cardiovirus infections

Summary

Summary: Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Ano Y, Sakudo A, Kimata T, Uraki R, Sugiura K, Onodera T. Oxidative damage to neurons caused by the induction of microglial NADPH oxidase in encephalomyocarditis virus infection. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:39-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the oxidative stress generated by NOX2 in activated microglial cells damages neurons and that this is an important process in the pathogenesis of EMCV-B infection...
  2. Myoung J, Bahk Y, Kang H, Dal Canto M, Kim B. Anticapsid immunity level, not viral persistence level, correlates with the progression of Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease in viral P1-transgenic mice. J Virol. 2008;82:5606-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that viral persistence alone is not sufficient to induce disease and that the level of T-cell immunity to viral capsid epitopes is critical for the development of demyelinating disease in SJL mice...
  3. Papaioannou N, Billinis C, Psychas V, Papadopoulos O, Vlemmas I. Pathogenesis of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection in piglets during the viraemia phase: a histopathological, immunohistochemical and virological study. J Comp Pathol. 2003;129:161-8 pubmed
    ..The frequent presence of intracytoplasmic EMCV in macrophages of the tonsils and spleen supports the hypothesis that macrophages play a role in viral replication and dissemination in the body...
  4. Osorio J, Hubbard G, Soike K, Girard M, Van Der Werf S, Moulin J, et al. Protection of non-murine mammals against encephalomyocarditis virus using a genetically engineered Mengo virus. Vaccine. 1996;14:155-61 pubmed
  5. Paul S, Michiels T. Cardiovirus leader proteins are functionally interchangeable and have evolved to adapt to virus replication fitness. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1237-46 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, analysis of viral RNA replication of the recombinant viruses raised the hypothesis that L proteins of TMEV and EMCV diverged during evolution to adapt to the different replication fitness of these viruses...
  6. An D, Jeong W, Jeoung H, Yoon S, Kim H, Choi C, et al. Encephalomyocarditis in Korea: serological survey in pigs and phylogenetic analysis of two historical isolates. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:37-44 pubmed publisher
  7. Nasu Nishimura Y, Taniuchi Y, Nishimura T, Sakudo A, Nakajima K, Ano Y, et al. Cellular prion protein prevents brain damage after encephalomyocarditis virus infection in mice. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1007-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on all these findings, PrP(C) may play certain roles in the induction of inflammation and inhibition of apoptosis in vivo...
  8. Takeda M, Ohtsuka R, Nakayama Y, Doi K. The role of CD4(+) T cells in biphasic hind limb paralysis induced by the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D) in DBA/2 mice. Exp Anim. 2004;53:31-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that while macrophages and CD4(+) T cells participate in the early phase lesion and paralysis and only CD4(+) T cells in the late phase lesion and paralysis...
  9. Drexler J, Luna L, Stocker A, Almeida P, Ribeiro T, Petersen N, et al. Circulation of 3 lineages of a novel Saffold cardiovirus in humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..4% from known cardioviruses. Because closely related strains were found on 2 continents, global distribution in humans is suspected. Saffold-like viruses may be the first human cardiovirus species to be identified...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Pirko I, Gamez J, Johnson A, Macura S, Rodriguez M. Dynamics of MRI lesion development in an animal model of viral-induced acute progressive CNS demyelination. Neuroimage. 2004;21:576-82 pubmed
    ..These novel findings may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of acute fulminant multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  2. Johnson A, Mendez Fernandez Y, Moyer A, Sloma C, Pirko I, Block M, et al. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells mediate a peptide-induced fatal syndrome. J Immunol. 2005;174:6854-62 pubmed
    ..Susceptibility to the syndrome is genetically determined, is mediated by CD8(+) T cells, and requires expression of perforin. These findings raise concerns about the use of peptides and MHC tetramers in therapeutic schemes...
  3. Hou W, Kang H, Kim B. Th17 cells enhance viral persistence and inhibit T cell cytotoxicity in a model of chronic virus infection. J Exp Med. 2009;206:313-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results indicate a novel pathogenic role of Th17 cells via IL-17 in persistent viral infection and its associated chronic inflammatory diseases...
  4. Buenz E, Rodriguez M, Howe C. Disrupted spatial memory is a consequence of picornavirus infection. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;24:266-73 pubmed
    ..An important implication of such subclinical virus-induced neurologic deficit is that the injury may accumulate over the lifetime of the individual, eventually leading to the manifestation of clinical cognitive or memory deficits...
  5. Himeda T, Hosomi T, Asif N, Shimizu H, Okuwa T, Muraki Y, et al. The preparation of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of Saffold virus. Virol J. 2011;8:110 pubmed publisher
    ..To obtain the infectious RNA using T7 promoter, a variant of T7 RNA polymerase, which fails to recognize the PTH signal, was useful. This study will provide a valuable technical insight into the reverse genetics of SAFV...
  6. Jelachich M, Bramlage C, Lipton H. Differentiation of M1 myeloid precursor cells into macrophages results in binding and infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and apoptosis. J Virol. 1999;73:3227-35 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that macrophage differentiation plays a role in susceptibility to TMEV infection and apoptosis...
  7. Gitlin L, Barchet W, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Beutler B, Flavell R, et al. Essential role of mda-5 in type I IFN responses to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid and encephalomyocarditis picornavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8459-64 pubmed
    ..Moreover, mda-5-/- mice exhibited a selectively impaired antiviral response to encephalomyocarditis picornavirus, indicating functional specialization of mda-5 in vivo...
  8. So E, Kim B. Theiler's virus infection induces TLR3-dependent upregulation of TLR2 critical for proinflammatory cytokine production. Glia. 2009;57:1216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that TMEV utilizes TLR3-induced TLR2 to induce inflammatory cytokines, which are critical to the development of immune-mediated demyelinating disease...
  9. Kluivers M, Maurice H, Vyt P, Koenen F, Nielen M. Transmission of encephalomyocarditis virus in pigs estimated from field data in Belgium by means of R0. Vet Res. 2006;37:757-66 pubmed
    ..Preventing viral spread should therefore be focussed on rodent control instead of reduction of contact between pigs...
  10. Lyman M, Myoung J, Mohindru M, Kim B. Quantitative, not qualitative, differences in CD8(+) T cell responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus between resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible SJL/J mice. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:2730-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that an initial induction of a vigorous CD8(+) T cell response to TMEV is critically important for the resistance to virally induced demyelinating disease...
  11. Malathi K, Dong B, Gale M, Silverman R. Small self-RNA generated by RNase L amplifies antiviral innate immunity. Nature. 2007;448:816-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that RNase L has an essential role in the innate antiviral immune response that relieves the requirement for direct sensing of non-self RNA...
  12. Psalla D, Psychas V, Spyrou V, Billinis C, Papaioannou N, Vlemmas I. Pathogenesis of experimental encephalomyocarditis: a histopathological, immunohistochemical and virological study in mice. J Comp Pathol. 2006;135:142-145 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the role of mice, in addition to rats, as reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of EMCV infections on pig farms...
  13. van Pesch V, van Eyll O, Michiels T. The leader protein of Theiler's virus inhibits immediate-early alpha/beta interferon production. J Virol. 2001;75:7811-7 pubmed
    ..In agreement with the anti-interferon role of the L protein, a virus bearing a mutation in the zinc-binding motif was dramatically impaired in its ability to persist in the central nervous system of SJL/J mice...
  14. Njenga M, Coenen M, DeCuir N, Yeh H, Rodriguez M. Short-term treatment with interferon-alpha/beta promotes remyelination, whereas long-term treatment aggravates demyelination in a murine model of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res. 2000;59:661-70 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the length of type I IFN treatment may have paradoxical effects on demyelination and remyelination...
  15. Martinand C, Salehzada T, Silhol M, Lebleu B, Bisbal C. RNase L inhibitor (RLI) antisense constructions block partially the down regulation of the 2-5A/RNase L pathway in encephalomyocarditis-virus-(EMCV)-infected cells. Eur J Biochem. 1998;254:248-55 pubmed
    ..Moreover, cells expressing a low level of RLI (VAS3 and VAS 4) are partially resistant to EMCV infection...
  16. Bihl F, Pena Rossi C, Guenet J, Brahic M, Bureau J. The shiverer mutation affects the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system. J Virol. 1997;71:5025-30 pubmed
    ..These results strongly support the view that oligodendrocytes are a necessary viral target for the establishment of a persistent infection by Theiler's virus...
  17. Gelmetti D, Meroni A, Brocchi E, Koenen F, Cammarata G. Pathogenesis of encephalomyocarditis experimental infection in young piglets: a potential animal model to study viral myocarditis. Vet Res. 2006;37:15-23 pubmed
  18. Blinkova O, Kapoor A, Victoria J, Jones M, Wolfe N, Naeem A, et al. Cardioviruses are genetically diverse and cause common enteric infections in South Asian children. J Virol. 2009;83:4631-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to examine the roles of these highly common and diverse SAFV genotypes in nonpolio AFP and other human diseases...
  19. Rajan J, Rodriguez D, Miao E, Aderem A. The NLRP3 inflammasome detects encephalomyocarditis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:4167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome may be a common pathway for RNA virus detection, but its precise role in the host response may be variable...
  20. Carocci M, Cordonnier N, Huet H, Romey A, Relmy A, Gorna K, et al. Encephalomyocarditis virus 2A protein is required for viral pathogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. J Virol. 2011;85:10741-54 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our data indicate that the EMCV 2A protein is important for the virus in counteracting host defenses, since ?2A viruses were no longer pathogenic and were unable to inhibit apoptosis in vitro...
  21. Tsunoda I, Kuang L, Kobayashi Warren M, Fujinami R. Central nervous system pathology caused by autoreactive CD8+ T-cell clones following virus infection. J Virol. 2005;79:14640-6 pubmed
    ..Intracerebral injection of the clones into naïve mice induced degeneration, not only in the brain, but also in the spinal cord. This suggests that CD8+ Tc1 cells could play a pathogenic role in central nervous system inflammation...
  22. Matsumori A, Nunokawa Y, Yamaki A, Yamamoto K, Hwang M, Miyamoto T, et al. Suppression of cytokines and nitric oxide production, and protection against lethal endotoxemia and viral myocarditis by a new NF-kappaB inhibitor. Eur J Heart Fail. 2004;6:137-44 pubmed
  23. Schwarz E, Badorff C, Hiura T, Wessely R, Badorff A, Verma I, et al. NF-kappaB-mediated inhibition of apoptosis is required for encephalomyocarditis virus virulence: a mechanism of resistance in p50 knockout mice. J Virol. 1998;72:5654-60 pubmed
    ..The attenuation in p50 -/- mice can be explained by rapid apoptosis of infected cells which allows host phagocytes to clear infected cells before the viral burst leading to a reduction of the viral burden and survival of the mice...
  24. Spyrou V, Maurice H, Billinis C, Papanastassopoulou M, Psalla D, Nielen M, et al. Transmission and pathogenicity of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) among rats. Vet Res. 2004;35:113-22 pubmed
    ..87 - infinity). These results indicate that the EMC virus can spread very easily within a rat population by horizontal rat-to-rat transmission (R0 > 1)...
  25. Yamamoto K, Shioi T, Uchiyama K, Miyamoto T, Sasayama S, Matsumori A. Attenuation of virus-induced myocardial injury by inhibition of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor signal and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B activation in knockout mice. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:2000-6 pubmed
    ..This study examined the role of angiotensin II (Ang-II) in a murine model of viral myocarditis...
  26. Ohsawa K, Watanabe Y, Miyata H, Sato H. Genetic analysis of a Theiler-like virus isolated from rats. Comp Med. 2003;53:191-6 pubmed
    ..As genetic distances between NGS910 and other TMEVs were greater than those between Mengo virus of EMCV and other EMCVs, we propose to designate the NGS910 isolate as a rat Theiler-like virus...
  27. Brahic M, Bureau J, Michiels T. The genetics of the persistent infection and demyelinating disease caused by Theiler's virus. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:279-98 pubmed
    ..H2 class I genes have a major effect on susceptibility. Among several non-H2 susceptibility loci, Tmevp3 appears to regulate the expression of important cytokines...
  28. Butterfield R, Roper R, Rhein D, Melvold R, Haynes L, Ma R, et al. Sex-specific quantitative trait loci govern susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination. Genetics. 2003;163:1041-6 pubmed
    ..Our results support the existence of three linked sex-specific QTL on chromosome 1 with opposing effects on the severity of the clinical signs of TMEV-induced disease in male and female mice...
  29. Billinis C. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in wildlife species in Greece. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:522-6 pubmed
    ..Encephalomyocarditis virus was isolated only from two Rattus rattus. In addition, antibody to EMCV were detected in sera from 39 Rattus rattus, one Apodemus sylvaticus, one Microtus arvalis, and 13 Sus scrofa...
  30. Karpus W, Kennedy K, Fife B, Bennett J, Dal Canto M, Kunkel S, et al. Anti-CCL2 treatment inhibits Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease. J Neurovirol. 2006;12:251-61 pubmed
    ..Finally, anti-CCL2 treatment resulted in decreased viral load in the CNS. These data directly demonstrate a role for CCL2 in the pathogenesis of TMEV-IDD...
  31. Jones P, Mahamba C, Rest J, André C. Fatal inflammatory heart disease in a bonobo (Pan paniscus). J Med Primatol. 2005;34:45-9 pubmed
    ..Findings included acute on chronic heart failure combined with the unusual but characteristic histopathological features of non-suppurative necrotizing myocarditis with mononuclear, inflammatory infiltration of the brain...
  32. Zoll J, Erkens Hulshof S, Lanke K, Verduyn Lunel F, Melchers W, Schoondermark van de Ven E, et al. Saffold virus, a human Theiler's-like cardiovirus, is ubiquitous and causes infection early in life. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000416 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has important implications for understanding the impact of these ubiquitous viruses and their possible role in acute and/or chronic disease...
  33. Maurice H, Nielen M, Brocchi E, Nowotny N, Kassimi L, Billinis C, et al. The occurrence of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in European pigs from 1990 to 2001. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:547-57 pubmed
    ..4%). Among wild boar, the seroprevalence varied between 0.6 and 10.8%, and a study in Belgium found a prevalence of virus infection of 3.3%...
  34. Trottier M, Schlitt B, Kung A, Lipton H. Transition from acute to persistent Theiler's virus infection requires active viral replication that drives proinflammatory cytokine expression and chronic demyelinating disease. J Virol. 2004;78:12480-8 pubmed
    ..i. and that active viral replication with high viral genome loads leads to increased levels of Th1 cytokines that drive disease progression in infected mice...
  35. Aubagnac S, Brahic M, Bureau J. Viral load and a locus on chromosome 11 affect the late clinical disease caused by Theiler's virus. J Virol. 1999;73:7965-71 pubmed
    ..Clinical disease depends on high viral load and Tmevd5, a locus on chromosome 11. These results have consequences for the identification of viruses which might be implicated in multiple sclerosis...
  36. Chen Z, Guo X, Ge X, Jia H, Yang H. Protective immune response in mice vaccinated with a recombinant adenovirus containing capsid precursor polypeptide P1, nonstructural protein 2A and 3C protease genes (P12A3C) of encephalomyocarditis virus. Vaccine. 2008;26:573-80 pubmed
  37. Chiu C, Greninger A, Kanada K, Kwok T, Fischer K, Runckel C, et al. Identification of cardioviruses related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14124-9 pubmed publisher
  38. McDole J, Danzer S, Pun R, Chen Y, Johnson H, Pirko I, et al. Rapid formation of extended processes and engagement of Theiler's virus-infected neurons by CNS-infiltrating CD8 T cells. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1823-33 pubmed publisher
  39. Hammoumi S, Guy M, Eloit M, Bakkali Kassimi L. Encephalomyocarditis virus may use different pathways to initiate infection of primary human cardiomyocytes. Arch Virol. 2012;157:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results show a potential for EMCV strains to use at least two different binding possibilities to initiate infection and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in primary human cell recognition by EMCV...
  40. Fuller K, Olson J, Howard L, Croxford J, Miller S. Mouse models of multiple sclerosis: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease. Methods Mol Med. 2004;102:339-61 pubmed
    ..Recombinant TMEV strains have been created for the study of molecular mimicry; these strains incorporate 30 various amino acid myelin epitopes within the leader region of TMEV...
  41. Nakayama Y, Su W, Ohguchi A, Nakayama H, Doi K. Experimental encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pregnant mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2004;77:133-7 pubmed
  42. Roussarie J, Ruffie C, Brahic M. The role of myelin in Theiler's virus persistence in the central nervous system. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e23 pubmed
    ..These results uncover an unsuspected axon to myelin traffic of Theiler's virus and the essential role played by the infection of myelin/oligodendrocyte in persistence...
  43. Steurbaut S, Rombaut B, Vrijsen R. Persistent infection of RAW264.7 macrophages with the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: An in vitro model to study viral persistence. J Neurovirol. 2006;12:108-15 pubmed
    ..This persistently DA-infected macrophage cell line, which we have called DRAW, provides a model to investigate the interactions between the cellular and viral factors influencing persistence and to screen for anti-TMEV agents...
  44. Lipton H, Kumar A, Hertzler S, Reddi H. Differential usage of carbohydrate co-receptors influences cellular tropism of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection of the central nervous system. Glycoconj J. 2006;23:39-49 pubmed
  45. Kurtz C, Sun X, Fujinami R. Protection of SJL/J mice from demyelinating disease mediated by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. Microb Pathog. 1995;18:11-27 pubmed
  46. Abed Y, Boivin G. New Saffold cardioviruses in 3 children, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:834-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyprotein sequence of the Can112051-06 isolate had 91.2% aa identity with Saffold virus; however, EF and CD loops of the viral surface varied substantially...
  47. Hou W, So E, Kim B. Role of dendritic cells in differential susceptibility to viral demyelinating disease. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e124 pubmed
    ..Therefore, arming DCs against viral infection-induced functional decline may provide a useful intervention for chronic infection-associated diseases...
  48. McClelland E, Penn D, Potts W. Major histocompatibility complex heterozygote superiority during coinfection. Infect Immun. 2003;71:2079-86 pubmed
  49. Schulz O, Diebold S, Chen M, Näslund T, Nolte M, Alexopoulou L, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 promotes cross-priming to virus-infected cells. Nature. 2005;433:887-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, TLR3 may have evolved to permit cross-priming of CTLs against viruses that do not directly infect dendritic cells...
  50. Iwasaki A, Matsumori A, Yamada T, Shioi T, Wang W, Ono K, et al. Pimobendan inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a murine model of viral myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33:1400-7 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to examine the effects of pimobendan in a murine model of viral myocarditis in relation to proinflammatory cytokine production and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the heart...
  51. Rodriguez M, Zoecklein L, Howe C, Pavelko K, Gamez J, Nakane S, et al. Gamma interferon is critical for neuronal viral clearance and protection in a susceptible mouse strain following early intracranial Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection. J Virol. 2003;77:12252-65 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that IFN-gamma plays a critical role in protecting spinal cord neurons from persistent infection and death...
  52. Steurbaut S, Rombaut B, Vrijsen R. Theiler's virus strain-dependent induction of innate immune responses in RAW264.7 macrophages and its influence on viral clearance versus viral persistence. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:47-55 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of host innate immune responses in determining the balance between viral clearance and viral persistence...
  53. Mendez Fernandez Y, Hansen M, Rodriguez M, Pease L. Anatomical and cellular requirements for the activation and migration of virus-specific CD8+ T cells to the brain during Theiler's virus infection. J Virol. 2005;79:3063-70 pubmed