tropical spastic paraparesis

Summary

Summary: A subacute paralytic myeloneuropathy occurring endemically in tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Colombia, India, and Africa, as well as in the southwestern region of Japan; associated with infection by HUMAN T-CELL LEUKEMIA VIRUS I. Clinical manifestations include a slowly progressive spastic weakness of the legs, increased reflexes, Babinski signs, incontinence, and loss of vibratory and position sensation. On pathologic examination inflammatory, demyelination, and necrotic lesions may be found in the spinal cord. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1239)

Top Publications

  1. Azimi N, Mariner J, Jacobson S, Waldmann T. How does interleukin 15 contribute to the pathogenesis of HTLV type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis?. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000;16:1717-22 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these studies, we propose a model in which HTLV-1 infection of T cells results in the production of both IL-2 and IL-15 cytokines, growth factors that support the proliferation of T cells. ..
  2. Gotuzzo E, Arango C, de Queiroz Campos A, Isturiz R. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I in Latin America. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2000;14:211-39, x-xi pubmed
    HTLV-1 infection is endemic in several Latin American countries. HTLV-1-associated myelophathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL) are emerging diseases in the region...
  3. Sakai J, Nagai M, Brennan M, Mora C, Jacobson S. In vitro spontaneous lymphoproliferation in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated neurologic disease: predominant expansion of CD8+ T cells. Blood. 2001;98:1506-11 pubmed
    ..cells (PBMCs) from patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) proliferate spontaneously in vitro...
  4. Verdonck K, Gonzalez E, Van Dooren S, Vandamme A, Vanham G, Gotuzzo E. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent knowledge about an ancient infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:266-81 pubmed
    ..diseases (adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma), inflammatory syndromes (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and uveitis among others), and opportunistic infections (including Strongyloides stercoralis ..
  5. De Castro Costa C, Araujo A, Barreto M, Takayanagui O, Sohler M, da Silva E, et al. Proposal for diagnostic criteria of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:931-5 pubmed
  6. Goon P, Igakura T, Hanon E, Mosley A, Asquith B, Gould K, et al. High circulating frequencies of tumor necrosis factor alpha- and interleukin-2-secreting human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-specific CD4+ T cells in patients with HTLV-1-associated neurological disease. J Virol. 2003;77:9716-22 pubmed
    ..CD4(+) T cells were present in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients than in those of asymptomatic carriers with similar provirus loads...
  7. Proietti F, Carneiro Proietti A, Catalan Soares B, Murphy E. Global epidemiology of HTLV-I infection and associated diseases. Oncogene. 2005;24:6058-68 pubmed
    ..causative role in major disease associations: adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-associated uveitis and infective dermatitis...
  8. Nagai M, Yamano Y, Brennan M, Mora C, Jacobson S. Increased HTLV-I proviral load and preferential expansion of HTLV-I Tax-specific CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with HAM/TSP. Ann Neurol. 2001;50:807-12 pubmed
    ..type I proviral load in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis has been reported and is thought to be related to the pathogenesis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus ..
  9. Kodama D, Saito M, Matsumoto W, Sabouri A, Izumo S, Arimura K, et al. Longer dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene promoter which correlates with higher HTLV-I Tax mediated transcriptional activity influences the risk of HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HA. J Neuroimmunol. 2004;156:188-94 pubmed
    ..inflammatory disorders including human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Ozden S, Seilhean D, Gessain A, Hauw J, Gout O. Severe demyelinating myelopathy with low human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 expression after transfusion in an immunosuppressed patient. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:855-60 pubmed
  2. Asquith B, Zhang Y, Mosley A, de Lara C, Wallace D, Worth A, et al. In vivo T lymphocyte dynamics in humans and the impact of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8035-40 pubmed
    ..in vivo? (iv) What features of lymphocyte kinetics are associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis? We found that CD4+CD45RO+ and CD8+CD45RO+ T lymphocyte proliferation was elevated in HTLV-1-infected ..
  3. de Oliveira M, Bittencourt A, Brites C, Soares G, Hermes C, Almeida F. HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in a 7-year-old boy associated with infective dermatitis. J Neurol Sci. 2004;222:35-8 pubmed
    HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy characterized by a slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and sphincter disturbances beginning in adulthood...
  4. Nascimento M, Primo J, Bittencourt A, Siqueira I, de Fátima Oliveira M, Meyer R, et al. Infective dermatitis has similar immunological features to human T lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:455-62 pubmed publisher
    Human T lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of the HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH)...
  5. Nakao K, Ohba N, Matsumoto M. Noninfectious anterior uveitis in patients infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1989;33:472-81 pubmed
    ..The HTLV-I infection might be primarily responsible for a certain form of endogenous anterior uveitis that has remained hitherto etiologically undefined. ..
  6. Goon P, Hanon E, Igakura T, Tanaka Y, Weber J, Taylor G, et al. High frequencies of Th1-type CD4(+) T cells specific to HTLV-1 Env and Tax proteins in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Blood. 2002;99:3335-41 pubmed
    ..However, CD4(+) T cells have been shown to predominate in early lesions in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  7. Tomaru U, Yamano Y, Nagai M, Maric D, Kaumaya P, Biddison W, et al. Detection of virus-specific T cells and CD8+ T-cell epitopes by acquisition of peptide-HLA-GFP complexes: analysis of T-cell phenotype and function in chronic viral infections. Nat Med. 2003;9:469-76 pubmed
    ..This approach will be a powerful tool in understanding the role of antigen-specific T-cell responses in health and disease. ..
  8. Nagai M, Osame M. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and neurological diseases. J Neurovirol. 2003;9:228-35 pubmed
    ..another is a chronic progressive inflammatory neurological disease called HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is still unknown why one virus causes these different diseases...
  9. Toro C, Blanco F, Garcia Gasco P, Sheldon J, Benito J, Rallon N, et al. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in an HIV-positive patient coinfected with human T lymphotropic virus type 2 following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:e118-20 pubmed
    ..2 in Spain who developed paraparesis resembling human T lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis shortly after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, hypothetically as the result of an ..
  10. Bangham C. The immune control and cell-to-cell spread of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3177-89 pubmed
    ..In this review the evidence is summarized on the persistent gene expression of HTLV-1 in vivo, the role of the immune system in protection and pathogenesis in HTLV-1 infection, and the mechanism of cell-to-cell spread of HTLV-1...
  11. Nakamura T. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP): the role of HTLV-I-infected Th1 cells in the pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategy. Folia Neuropathol. 2009;47:182-94 pubmed
    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by bilateral pyramidal tract involvement with sphincteric disturbances...
  12. Best I, Adaui V, Verdonck K, Gonzalez E, Tipismana M, Clark D, et al. Proviral load and immune markers associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Peru. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;146:226-33 pubmed
    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the aetiological agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  13. Nakamura T, Nishiura Y, Eguchi K. Therapeutic strategies in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2009;9:137-49 pubmed
    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by bilateral pyramidal tracts involvement with sphincteric disturbances...
  14. Gotuzzo E, Cabrera J, Deza L, Verdonck K, Vandamme A, Cairampoma R, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients in Peru with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated tropical spastic paraparesis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:939-44 pubmed
    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). Peru is an area of endemicity for HTLV-1.
  15. Lenzi M, Cuzzi Maya T, Oliveira A, Andrada Serpa M, Araujo A. Dermatological findings of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:507-13 pubmed
    ..Dermatological findings for patients with human T lymphotropic virus type 1(HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were investigated and were compared with dermatological findings for a control group...
  16. Silva M, Harab R, Leite A, Schor D, Araujo A, Andrada Serpa M. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load in asymptomatic carriers, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and other neurological abnormalities associated with HTLV-1 infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:689-92 pubmed
    ..is associated with other neurological abnormalities in addition to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  17. Lezin A, Gillet N, Olindo S, Signate A, Grandvaux N, Verlaeten O, et al. Histone deacetylase mediated transcriptional activation reduces proviral loads in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients. Blood. 2007;110:3722-8 pubmed
    ..of the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is responsible for HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  18. Nakamura T. Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Ann Med. 2000;32:600-7 pubmed
    The main pathological feature of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is chronic inflammation of the spinal cord characterized by perivascular cuffing of mononuclear cells ..
  19. Sabouri A, Saito M, Usuku K, Bajestan S, Mahmoudi M, Forughipour M, et al. Differences in viral and host genetic risk factors for development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis between Iranian and Japanese HTLV-1-infected individuals. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:773-81 pubmed
    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neurological disease observed only in 1-2 % of infected individuals...
  20. Guerreiro J, Santos S, Morgan D, Porto A, Muniz A, Ho J, et al. Levels of serum chemokines discriminate clinical myelopathy associated with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) disease from HTLV-1 carrier state. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;145:296-301 pubmed
    ..5% of people infected with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) develop clinical myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) that is associated with high-levels of Th1 cytokines, interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour ..
  21. Goncalves D, Proietti F, Barbosa Stancioli E, Martins M, Ribas J, Martins Filho O, et al. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) inflammatory network. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2008;7:98-107 pubmed
    HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a systemic immune-mediated inflammatory disease and tissues other than nervous can be damaged, mainly ocular, rheumatic and dermatologic...
  22. Greten T, Slansky J, Kubota R, Soldan S, Jaffee E, Leist T, et al. Direct visualization of antigen-specific T cells: HTLV-1 Tax11-19- specific CD8(+) T cells are activated in peripheral blood and accumulate in cerebrospinal fluid from HAM/TSP patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7568-73 pubmed
  23. Matsuzaki T, Nakagawa M, Nagai M, Nobuhara Y, Usuku K, Higuchi I, et al. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like manifestations. J Neurovirol. 2000;6:544-8 pubmed
    ..These four patients showed high neopterin levels in CSF. On the basis of HTLV-I proviral load in PBMC and the clinical symptoms, our tentative conclusion is that these four patients are HAM/TSP presenting ALS-like manifestations...
  24. Saito M, Nakagawa M, Kaseda S, Matsuzaki T, Jonosono M, Eiraku N, et al. Decreased human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load and alteration in T cell phenotype after interferon-alpha therapy for HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:29-40 pubmed
    ..IFN)-alpha is effective against human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), we investigated the T cell phenotype and HTLV-I provirus load in peripheral blood ..
  25. Porto A, Santos S, Muniz A, Basilio V, Rodrigues W, Neva F, et al. Helminthic infection down-regulates type 1 immune responses in human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers and is more prevalent in HTLV-1 carriers than in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:612-8 pubmed
    ..infection was 7-fold higher in HTLV-1 carriers than in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (P<.05)...
  26. Makino M, Azuma M, Wakamatsu S, Suruga Y, Izumo S, Yokoyama M, et al. Marked suppression of T cells by a benzothiophene derivative in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:316-22 pubmed
    ..Autoreactive T cells from patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) spontaneously proliferate in vitro, and their activation is reported to be associated with ..
  27. Banerjee P, Rochford R, Antel J, Canute G, Wrzesinski S, Sieburg M, et al. Proinflammatory cytokine gene induction by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 Tax in primary human glial cells. J Virol. 2007;81:1690-700 pubmed
    ..T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can result in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  28. Ureta Vidal A, Pique C, Garcia Z, Dehee A, Tortevoye P, Desire N, et al. Human T cell leukemia virus Type I (HTLV-I) infection induces greater expansions of CD8 T lymphocytes in persons with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis than in asymptomatic carriers. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:857-64 pubmed
    ..virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  29. Casseb J, de Oliveira A, Vergara M, Montanheiro P, Bonasser F, Meilman Ferreira C, et al. Presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM)-like among HIV-1-infected patients. J Med Virol. 2008;80:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These co-infected subjects may be at increased risk for tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM)-like...
  30. Yamano Y, Nagai M, Brennan M, Mora C, Soldan S, Tomaru U, et al. Correlation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) mRNA with proviral DNA load, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells, and disease severity in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP). Blood. 2002;99:88-94 pubmed
    ..HTLV-1 Tax-specific CD8(+) T-cell frequency, and disease severity of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  31. Montanheiro P, Montanheito P, Oliveira A, Posada Vergara M, Milagres A, Tauil C, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA viral load among asymptomatic patients and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:1643-7 pubmed
    ..DNA load among asymptomatic HTLV-I-infected carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), real time PCR using TaqMan probes for the pol gene was performed in two million peripheral ..
  32. Saito M, Matsuzaki T, Satou Y, Yasunaga J, Saito K, Arimura K, et al. In vivo expression of the HBZ gene of HTLV-1 correlates with proviral load, inflammatory markers and disease severity in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Retrovirology. 2009;6:19 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there have been no reports on the role of HBZ in patients with HTLV-1 associated inflammatory diseases...
  33. Lima M, Bica R, Araújo A. Gender influence on the progression of HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:294-6 pubmed
  34. Matsuzaki T, Saito M, Usuku K, Nose H, Izumo S, Arimura K, et al. A prospective uncontrolled trial of fermented milk drink containing viable Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota in the treatment of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Neurol Sci. 2005;237:75-81 pubmed
    Ten patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were treated in an uncontrolled preliminary trial by oral administration of viable Lactobacillus casei strain ..
  35. Garcia Vallejo F, Dominguez M, Tamayo O. Autoimmunity and molecular mimicry in tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-lymphotropic virus-associated myelopathy. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:241-50 pubmed
    ..5% of cells specific for uninfected mouse organs. The main pathological feature of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is a chronic inflammation of ..
  36. Matsuzaki T, Nakagawa M, Nagai M, Usuku K, Higuchi I, Arimura K, et al. HTLV-I proviral load correlates with progression of motor disability in HAM/TSP: analysis of 239 HAM/TSP patients including 64 patients followed up for 10 years. J Neurovirol. 2001;7:228-34 pubmed
    ..and laboratory findings that may be related to the pathomechanism of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), we analyzed these findings in 239 patients with HAM/TSP, including 64 patients followed up ..
  37. Furukawa Y, Kubota R, Eiraku N, Nakagawa M, Usuku K, Izumo S, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-related clinical and laboratory findings for HTLV-I-infected blood donors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;32:328-34 pubmed
    ..loads in subjects with a family history of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) tended to be higher than those in subjects without a family history of these conditions...
  38. Oh U, Yamano Y, Mora C, Ohayon J, Bagnato F, Butman J, et al. Interferon-beta1a therapy in human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated neurologic disease. Ann Neurol. 2005;57:526-34 pubmed
    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system...
  39. Montanheiro P, Vergara M, Smid J, da Silva Duarte A, de Oliveira A, Casseb J. High production of RANTES and MIP-1alpha in the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). J Neuroimmunol. 2007;188:138-42 pubmed
    ..lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with progressive neurological disorders and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM)...
  40. Dehee A, Cesaire R, Desire N, Lezin A, Bourdonné O, Bera O, et al. Quantitation of HTLV-I proviral load by a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. J Virol Methods. 2002;102:37-51 pubmed
    ..using clinical samples indicate a higher proviral load in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis than in asymptomatic carriers, and also suggest the usefulness of this quantitative measurement to ..
  41. Vine A, Witkover A, Lloyd A, Jeffery K, Siddiqui A, Marshall S, et al. Polygenic control of human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load and the risk of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:932-9 pubmed
    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is one outcome of infection with HTLV-I...
  42. Nagai M, Jacobson S. Immunopathogenesis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy. Curr Opin Neurol. 2001;14:381-6 pubmed
    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a chronic progressive inflammatory neurological disease...
  43. Enose Akahata Y, Oh U, Grant C, Jacobson S. Retrovirally induced CTL degranulation mediated by IL-15 expression and infection of mononuclear phagocytes in patients with HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease. Blood. 2008;112:2400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..nervous system inflammation in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  44. Yasunaga Ji -, Sakai T, Nosaka K, Etoh Ki -, Tamiya S, Koga S, et al. Impaired production of naive T lymphocytes in human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected individuals: its implications in the immunodeficient state. Blood. 2001;97:3177-83 pubmed
    ..study analyzed the T-cell subsets in HTLV-I carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and ATL using 3-color fluorescence with CD62L and CD45RA coexpression either with CD4(+) or CD8(+) T ..
  45. Jeffery K, Siddiqui A, Bunce M, Lloyd A, Vine A, Witkover A, et al. The influence of HLA class I alleles and heterozygosity on the outcome of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I infection. J Immunol. 2000;165:7278-84 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the proposal that a strong class I-restricted CTL response to HTLV-I reduces the proviral load and hence the risk of disease...
  46. Primo J, Siqueira I, Nascimento M, Oliveira M, Farre L, Carvalho E, et al. High HTLV-1 proviral load, a marker for HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, is also detected in patients with infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009;42:761-4 pubmed
    ..may develop a variety of diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH)...
  47. Furukawa Y, Yamashita M, Usuku K, Izumo S, Nakagawa M, Osame M. Phylogenetic subgroups of human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I in the tax gene and their association with different risks for HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1343-9 pubmed
    ..The tax gene was sequenced in 61 patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), 55 patients with adult T cell leukemia, and 62 healthy carriers (HCs)...
  48. Michaelsson J, Barbosa H, Jordan K, Chapman J, Brunialti M, Neto W, et al. The frequency of CD127low expressing CD4+CD25high T regulatory cells is inversely correlated with human T lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) proviral load in HTLV-1-infection and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:41 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and phenotype of TReg cells in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and in HTLV-1-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) patients, and to correlate with measures of T cell activation...
  49. Burbelo P, Meoli E, Leahy H, Graham J, Yao K, Oh U, et al. Anti-HTLV antibody profiling reveals an antibody signature for HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Retrovirology. 2008;5:96 pubmed publisher
    HTLV-I is the causal agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Biomarkers are needed to diagnose and/or predict patients who are at risk for HAM/TSP or ATLL...
  50. Nagai M, Kubota R, Greten T, Schneck J, Leist T, Jacobson S. Increased activated human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax11-19-specific memory and effector CD8+ cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: correlation with HTLV-I provirus load. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:197-205 pubmed
    ..CD8(+) cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  51. Lima M, Harab R, Schor D, Andrada Serpa M, Araujo A. Subacute progression of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:468-73 pubmed
    Although human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is usually described as a chronic disabling disease, a rapid course over months or even weeks has been reported in some ..
  52. Afonso P, Ozden S, Prevost M, Schmitt C, Seilhean D, Weksler B, et al. Human blood-brain barrier disruption by retroviral-infected lymphocytes: role of myosin light chain kinase in endothelial tight-junction disorganization. J Immunol. 2007;179:2576-83 pubmed
    ..Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, in which evidence of BBB breakdown has been ..
  53. Biddison W, Kubota R, Kawanishi T, Taub D, Cruikshank W, Center D, et al. Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-specific CD8+ CTL clones from patients with HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease secrete proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinase. J Immunol. 1997;159:2018-25 pubmed
    Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic, progressive neurologic disease characterized by marked degeneration of the spinal cord and the presence of infiltrating ..
  54. Semmes O, Cazares L, Ward M, Qi L, Moody M, Maloney E, et al. Discrete serum protein signatures discriminate between human retrovirus-associated hematologic and neurologic disease. Leukemia. 2005;19:1229-38 pubmed
    ..type I (HTLV-I) is the causative agent for adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  55. Saito M, Braud V, Goon P, Hanon E, Taylor G, Saito A, et al. Low frequency of CD94/NKG2A+ T lymphocytes in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, but not in asymptomatic carriers. Blood. 2003;102:577-84 pubmed
    ..in frequency in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers...
  56. Sabouri A, Saito M, Lloyd A, Vine A, Witkover A, Furukawa Y, et al. Polymorphism in the interleukin-10 promoter affects both provirus load and the risk of human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1279-85 pubmed
    ..in the interleukin (IL)-10 promoter region in 280 patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and 255 HTLV-I-seropositive asymptomatic carriers from an area where HTLV-I is endemic...
  57. Biglione M, Pizarro M, Puca A, Salomon H, Berria M. A cluster of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in Jujuy, Argentina. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;32:441-5 pubmed
    ..32% in the general population, so that a search for HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) cases deserved to be carried out...
  58. Fukushima N, Nishiura Y, Nakamura T, Kohno S, Eguchi K. Blockade of IL-2 receptor suppresses HTLV-I and IFN-gamma expression in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Intern Med. 2007;46:347-51 pubmed
    ..abnormalities in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  59. Primo J, Brites C, Oliveira M, Moreno Carvalho O, Machado M, Bittencourt A. Infective dermatitis and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in childhood and adolescence. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:535-41 pubmed
    ..HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy of adulthood, presenting with slowly progressive spastic paraparesis ..
  60. Shuh M, Beilke M. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1): new insights into the clinical aspects and molecular pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Microsc Res Tech. 2005;68:176-96 pubmed
    ..acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HTLV-1, with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM)...
  61. Oh U, Grant C, Griffith C, Fugo K, Takenouchi N, Jacobson S. Reduced Foxp3 protein expression is associated with inflammatory disease during human t lymphotropic virus type 1 Infection. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1557-66 pubmed
    ..Our analysis showed that HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis was associated with a lower expression (compared with that in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and healthy ..
  62. Yukitake M, Sueoka E, Sueoka Aragane N, Sato A, Ohashi H, Yakushiji Y, et al. Significantly increased antibody response to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients but not in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..hnRNPs) are associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these studies were done under nonmasked conditions...
  63. Meekings K, Leipzig J, Bushman F, Taylor G, Bangham C. HTLV-1 integration into transcriptionally active genomic regions is associated with proviral expression and with HAM/TSP. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000027 pubmed publisher
    ..risk of the inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). But the factors that control the rate of HTLV-1 proviral expression remain unknown...
  64. Segurado A, Biasutti C, Zeigler R, Rodrigues C, Damas C, Jorge M, et al. Identification of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) subtypes using restricted fragment length polymorphism in a cohort of asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis from São Paulo, Brazi. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:329-33 pubmed
    ..Paulo, Brazil, including 42 asymptomatic carriers and 28 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), using restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of long terminal repeat (LTR) ..
  65. Bagnato F, Butman J, Mora C, Gupta S, Yamano Y, Tasciyan T, et al. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging features in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:525-34 pubmed
    ..were performed in 21 patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, to assess the role of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the disease diagnosis...
  66. Goon P, Igakura T, Hanon E, Mosley A, Barfield A, Barnard A, et al. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-specific CD4+ T cells: immunodominance hierarchy and preferential infection with HTLV-I. J Immunol. 2004;172:1735-43 pubmed
    ..CNS in the inflammatory disease human lymphotropic T cell virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear and the HTLV-I-specific CD4(+) T cell ..
  67. Takenouchi N, Yamano Y, Usuku K, Osame M, Izumo S. Usefulness of proviral load measurement for monitoring of disease activity in individual patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Neurovirol. 2003;9:29-35 pubmed
    ..blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been reported in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and the proviral load has been reported to fluctuate in individual patients during the course ..
  68. Nishiura Y, Nakamura T, Fukushima N, Nakamura H, Ida H, Aramaki T, et al. Disulfide-mediated apoptosis of human T-lymphotrophc virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:533-42 pubmed
    ..for a therapeutic strategy against human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) using a compound that contained a disulfide moiety, prosultiamine, which is a homologue of ..
  69. Osame M. Pathological mechanisms of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP). J Neurovirol. 2002;8:359-64 pubmed
    ..of the pathological mechanisms of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  70. Yamano Y, Takenouchi N, Li H, Tomaru U, Yao K, Grant C, et al. Virus-induced dysfunction of CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated neuroimmunological disease. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1361-8 pubmed
    ..in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated (HTLV-I-associated) myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) has been shown to be a major reservoir for this virus, it was of interest to determine ..