wasting...
  48. van Oosterhout J, Ndekha M, Moore E, Kumwenda J, Zijlstra E, Manary M. The benefit of supplementary feeding for wasted Malawian adults initiating ART. AIDS Care. 2010;22:737-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplementary food use was not directly associated with improved survival...
  49. Li N, Matchi E, Spiegelman D, Chalamilla G, Hertzmank E, Sando D, et al. Maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014;93:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate risk factors for maternal mortality among HIV-infected women in Tanzania...
  50. Melchior J, Niyongabo T, Henzel D, Durack Bown I, Henri S, Boulier A. Malnutrition and wasting, immunodepression, and chronic inflammation as independent predictors of survival in HIV-infected patients. Nutrition. 1999;15:865-9 pubmed
    ..With the multivariate model, only CD4 counts, lean body mass/height squared, and CRP remained significant independent predictors of survival after controlling for other factors...
  51. Hsu H, Pelton S, Williamson J, Thomas P, Mascola L, Ortiz I, et al. Survival in children with perinatal HIV infection and very low CD4 lymphocyte counts. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25:269-75 pubmed
    ..To evaluate clinical conditions associated with mortality in HIV-infected children with CD4+ counts <100 cells/microl...
  52. Swanson B, Hershow R, Sha B, Benson C, Cohen M, Gunfeld C. Body composition in HIV-infected women. Nutrition. 2000;16:1064-8 pubmed
    ..This altered pattern of weight loss may relate to higher premorbid fat stores in women and/or hormonal differences...
  53. Roubenoff R. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting, functional performance, and quality of life. Am J Manag Care. 2000;6:1003-16 pubmed
    ..In summary, interventions that improve exercise capacity and functional performance may enhance QOL in patients with AW and may reduce mortality in this group...
  54. Hellerstein M. Pathophysiology of body composition and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infection: therapeutic implications. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001;11 Suppl:S105-10 pubmed
    ..In summary, important advances have occurred toward the goal of explaining body composition and metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease...
  55. Appleton J. Arginine: Clinical potential of a semi-essential amino acid. Altern Med Rev. 2002;7:512-22 pubmed
    ..Toxicity, dosage considerations, and contraindications are also reviewed...
  56. Miller T. Nutritional aspects of HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2003;17 Suppl 1:S130-40 pubmed
    ..Background data on the wasting syndrome, etiology of malnutrition, nutritional effects of highly active antiretroviral therapies, and nutritional intervention strategies for HIV-infected children will be presented...
  57. Endeshaw T, Kebede A, Verweij J, Wolday D, Zewide A, Tsige K, et al. Detection of intestinal microsporidiosis in diarrhoeal patients infected with the human immunideficiency virus (HIV-1) using PCR and Uvitex-2B stain. Ethiop Med J. 2005;43:97-101 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal microsporidiosis in Ethiopia. It has an important implication for the understanding of the aetiology of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients in the country...
  58. Bardgett H, Dixon M, Beeching N. Increase in hospital mortality from non-communicable disease and HIV-related conditions in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between 1992 and 2000. Trop Doct. 2006;36:129-31 pubmed
    ..9% to 51.1% (P < 0.001), but the number of cases of the HIV wasting syndrome (SLIM)/chronic gastroenteritis did not change significantly...
  59. Isaac R, Alex R, Knox T. Malabsorption in wasting HIV disease: diagnostic and management issues in resource-poor settings. Trop Doct. 2008;38:133-4 pubmed publisher
  60. Saha B, Rajadhyaksha G, Ray S. Beneficial effects of nandrolone decanoate in wasting associated with HIV. J Indian Med Assoc. 2009;107:295-9 pubmed
    ..Nandrolone therapy may prove to be effective and safe in reversing wasting associated with Indian HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and nutritional replacement...
  61. Grinspoon S, Corcoran C, Lee K, Burrows B, Hubbard J, Katznelson L, et al. Loss of lean body and muscle mass correlates with androgen levels in hypogonadal men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and wasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:4051-8 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates the need for additional studies to determine the efficacy of gonadal steroid replacement to increase lean body mass in this population...
  62. McNurlan M, Garlick P, Frost R, Decristofaro K, Lang C, Steigbigel R, et al. Albumin synthesis and bone collagen formation in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects: differential effects of growth hormone administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:3050-5 pubmed
    ..However unlike muscle protein synthesis, albumin synthesis was not depressed below basal levels by hrGH...
  63. Salomon J, De T, Melchior J. Nutrition and HIV infection. Br J Nutr. 2002;87 Suppl 1:S111-9 pubmed
  64. Esposito V, De Falco M, De Luca L, Acanfora F, Onori N, Loiacono L, et al. Immunohistochemical study of apelin, the natural ligand of receptor APJ, in a case of AIDS-related cachexia. In Vivo. 2002;16:337-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an involvement of this peptide in immunodeficiency and in the immune response to AIDS...
  65. Polsky B, Kotler D, Steinhart C. Treatment guidelines for HIV-associated wasting. HIV Clin Trials. 2004;5:50-61 pubmed
  66. Wig N, Anupama P, Singh S, Handa R, Aggarwal P, Dwivedi S, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in patients with HIV with wasting in South Asia. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19:212-5 pubmed
    ..03 +/- 7.61 versus 64.70 +/- 98.70). In conclusion, TNF-alpha levels were higher in HIV patients, regardless of the presence of wasting, compared to normal healthy controls of patients with tuberculosis with wasting...
  67. Fox Wheeler S, Heller L, Salata C, Kaufman F, Loro M, Gilsanz V, et al. Evaluation of the effects of oxandrolone on malnourished HIV-positive pediatric patients. Pediatrics. 1999;104:e73 pubmed
    ..The anabolic steroid, oxandrolone, was evaluated because of its safe and effective use in other pediatric conditions...
  68. Tang A. Weight loss, wasting, and survival in HIV-positive patients: current strategies. AIDS Read. 2003;13:S23-7 pubmed
    ..and from weight at previous follow-up, were all significant indicators of mortality in patients with the HIV wasting syndrome. In the second analysis, the prevalence of 5% weight loss from the previous visit was shown to be 35% ..
  69. Villamor E, Saathoff E, Msamanga G, O Brien M, Manji K, Fawzi W. Wasting during pregnancy increases the risk of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;38:622-6 pubmed
    ..To examine whether wasting during pregnancy, as measured by weight loss and low weight gain, is associated with increased mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1...
  70. Esposito J, Thomas S, Kingdon L, Ezzat S. Anabolic growth hormone action improves submaximal measures of physical performance in patients with HIV-associated wasting. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E494-503 pubmed
    ..62, P = 0.024). We concluded that GH treatment-induced LBM gains in HIV-associated wasting were functionally relevant, as determined by effort-independent submaximal measures of cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
  71. Paton N, Ng Y. Body composition studies in patients with wasting associated with tuberculosis. Nutrition. 2006;22:245-51 pubmed
    ..Wasting is a well-recognized manifestation of tuberculosis (TB), but little is known about the alterations in body composition that occur. Therefore, we measured regional and whole-body composition in patients with TB and wasting...
  72. Siddiqui J, Phillips A, Freedland E, Sklar A, Darkow T, Harley C. Prevalence and cost of HIV-associated weight loss in a managed care population. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:1307-17 pubmed
    ..To estimate the prevalence of HIV-associated weight loss among HIV patients in a US managed care population, and compare demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV patients with and without evidence of HIV-associated weight loss...
  73. Sardar P, Jha A, Roy D, Majumdar U, Guha P, Roy S, et al. Therapeutic effects of nandrolone and testosterone in adult male HIV patients with AIDS wasting syndrome (AWS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. HIV Clin Trials. 2010;11:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to compare therapeutic effects of intramuscular (IM) nandrolone decanoate and IM testosterone enanthate in male HIV patients with AIDS wasting syndrome (AWS) with placebo control...
  74. Dobs A, Few W, Blackman M, Harman S, Hoover D, Graham N. Serum hormones in men with human immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:4108-12 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a decline in bioavailable T occurs early in the course of events leading to wasting, suggesting that changes in gonadal hormones may contribute to the multifactorial etiology of the wasting syndrome...
  75. Rivera S, Sattler F, Boyd H, Auffenberg T, Nakao S, Moldawer L. Urinary cytokines for assessing inflammation in HIV-associated wasting. Cytokine. 2001;13:305-13 pubmed
    ..66, 0.73, 0.68, respectively, P< or =0.001). These data suggest that spot urinary collections can be used to estimate 24 h excretion rates. This strategy may be useful in assessing the inflammatory response in HIV-associated wasting...
  76. Huang J, Wilkie S, Sullivan M, Grinspoon S. Reduced bone density in androgen-deficient women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3533-9 pubmed
    ..Anabolic strategies to increase muscle mass may be useful to increase bone density among osteopenic women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting...
  77. Dolan S, Grinspoon S. Androgen deficiency and the role of testosterone administration in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;38 Suppl 1:S48-9 pubmed
  78. Cuerda C, Zugasti A, Bretón I, Camblor M, Miralles P, Garcia P. Treatment with nandrolone decanoate and megestrol acetate in HIV-infected men. Nutr Clin Pract. 2005;20:93-7 pubmed
    ..Malnutrition, especially loss of lean body mass, is a frequent complication of people living with HIV that may increase their mortality and morbidity...
  79. Villamor E, Saathoff E, Manji K, Msamanga G, Hunter D, Fawzi W. Vitamin supplements, socioeconomic status, and morbidity events as predictors of wasting in HIV-infected women from Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:857-65 pubmed
    ..Vitamin supplements delay the disease progression, but their effect on wasting is not known. Data are lacking on the risk factors for wasting in African HIV-infected persons...
  80. Singh T, Singh H. HIV/AIDS wasting syndrome in Manipur - a case report. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005;3:425-7 pubmed
    ..He is improving clinically and immunologically by raising in the patient's CD4 count. Early antiretroviral therapy along with meticulous nutritional support is ideal to improve the quality of life of AIDS patients...
  81. Yesalis C. Use of steroids for self-enhancement: an epidemiologic/societal perspective. AIDS Read. 2001;11:157-60 pubmed
    ..Provided that the oral preparations are not used and patients are closely monitored, anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones offer HIV-infected patients a better quality of life and an improved sense of well-being...
  82. Chiappini E, Galli L, Tovo P, Gabiano C, Lisi C, Gattinara G, et al. Changing patterns of clinical events in perinatally HIV-1-infected children during the era of HAART. AIDS. 2007;21:1607-15 pubmed
    ..The introduction of HAART has decreased mortality and progression to AIDS in perinatally HIV-1-infected children, but information on modification of the rate of specific clinical events is limited...
  83. Schwenk A. HIV infection and malnutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998;1:375-80 pubmed
    ..The new antiviral drugs may efficiently prevent clinical progression, including wasting. New metabolic side effects have, however, been encountered...
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    ..To determine whether diarrhea and intestinal malabsorption during HIV infection alter oral ganciclovir systemic exposure...
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    ..This article will explore these challenges, offer thought-provoking questions in the development of research and clinically viable solutions, and propose future directions for management strategies of antiretroviral-related problems...
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    ..Recent studies suggest that patients receiving HAART may still experience HAW. We investigated the nature of HAW and the efficacy of r-hGH in these patients...
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    ..This can be achieved by (a) nutritional assessment, (b) nutritional screening, (c) nutritional intervention and by providing (d) psychosocial support for nutrition...
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    ..We wished to evaluate changes over time in the risk of specific AIDS-defining diseases, as first events, using data from individuals with known dates of HIV seroconversion...
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    ..Not surprisingly, the man-made hormone does not always perform as desired. Yet new research into how hGH may fit into the future of HIV disease management warrants another look at this unusual drug...
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    ..In the setting of HIV-associated muscle wasting, orbicularis oculi muscle atrophy may result in eyelid retraction, lagophthalmos, and ocular surface disease...