feline infectious peritonitis

Summary

Summary: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.

Top Publications

  1. Chang H, Egberink H, Halpin R, Spiro D, Rottier P. Spike protein fusion peptide and feline coronavirus virulence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages...
  2. Olyslaegers D, Dedeurwaerder A, Desmarets L, Vermeulen B, Dewerchin H, Nauwynck H. Altered expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood leukocytes in feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 2013;166:438-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus-induced systemic disease in domestic and wild felids...
  3. Rohrbach B, Legendre A, Baldwin C, Lein D, Reed W, Wilson R. Epidemiology of feline infectious peritonitis among cats examined at veterinary medical teaching hospitals. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218:1111-5 pubmed
    To determine proportions of cats in which feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) was diagnosed on an annual, monthly, and regional basis and identify unique characteristics of cats with FIP.
  4. Campolo M, Desario C, Ricci D, Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, et al. Identification of a feline coronavirus type I strain from a cat with feline infectious peritonitis by RT-pCR and phylogenetic analysis. New Microbiol. 2005;28:127-33 pubmed
    A case of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in an 11-month-old European shorthair cat is reported...
  5. Holst B, Englund L, Palacios S, Renström L, Berndtsson L. Prevalence of antibodies against feline coronavirus and Chlamydophila felis in Swedish cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:207-11 pubmed
    ..For Cp felis, the majority of seropositive animals had relatively low antibody titres, and the risk of these animals infecting others is not known...
  6. Addie D, Belak S, Boucraut Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Gruffydd Jones T, et al. Feline infectious peritonitis. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11:594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..While most FCoV-infected cats are healthy or display only a mild enteritis, some go on to develop feline infectious peritonitis, a disease that is especially common in young cats and multi-cat environments...
  7. Takano T, Azuma N, Hashida Y, Satoh R, Hohdatsu T. B-cell activation in cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by FIP-virus-induced B-cell differentiation/survival factors. Arch Virol. 2009;154:27-35 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that antibody overproduction plays a role in the pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  8. Ritz S, Egberink H, Hartmann K. Effect of feline interferon-omega on the survival time and quality of life of cats with feline infectious peritonitis. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:1193-7 pubmed
    There is no therapy with proven efficacy to treat cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).
  9. Dewerchin H, Cornelissen E, Van Hamme E, Smits K, Verhasselt B, Nauwynck H. Surface-expressed viral proteins in feline infectious peritonitis virus-infected monocytes are internalized through a clathrin- and caveolae-independent pathway. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2731-40 pubmed publisher
    Infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a feline coronavirus, frequently leads to death in spite of a strong humoral immune response...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Benetka V, Kübber Heiss A, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Hofmann Parisot M, Möstl K. Prevalence of feline coronavirus types I and II in cats with histopathologically verified feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 2004;99:31-42 pubmed
    ..in virulence causing a spectrum of clinical manifestations reaching from subclinical course to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  2. Pesteanu Somogyi L, Radzai C, Pressler B. Prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis in specific cat breeds. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:1-5 pubmed
    Although known that purebreed cats are more likely to develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), previous studies have not examined the prevalence of disease in individual breeds...
  3. Berg A, Ekman K, Belak S, Berg M. Cellular composition and interferon-gamma expression of the local inflammatory response in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Vet Microbiol. 2005;111:15-23 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important viral diseases of cats. International studies estimate that approximately 80% of all purebred cats are infected with the causative agent, feline coronavirus (FCoV)...
  4. Kipar A, Meli M, Failing K, Euler T, Gomes Keller M, Schwartz D, et al. Natural feline coronavirus infection: differences in cytokine patterns in association with the outcome of infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;112:141-55 pubmed
    ..A minority of cats, however, develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal systemic granulomatous disease. This is generally accompanied by B and T cell depletion...
  5. Paltrinieri S, Giordano A, Ceciliani F, Sironi G. Tissue distribution of a feline AGP related protein (fAGPrP) in cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). J Feline Med Surg. 2004;6:99-105 pubmed
    Feline alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (fAGP) increases during feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  6. Kennedy M, Abd Eldaim M, Zika S, Mankin J, Kania S. Evaluation of antibodies against feline coronavirus 7b protein for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis in cats. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:1179-82 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether expression of feline coronavirus (FCoV) 7b protein, as indicated by the presence of specific serum antibodies, consistently correlated with occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats.
  7. Takano T, Tomiyama Y, Katoh Y, Nakamura M, Satoh R, Hohdatsu T. Mutation of neutralizing/antibody-dependent enhancing epitope on spike protein and 7b gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus: influences of viral replication in monocytes/macrophages and virulence in cats. Virus Res. 2011;156:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb)-resistant (mar) mutant viruses using a laboratory strain feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) 79-1146 (Kida et al., 1999)...
  8. Haagmans B, Egberink H, Horzinek M. Apoptosis and T-cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis. J Virol. 1996;70:8977-83 pubmed
    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune-mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs...
  9. Takano T, Hohdatsu T, Hashida Y, Kaneko Y, Tanabe M, Koyama H. A "possible" involvement of TNF-alpha in apoptosis induction in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cats with feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 2007;119:121-31 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) cats show a decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, and a particularly marked decrease in T cells including CD4+ and CD8+ cells...
  10. Shiba N, Maeda K, Kato H, Mochizuki M, Iwata H. Differentiation of feline coronavirus type I and II infections by virus neutralization test. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:348-52 pubmed
    ..Sera of cats which were clinically and serologically diagnosed as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) possessed significantly higher VN titers to type I FCoV, and sera from cats experimentally ..
  11. Takano T, Azuma N, Satoh M, Toda A, Hashida Y, Satoh R, et al. Neutrophil survival factors (TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF) produced by macrophages in cats infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus contribute to the pathogenesis of granulomatous lesions. Arch Virol. 2009;154:775-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus (FCoV)-induced fatal disease of domestic and wild cats...
  12. Satoh R, Furukawa T, Kotake M, Takano T, Motokawa K, Gemma T, et al. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in the spike 2 domain and the nucleocapsid protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus. Vaccine. 2011;29:1791-800 pubmed publisher
    The antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection has been recognized in experimentally infected cats, and cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in preventing the onset ..
  13. Brown M. Genetic determinants of pathogenesis by feline infectious peritonitis virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;143:265-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, immune-augmented, and progressive viral disease of cats associated with feline coronavirus (FCoV)...
  14. Haijema B, Volders H, Rottier P. Switching species tropism: an effective way to manipulate the feline coronavirus genome. J Virol. 2003;77:4528-38 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a coronavirus, is the causative agent of an invariably lethal infection in cats. Like other coronaviruses, FIPV contains an extremely large positive-strand RNA genome of ca. 30 kb...
  15. Hohdatsu T, Yamato H, Ohkawa T, Kaneko M, Motokawa K, Kusuhara H, et al. Vaccine efficacy of a cell lysate with recombinant baculovirus-expressed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus nucleocapsid protein against progression of FIP. Vet Microbiol. 2003;97:31-44 pubmed
    The Type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection of feline macrophages is enhanced by a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the S protein of FIPV...
  16. Paltrinieri S, Ponti W, Comazzi S, Giordano A, Poli G. Shifts in circulating lymphocyte subsets in cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP): pathogenic role and diagnostic relevance. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2003;96:141-8 pubmed
    Cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) are usually lymphopenic and have lymphoid depletion evident in spleen and lymph nodes. In particular, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes in tissues decreases during the evolution of FIP lesions...
  17. Kipar A, Bellmann S, Kremendahl J, Kohler K, Reinacher M. Cellular composition, coronavirus antigen expression and production of specific antibodies in lesions in feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1998;65:243-57 pubmed
    Twenty-three cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were examined by light microscopy including immunohistology and histochemistry in order to determine the cellular composition and the expression of viral antigen in ..
  18. Norris J, Bosward K, White J, Baral R, Catt M, Malik R. Clinicopathological findings associated with feline infectious peritonitis in Sydney, Australia: 42 cases (1990-2002). Aust Vet J. 2005;83:666-73 pubmed
    ..review the clinicopathological findings in naturally-occurring, histopathologically confirmed cases of feline infectious peritonitis in client-owned cats in Sydney, Australia, with the purpose of identifying factors assisting in the ..
  19. Bell E, Malik R, Norris J. The relationship between the feline coronavirus antibody titre and the age, breed, gender and health status of Australian cats. Aust Vet J. 2006;84:2-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relationship between Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) antibody titres and age, breed, gender and health status of Australian cats..
  20. Golovko L, Lyons L, Liu H, Sørensen A, Wehnert S, Pedersen N. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats. Virus Res. 2013;175:58-63 pubmed publisher
    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal...
  21. Hohdatsu T, Okada S, Ishizuka Y, Yamada H, Koyama H. The prevalence of types I and II feline coronavirus infections in cats. J Vet Med Sci. 1992;54:557-62 pubmed
    ..by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) Type II and neutralizing test using Type II FIPV as challenge virus...
  22. Cornelissen E, Dewerchin H, Van Hamme E, Nauwynck H. Absence of surface expression of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) antigens on infected cells isolated from cats with FIP. Vet Microbiol. 2007;121:131-7 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) positive cells are present in pyogranulomas and exudates from cats with FIP. These cells belong mainly to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. How these cells survive in immune cats is not known...
  23. Lin C, Chang R, Su B, Chueh L. Full genome analysis of a novel type II feline coronavirus NTU156. Virus Genes. 2013;46:316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..by type II feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) have been shown to be significantly correlated with fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  24. Kennedy M, Boedeker N, Gibbs P, Kania S. Deletions in the 7a ORF of feline coronavirus associated with an epidemic of feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 2001;81:227-34 pubmed
    A population of Persian cats experienced an epidemic of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) over 2 years. Twelve cases of FIP occurred in litters born during this period. Cats contracting FIP were all genetically related through the sire...
  25. Dewerchin H, Cornelissen E, Nauwynck H. Replication of feline coronaviruses in peripheral blood monocytes. Arch Virol. 2005;150:2483-500 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) (Coronaviridae) causes the most lethal viral infection in cats: FIP. The related feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes mild enteritis...
  26. Kiss I, Poland A, Pedersen N. Disease outcome and cytokine responses in cats immunized with an avirulent feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-UCD1 and challenge-exposed with virulent FIPV-UCD8. J Feline Med Surg. 2004;6:89-97 pubmed
    Eight cats were immunized with an avirulent strain of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-UCD1, then challenge-exposed to a highly virulent cat passaged strain (FIPV-UCD8)...
  27. Kipar A, Kohler K, Leukert W, Reinacher M. A comparison of lymphatic tissues from cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), cats with FIP virus infection but no FIP, and cats with no infection. J Comp Pathol. 2001;125:182-91 pubmed
    Lymphatic tissues (spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus) from 24 cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry for cellularity, cellular composition, and degree of ..
  28. Worthing K, Wigney D, Dhand N, Fawcett A, McDonagh P, Malik R, et al. Risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis in Australian cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14:405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..whether patient signalment (age, breed, sex and neuter status) is associated with naturally-occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats in Australia...
  29. de Groot Mijnes J, van Dun J, van der Most R, de Groot R. Natural history of a recurrent feline coronavirus infection and the role of cellular immunity in survival and disease. J Virol. 2005;79:1036-44 pubmed
    We describe the natural history, viral dynamics, and immunobiology of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a highly lethal coronavirus infection...
  30. Wang Y, Su B, Hsieh L, Chueh L. An outbreak of feline infectious peritonitis in a Taiwanese shelter: epidemiologic and molecular evidence for horizontal transmission of a novel type II feline coronavirus. Vet Res. 2013;44:57 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV can be divided into serotypes I and II...
  31. Kipar A, Baptiste K, Barth A, Reinacher M. Natural FCoV infection: cats with FIP exhibit significantly higher viral loads than healthy infected cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:69-72 pubmed
    ..viral shedding, but also systemic infection which either remains without clinical signs or leads to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  32. Terada Y, Shiozaki Y, Shimoda H, Mahmoud H, Noguchi K, Nagao Y, et al. Feline infectious peritonitis virus with a large deletion in the 5'-terminal region of the spike gene retains its virulence for cats. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1930-4 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the Japanese strain of type I feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), C3663, was found to have a large deletion of 735 bp within the gene encoding the spike (S) protein, with a deduced loss of 245 aa of the N-terminal ..
  33. Takano T, Ohyama T, Kokumoto A, Satoh R, Hohdatsu T. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus-infected monocytes and macrophages, induces vascular permeability and effusion in cats with FIP. Virus Res. 2011;158:161-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a fatal disease called FIP in Felidae. The effusion in body cavity is commonly associated with FIP. However, the exact mechanism of accumulation of effusion remains unclear...
  34. Tsai H, Chueh L, Lin C, Su B. Clinicopathological findings and disease staging of feline infectious peritonitis: 51 cases from 2003 to 2009 in Taiwan. J Feline Med Surg. 2011;13:74-80 pubmed publisher
    Fifty-one cats histopathologically confirmed to have been naturally infected by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), were collected to analyse the clinical and laboratory findings and to characterise disease staging...
  35. Litster A, Pogranichniy R, Lin T. Diagnostic utility of a direct immunofluorescence test to detect feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages in effusive feline infectious peritonitis. Vet J. 2013;198:362-6 pubmed publisher
    The antemortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging in clinical practice, since current testing methods have suboptimal diagnostic accuracy...
  36. Foley J, Rand C, Leutenegger C. Inflammation and changes in cytokine levels in neurological feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2003;5:313-22 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a progressive, fatal, predominantly Arthus-type immune-mediated disease that is triggered when cats are infected with a mutant enteric coronavirus...
  37. Dewerchin H, Cornelissen E, Nauwynck H. Feline infectious peritonitis virus-infected monocytes internalize viral membrane-bound proteins upon antibody addition. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1685-90 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) may cause a highly lethal infection in cats, in spite of a usually strong humoral immune response. Antibodies seem unable to identify infected cells and mediate antibody-dependent cell lysis...
  38. Dye C, Siddell S. Genomic RNA sequence of feline coronavirus strain FCoV C1Je. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9:202-13 pubmed
    ..Viral RNA was isolated at post mortem from the jejunum and liver of a cat with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  39. Regan A, Cohen R, Whittaker G. Activation of p38 MAPK by feline infectious peritonitis virus regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells. Virology. 2009;384:135-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an invariably fatal disease of cats caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV) termed feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)...
  40. Ceciliani F, Grossi C, Giordano A, Pocacqua V, Paltrinieri S. Decreased sialylation of the acute phase protein alpha1-acid glycoprotein in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;99:229-36 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an immune-mediated disease of domestic and exotic felides infected with feline coronavirus. FIP is characterized by the overexpression of an acute phase protein, the alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)...
  41. Hartmann K, Ritz S. Treatment of cats with feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;123:172-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) infection resulting in clinical signs is invariably fatal despite clinical intervention...
  42. Ishida T, Shibanai A, Tanaka S, Uchida K, Mochizuki M. Use of recombinant feline interferon and glucocorticoid in the treatment of feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2004;6:107-9 pubmed
    A total of 12 clinically ill cats previously diagnosed as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were treated with a combination of recombinant feline interferon and glucocorticoid...
  43. Kipar A, May H, Menger S, Weber M, Leukert W, Reinacher M. Morphologic features and development of granulomatous vasculitis in feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:321-30 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus (CoV)-induced systemic disease in cats, characterized by granulomas in organs and granulomatous vasculitis...
  44. Dean G, Olivry T, Stanton C, Pedersen N. In vivo cytokine response to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. Vet Microbiol. 2003;97:1-12 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a coronavirus that causes sporadic fatal disease in cats characterized by vasculitis, granulomatous inflammation and effusive pleuritis/peritonitis...
  45. Lin C, Su B, Huang H, Lee J, Hsieh M, Chueh L. Field strain feline coronaviruses with small deletions in ORF7b associated with both enteric infection and feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11:413-9 pubmed publisher
    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) varies greatly from causing subclinical or mild enteric infections to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  46. Lin C, Su B, Wang C, Hsieh M, Chueh T, Chueh L. Genetic diversity and correlation with feline infectious peritonitis of feline coronavirus type I and II: a 5-year study in Taiwan. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection vary greatly from asymptomatic or mild enteric infection to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). On the basis of in vitro neutralization tests, FCoVs can be divided into two serotypes...
  47. Haijema B, Volders H, Rottier P. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis. J Virol. 2004;78:3863-71 pubmed
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immunity-mediated disease caused by mutants of a ubiquitous coronavirus...
  48. Tekes G, Spies D, Bank Wolf B, Thiel V, Thiel H. A reverse genetics approach to study feline infectious peritonitis. J Virol. 2012;86:6994-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal immunopathological disease caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs)...
  49. Takano T, Hohdatsu T, Toda A, Tanabe M, Koyama H. TNF-alpha, produced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-infected macrophages, upregulates expression of type II FIPV receptor feline aminopeptidase N in feline macrophages. Virology. 2007;364:64-72 pubmed
    The pathogenicity of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is known to depend on macrophage tropism, and this macrophage infection is enhanced by mediation via anti-S antibody (antibody-dependent enhancement, ADE)...
  50. Brown M, Troyer J, Pecon Slattery J, Roelke M, O Brien S. Genetics and pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  51. Hartmann K. Feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2005;35:39-79, vi pubmed
    The article discusses feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), an important disease frequently seen in veterinary practice...
  52. Simons F, Vennema H, Rofina J, Pol J, Horzinek M, Rottier P, et al. A mRNA PCR for the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. J Virol Methods. 2005;124:111-6 pubmed
    ..The assay is evaluated as a diagnostic test for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  53. Pedersen N. A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection: 1963-2008. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11:225-58 pubmed publisher