poliomyelitis

Summary

Summary: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)

Top Publications

  1. Wassilak S, Pate M, Wannemuehler K, Jenks J, Burns C, Chenoweth P, et al. Outbreak of type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Nigeria: emergence and widespread circulation in an underimmunized population. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:898-909 pubmed publisher
    ..Strengthened routine immunization programs in countries with suboptimal coverage and balanced use of OPV formulations in SIAs are necessary to minimize risks of VDPV emergence and circulation...
  2. Verdijk P, Rots N, Bakker W. Clinical development of a novel inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine based on attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:635-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Sabin-IPV is under development by several manufacturers. This article gives an overview of results from clinical trials with Sabin-IPV and discusses the requirements and challenges in the clinical development of this novel IPV...
  3. Estivariz C, Molnàr Z, Venczel L, Kapusinszky B, Zingeser J, Lipskaya G, et al. Paralytic poliomyelitis associated with Sabin monovalent and bivalent oral polio vaccines in Hungary. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:316-25 pubmed publisher
    Historical records of patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in Hungary during 1961-1981 were reviewed to assess the risk of VAPP after oral polio vaccine (OPV) administration...
  4. Luo H, Zhang Y, Wang X, Yu W, Wen N, Yan D, et al. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1981-90 pubmed publisher
    ..of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000...
  5. Abid N, Islam O, Bosan A, Iqbal T, Darwish A, Bile K. Pakistan's fight against poliomyelitis: introducing innovative strategies to address challenges and attain the goal of eradication. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16 Suppl:S5-14 pubmed
    ..This will provide Pakistan a strong and imminent opportunity to interrupt polio virus circulation...
  6. Gregory C, Ndiaye S, Patel M, Hakizamana E, Wannemuehler K, Ndinga E, et al. Investigation of elevated case-fatality rate in poliomyelitis outbreak in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo, 2010. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted an investigation to identify factors associated with fatal outcomes among persons with poliomyelitis in Pointe Noire.
  7. Belov G, Nair V, Hansen B, Hoyt F, Fischer E, Ehrenfeld E. Complex dynamic development of poliovirus membranous replication complexes. J Virol. 2012;86:302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is likely that there is a fundamental divergence in the requirements for the supporting cellular membrane-shaping machinery among different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses...
  8. Cadorna Carlos J, Vidor E, Bonnet M. Randomized controlled study of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered intradermally with a needle in the Philippines. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:e110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of a fractional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) dose administered intradermally (ID) to a full dose administered intramuscularly (IM)...
  9. Kew O. Reaching the last one per cent: progress and challenges in global polio eradication. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:188-98 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications77

  1. Murakami H, Kobayashi M, Hachiya M, Khan Z, Hassan S, Sakurada S. Refusal of oral polio vaccine in northwestern Pakistan: a qualitative and quantitative study. Vaccine. 2014;32:1382-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2007, we investigated community perceptions of the OPV and estimated the prevalence of OPV refusal in three districts in Swat Valley, KPP, a polio-endemic area...
  2. Weiss W, Rahman M, Solomon R, Singh V, Ward D. Outcomes of polio eradication activities in Uttar Pradesh, India: the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net) and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP). BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:117 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we examine the vaccination outcomes in districts of SM Net where the CORE Group works...
  3. Baba M, Oderinde B, Patrick P, Jarmai M. Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria. J Med Virol. 2012;84:358-64 pubmed publisher
  4. Aylward B, Tangermann R. The global polio eradication initiative: lessons learned and prospects for success. Vaccine. 2011;29 Suppl 4:D80-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Külshammer M, Winke U, Frank M, Skali Lami U, Steudel H, Schilling G, et al. Poor immunity status against poliomyelitis in medical students: a semi-anonymous study. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2013;202:63-5 pubmed publisher
    In spite of almost complete eradication, poliomyelitis continues to be a global threat even in non-endemic countries due to the ever-increasing international travel activities...
  6. O Reilly K, Durry E, ul Islam O, Quddus A, Abid N, Mir T, et al. The effect of mass immunisation campaigns and new oral poliovirus vaccines on the incidence of poliomyelitis in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2001-11: a retrospective analysis. Lancet. 2012;380:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The increasing incidence of poliomyelitis in these countries during 2010-11 led the Executive Board of WHO in January, 2012, to declare polio ..
  7. Duintjer Tebbens R, Pallansch M, Kalkowska D, Wassilak S, Cochi S, Thompson K. Characterizing poliovirus transmission and evolution: insights from modeling experiences with wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. Risk Anal. 2013;33:703-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Broad application of the model promises to offer insights in the context of global and national policy and economic models...
  8. Duintjer Tebbens R, Pallansch M, Chumakov K, Halsey N, Hovi T, Minor P, et al. Review and assessment of poliovirus immunity and transmission: synthesis of knowledge gaps and identification of research needs. Risk Anal. 2013;33:606-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This assessment of current knowledge supports the immediate conduct of additional studies to address the gaps...
  9. Joffret M, Jegouic S, Bessaud M, Balanant J, Tran C, Caro V, et al. Common and diverse features of cocirculating type 2 and 3 recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from patients with poliomyelitis and healthy children. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1363-73 pubmed publisher
    Five cases of poliomyelitis due to type 2 or 3 recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were reported in the Toliara province of Madagascar in 2005.
  10. Steultjens M, Stolwijk Swüste J, Roorda L, Dallmeijer A, van Dijk G, Post B, et al. WOMAC-pf as a measure of physical function in patients with Parkinson's disease and late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis: unidimensionality and item behaviour. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34:1423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)-pf, an osteoarthritis (OA)-specific questionnaire used to establish the level of physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD).
  11. Carlson Scholz J, Garg R, Compton S, Allore H, Zeiss C, Uchio E. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-infected ICR-SCID mice after injection of basement membrane matrix contaminated with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Comp Med. 2011;61:404-11 pubmed
    ..generally does not cause disease, infected mice that are homozygous for the Fv1(n) allele are prone to develop poliomyelitis when immunosuppressed, a condition known as age-dependent poliomyelitis...
  12. Hird T, Grassly N. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002599 pubmed publisher
    ..The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against ..
  13. Hovi T, Shulman L, van der Avoort H, Deshpande J, Roivainen M, De Gourville E. Role of environmental poliovirus surveillance in global polio eradication and beyond. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we review the feasibility of using ENV to monitor wild PV and vaccine-derived PV circulation in human populations, based on global experiences in defined epidemiological situations...
  14. Le Menach A, Llosa A, Mouniaman Nara I, Kouassi F, Ngala J, Boxall N, et al. Poliomyelitis outbreak, Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010-February 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1506-9 pubmed publisher
    On November 4, 2010, the Republic of the Congo declared a poliomyelitis outbreak. A cross-sectional survey in Pointe-Noire showed poor sanitary conditions and low vaccination coverage (55.5%), particularly among young adults...
  15. Weiss W, Rahman M, Solomon R, Ward D. Determinants of performance of supplemental immunization activities for polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: social mobilization activities of the Social mobilization Network (SM Net) and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP). BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:17 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we examine the reasons the CORE Group had been successful through exploration of which social mobilization activities of the CORE Group predicted better performance of SIAs...
  16. Duintjer Tebbens R, Pallansch M, Kim J, Burns C, Kew O, Oberste M, et al. Oral poliovirus vaccine evolution and insights relevant to modeling the risks of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). Risk Anal. 2013;33:680-702 pubmed publisher
  17. Kidd S, Goodson J, Aramburu J, Morais A, Gaye A, Wannemuehler K, et al. Poliomyelitis outbreaks in Angola genetically linked to India: risk factors and implications for prevention of outbreaks due to wild poliovirus importations. Vaccine. 2011;29:3760-6 pubmed publisher
    We conducted an investigation of two outbreaks of poliomyelitis in Angola during 2007-2008 due to wild poliovirus (WPV) genetically linked to India...
  18. O Reilly K, Chauvin C, Aylward R, Maher C, Okiror S, Wolff C, et al. A statistical model of the international spread of wild poliovirus in Africa used to predict and prevent outbreaks. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001109 pubmed publisher
    Outbreaks of poliomyelitis in African countries that were previously free of wild-type poliovirus cost the Global Polio Eradication Initiative US$850 million during 2003-2009, and have limited the ability of the program to focus on ..
  19. Lodder W, Buisman A, Rutjes S, Heijne J, Teunis P, de Roda Husman A. Feasibility of quantitative environmental surveillance in poliovirus eradication strategies. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This enables the detection of circulating poliovirus by environmental surveillance, supporting its feasibility as an early warning system...
  20. Grassly N. The final stages of the global eradication of poliomyelitis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120140 pubmed publisher
    The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988...
  21. Grassly N, Jafari H, Bahl S, Sethi R, Deshpande J, Wolff C, et al. Waning intestinal immunity after vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccines in India. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Mucosal immunity is thought to wane over time but the rate of loss of protection has not been examined...
  22. Estivariz C, Jafari H, Sutter R, John T, Jain V, Agarwal A, et al. Immunogenicity of supplemental doses of poliovirus vaccine for children aged 6-9 months in Moradabad, India: a community-based, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:128-35 pubmed publisher
  23. Duintjer Tebbens R, Pallansch M, Chumakov K, Halsey N, Hovi T, Minor P, et al. Expert review on poliovirus immunity and transmission. Risk Anal. 2013;33:544-605 pubmed publisher
    ..and address the complexities of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation to stop all cases of paralytic poliomyelitis depends strongly on our collective understanding of poliovirus immunity and transmission...
  24. Patel M, Kondé M, Didi Ngossaki B, Ndinga E, Yogolelo R, Salla M, et al. An outbreak of wild poliovirus in the Republic of Congo, 2010-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1291-8 pubmed publisher
  25. Thompson K, Pallansch M, Tebbens R, Wassilak S, Cochi S. Modeling population immunity to support efforts to end the transmission of live polioviruses. Risk Anal. 2013;33:647-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that dynamically modeling risk represents an essential tool as the number of cases approaches zero...
  26. Eggers M, Terletskaia Ladwig E, Rabenau H, Doerr H, Diedrich S, Enders G, et al. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:347 pubmed publisher
    ..In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab...
  27. Pliaka V, Kyriakopoulou Z, Markoulatos P. Risks associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccine poliovirus strains and the strategies for control and eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:609-28 pubmed publisher
    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 with the aim to eliminate paralytic poliomyelitis. Two effective vaccines are available: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV)...
  28. Sutter R, John T, Jain H, Agarkhedkar S, Ramanan P, Verma H, et al. Immunogenicity of bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1682-8 pubmed publisher
    Poliovirus types 1 and 3 co-circulate in poliomyelitis-endemic countries. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of a novel bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV).
  29. Nathanson N, Kew O. From emergence to eradication: the epidemiology of poliomyelitis deconstructed. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:1213-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and been reduced to near-elimination, all within the span of documented medical history...
  30. Resik S, Tejeda A, Sutter R, Diaz M, Sarmiento L, Alemañi N, et al. Priming after a fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To reduce the costs of maintaining a poliovirus immunization base in low-income areas, we assessed the extent of priming immune responses after the administration of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)...
  31. Lowther S, Roesel S, O CONNOR P, Landaverde M, Oblapenko G, Deshevoi S, et al. World Health Organization regional assessments of the risks of poliovirus outbreaks. Risk Anal. 2013;33:664-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing evaluation of indicators within regions and further harmonization of methods between regions are needed to effectively plan risk mitigation activities in a setting of finite resources for funding and continued WPV circulation...
  32. Nagy P, Pogany J. The dependence of viral RNA replication on co-opted host factors. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;10:137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review presents the recent progress that has been made in understanding the role of co-opted host proteins and membranes during (+)RNA virus replication, and discusses common themes employed by different viruses...
  33. Soonawala D, Verdijk P, Wijmenga Monsuur A, Boog C, Koedam P, Visser L, et al. Intradermal fractional booster dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine with a jet injector in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2013;31:3688-94 pubmed publisher
    For global eradication of poliomyelitis, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) needs to become available in all countries...
  34. Liao G, Li R, Li C, Sun M, Li Y, Chu J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine made from Sabin strains: a phase II, randomized, positive-controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a phase II, randomized, positive-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Sabin IPV...
  35. Karakasiliotis I, Paximadi E, Markoulatos P. Evolution of a rare vaccine-derived multirecombinant poliovirus. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3137-42 pubmed
    ..multirecombinant poliovirus strain was isolated from a 5-month-old child with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis after oral poliovirus vaccine administration...
  36. Pachón I, Amela C, de Ory F. Age-specific seroprevalence of poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies in Spain. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:535-41 pubmed
    ..study was undertaken in Spain, with the main aim of estimating the population's immunity against poliomyelitis, tetanus and diphtheria...
  37. Couzin J. Infectious diseases. Report concludes polio drugs are needed--after disease is eradicated. Science. 2006;311:1539 pubmed
  38. Dedepsidis E, Kyriakopoulou Z, Pliaka V, Kottaridi C, Bolanaki E, Levidiotou Stefanou S, et al. Retrospective characterization of a vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 isolate from sewage in Greece. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:6697-704 pubmed
    ..of environmental surveillance as a supportive procedure in the polio surveillance system even in countries with high rates of OPV coverage in order to prevent cases or even outbreaks of poliomyelitis that otherwise would be inevitable.
  39. Minor P. Polio eradication, cessation of vaccination and re-emergence of disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:473-82 pubmed
  40. Lahariya C. Global eradication of polio: the case for "finishing the job". Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:487-92 pubmed
    ..This appears to be the best way to achieve eradication at the earliest opportunity. ..
  41. Brown D, Kauder S, Cornell C, Jang G, Racaniello V, Semler B. Cell-dependent role for the poliovirus 3' noncoding region in positive-strand RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2004;78:1344-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that, together with a cellular factor(s) that is limiting in neuronal cells, the poliovirus 3' noncoding region is involved in positive-strand synthesis during genome replication. ..
  42. Mas Lago P, Gary H, Pérez L, Caceres V, Olivera J, Puentes R, et al. Poliovirus detection in wastewater and stools following an immunization campaign in Havana, Cuba. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32:772-7 pubmed
    Recent outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by vaccine-derived virus have raised concerns that vaccine-derived poliovirus may continue to circulate after eradication...
  43. Aylward R, Maher C. Interrupting poliovirus transmission -- new solutions to an old problem. Biologicals. 2006;34:133-9 pubmed
  44. Cochi S, Kew O. Polio today: are we on the verge of global eradication?. JAMA. 2008;300:839-41 pubmed publisher
  45. Chatterjee P. Polio drops arouse suspicion in Uttar Pradesh. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6:687 pubmed
  46. Yadav K, Rai S, Vidushi A, Pandav C. Intensified pulse polio immunization: time spent and cost incurred at a primary healthcare centre. Natl Med J India. 2009;22:13-7 pubmed
    ..initiative in 1995, India is among the world's largest reservoir of wild poliovirus with 559 cases of poliomyelitis reported in 2008...
  47. John T. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis. Indian J Med Res. 2004;119:1-17 pubmed
    ..Had we strictly followed the principles of science and health economics, perhaps we could have achieved success earlier and cheaper, with the absence of vaccine-induced polio as the bonus. ..
  48. Obregón R, Waisbord S. The complexity of social mobilization in health communication: top-down and bottom-up experiences in polio eradication. J Health Commun. 2010;15 Suppl 1:25-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies using these perspectives should be a priority for global health programs, including studies of the trust level, or lack thereof, among social actors. ..
  49. Hamzat T, Omotade T. Acute flaccid paralysis: a five-year review of cases managed by physiotherapy at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Afr J Health Sci. 2006;13:28-32 pubmed
    ..Importance of adequate documentation of clinical information by clinicians is also emphasised...
  50. Adu F, Iber J, Bukbuk D, Gumede N, Yang S, Jorba J, et al. Isolation of recombinant type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) from a Nigerian child. Virus Res. 2007;127:17-25 pubmed
    ..Although no related type 2 VDPVs were detected in Nigeria or elsewhere, the VDPV was found in an area where conditions favor VDPV emergence and spread...
  51. Gidding H, Backhouse J, Gilbert G, Burgess M. National serosurvey of poliovirus immunity in Australia, 1996-99. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2005;29:48-52 pubmed
    ..To measure immunity to poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 in the Australian population...
  52. Tebbens R, Pallansch M, Kew O, Caceres V, Jafari H, Cochi S, et al. Risks of paralytic disease due to wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus after eradication. Risk Anal. 2006;26:1471-505 pubmed
    After the global eradication of wild polioviruses, the risk of paralytic poliomyelitis from polioviruses will still exist and require active management...
  53. Grassly N, Wenger J, Durrani S, Bahl S, Deshpande J, Sutter R, et al. Protective efficacy of a monovalent oral type 1 poliovirus vaccine: a case-control study. Lancet. 2007;369:1356-62 pubmed
    ..A high-potency monovalent oral type 1 poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) was developed in 2005 to tackle persistent poliovirus transmission in the last remaining infected countries. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of this vaccine in India...
  54. Heymann D, Sutter R, Aylward R. A vision of a world without polio: the OPV cessation strategy. Biologicals. 2006;34:75-9 pubmed
    ..Final preparations for the eventual global and simultaneous cessation of OPV will require the same level of international cooperation and coordination that has brought the world to the verge of polio eradication...
  55. Smith J, Leke R, Adams A, Tangermann R. Certification of polio eradication: process and lessons learned. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:24-30 pubmed
    Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, considerable progress has been made towards interrupting the transmission of wild poliovirus globally...
  56. Mittal S, Mathew J. Polio eradication in India: the way forward. Indian J Pediatr. 2007;74:153-60 pubmed
    Despite remarkable decline in the number of poliomyelitis cases, the dream of polio eradication in India remains elusive. This is despite considerable effort and expenditure for well over a decade...
  57. Wahid R, Cannon M, Chow M. Virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses and long-term T-cell memory in individuals vaccinated against polio. J Virol. 2005;79:5988-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, immunity to PV vaccination involves not only an effective neutralizing antibody titer but also long-term CD4(+) and CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cell responses...
  58. Paul Y, Dawson A. Some ethical issues arising from polio eradication programmes in India. Bioethics. 2005;19:393-406 pubmed
    The World Health Organisation's programme for the eradication of poliomyelitis as currently practised in India raises many ethical issues. In this paper we concentrate on just two...
  59. Cherkasova E, Yakovenko M, Rezapkin G, Korotkova E, Ivanova O, Eremeeva T, et al. Spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus from a paralytic case in an immunodeficient child: an insight into the natural evolution of oral polio vaccine. J Virol. 2005;79:1062-70 pubmed
    ..Here, we present the results of a study of vaccine-derived isolates from an immunocompromised poliomyelitis patient, the contacts, and the local sewage...
  60. Halsey N, Pinto J, Espinosa Rosales F, Faure Fontenla M, da Silva E, Khan A, et al. Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:3-8 pubmed
    ..To estimate the rate of long-term poliovirus excretors in people known to have B-cell immune deficiency disorders...
  61. Arita M, Zhu S, Yoshida H, Yoneyama T, Miyamura T, Shimizu H. A Sabin 3-derived poliovirus recombinant contained a sequence homologous with indigenous human enterovirus species C in the viral polymerase coding region. J Virol. 2005;79:12650-7 pubmed
    Outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have been reported in areas where indigenous wild polioviruses (PVs) were eliminated by vaccination...
  62. D Errico M, Barbadoro P, Bacelli S, Esposto E, Moroni V, Scaccia F, et al. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Marches region (Italy): 1997-2007. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:135 pubmed publisher
    The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation of cases from areas where ..
  63. Ehrenfeld E, Glass R, Agol V, Chumakov K, Dowdle W, John T, et al. Immunisation against poliomyelitis: moving forward. Lancet. 2008;371:1385-7 pubmed publisher
  64. Jordan L, Kligman M, Sculco T. Total knee arthroplasty in patients with poliomyelitis. J Arthroplasty. 2007;22:543-8 pubmed
    ..Between 1991 and 2001, 17 primary total knee arthroplasties were performed in 15 patients with limbs affected by poliomyelitis. Eight patients had a constrained condylar knee design, 8 a posterior stabilized design, and 1 a hinged design...
  65. Dowdle W, de Gourville E, Kew O, Pallansch M, Wood D. Polio eradication: the OPV paradox. Rev Med Virol. 2003;13:277-91 pubmed
    ..mass administration of oral polio vaccine (OPV) since 1961 has prevented many millions of cases of paralytic poliomyelitis. The public health value of this inexpensive and easily administered product has been extraordinary...
  66. Rinaldo C. Passive immunization against poliomyelitis: the Hammon gamma globulin field trials, 1951-1953. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:790-9 pubmed
    b>Poliomyelitis has gone from being one of the worst scourges of the 20th century to nearing eradication in the 21st. This success is well known to be attributable to the Salk inactivated and Sabin attenuated poliovirus vaccines...
  67. Grassly N, Fraser C, Wenger J, Deshpande J, Sutter R, Heymann D, et al. New strategies for the elimination of polio from India. Science. 2006;314:1150-3 pubmed
    ..We analyze strategies to counteract this and show that switching to monovalent vaccine may finally interrupt virus transmission...
  68. Khetsuriani N, Prevots D, Quick L, Elder M, Pallansch M, Kew O, et al. Persistence of vaccine-derived polioviruses among immunodeficient persons with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1845-52 pubmed
    ..long-term poliovaccine virus persistence among immunodeficient patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (iVAPP), cases reported in the United States during 1975-1997 were reviewed, with subsequent follow-up and ..